March 2012 Archives

Emotional Expressions

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Do you have a pet? I have grown up with having dogs as pets since I was born. They were like my siblings that we played together, shared food together (I meant they stole my food from me), and fought together. Even though I cannot understand their languages at all, I knew some of their emotions. I had total 4 dogs, and I recognized every dog showed each unique emotional expression as every human does. When I held a piece of food in front of them and told to wait, one of my dogs looked at me and the food alternately with dribbling saliva; and another dog looked away from either me nor food with dribbling saliva. One dog represented his expectancy to eat the food; and another expressed his patience till I said okay to eat. They are like humans! This is why I love animals that I can see their cute expressions and recognize their emotions. Take a look at attached pictures of animals. How funny to look at them. I wonder they are created by photo-shop, but I know animals sometimes show surprising expressions-like-humans.
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I also have experienced the universality of emotional expressions through my studying abroad. I am from Japan, and it is difficult to speak another language perfectly. But using expressions and gestures helps me to communicate with others so that I sometimes make obvious facial actions on purpose. This works! Try this technique when you travel abroad.

Recent news of a teenage boy being killed by an older man has brought to light that while our country has come a long way from the terrors of slavery against African Americans, the problem remains. An African American teenager was killed by a Caucasian man for no apparent reason other than ill-inspired suspicion. It is a sad story because every death, especially resulting from an act of violence, is a tragedy. But also because it points out that while progress has been made in the fight for equality among all groups of people, change needs to be catalyzed for the safety and happiness of society. Many Americans today report no prejudice towards racial groups different from themselves, very few openly admit their true views even by survey. At the same time, racial profiling and stigmatizing has led to definite violations of human rights and to social segregation. Racial stereotypes have posed a great challenge to educators, policy makers and laypeople to cultivate equality in all areas of life.
What do we do to combat racism today?
I think that psychology offers great insight to the workings of human nature and the way that groups of people develop and work together toward shared goals. By harnessing this understanding and applying it to BIG issues, those that affect everyone, we could really make a difference in changing the world. I have noticed that a lot of people my age share my enthusiasm for psychology and I think I notice this because 1) it is a relatively new science and currently has endless opportunities, 2) psychology is applicable to everyone and 3) with any field that is new and emerging there lies a potential for great things and amazing research. So, I think that our many social issues can be aided through research and application of psychological processes.

As embarrassing as it is to admit I was once a twilight fan. I was 14 and well didn't know what good writing was all I cared about was the story and at 14 vampires, werewolves, and really dramatic teenagers was entertaining. I have seen all of the movies, even though they are weird and some of the acting is horrendous, but now it's more like a big joke to watch them and realize how different the interests of a 14 year old and a 19 year old really are. One thing I tend to laugh most about in the Twilight saga is the idea of Jacob Black and all the other werewolves imprinting, which turns out to be one of the only Non-fictional elements of the stories. Seeing someone or something, making it the center of your world, and fixating for the rest of your life on it, I mean how ridiculous does that sound? But as learned in the text, Konrad Lorenz, a Nobel Prize winner, has shown through his experiments with geese and goslings that imprinting occurs in nature among many species and even though humans don't imprint in quite the same way bonds similar to that of an imprint bond do form. Reading the information on imprinting was kind of like an aha moment for me it was kind of like "Oh maybe Stephanie Meyer isn't that crazy, sure she writes about vegetarian vampires and a 100 and some year old vampire falling in love with a 17 year old girl who then wants to also become a vegetarian vampire, but at least imprinting is real!"

On page 388, the Psychology book touches on different parenting styles and the effects they can have on children. The three classified types are permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parenting. Permissive parenting involves parents raising their children in a very lenient manner, allowing them a large amount of freedom inside and outside of the home. They provide a lot of affection and rarely use discipline on their children. I chose to learn more about permissive parenting because I wanted to know more about the effects of tons of freedom on children. Although it is very difficult to quantitatively measure the personality traits that form as a result of one parenting method versus another, there are plenty of articles across the internet about the traits of children of permissive parents.
Here is a list of the effects I found across two articles:
• Due to lack of rules, these children tend to rebel against authority figures
• Difficulty adjusting to independent life
• Demandingness and selfishness
• Insecurity due to lack of boundaries
• Less motivation in school
One discrepancy that was found between a few articles was the effects on social development. Some articles said that permissive parenting would develop superior social skills in children, while others said that permissive parenting would lead to anti-social behavior. However, overall it seems likely that permissive parenting is not the best way to raise children, due to lack of rules and structure. Authoritative parenting combines some freedom with some structure, which remedies these problems while still allowing some freedom.

http://colleen-boudreau.suite101.com/how-parenting-styles-affect-children-a89354
http://www.consistent-parenting-advice.com/permissive-parenting-style.html

Divorce and Children

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I believe that the effects of divorce on children vary from child to child and the severity of the divorce. Some experts say that children that are effected by divorced parents in a negative way will have difficulties establishing career goals and stable romantic relationships. Though now with better designed studies, it shows that in actuality, a substanial majority of children survive their parents' divorce without long term damage. Though divorce can still produce negative effects in some children. And my personal experience and story can attend to that.

In my family I am one of three children whose parents divorced. At the time of my parents seperating my older sister was 22, I was 18 and my younger brother was 13. I remember our parents arguing and bickering back and forth almost every night of the week, about almost anything, I even remember them staying in different parts of the house to avoid each other.

So when the divorce occured, my sister was already out of the house so it didnt affect her in any negatvie way, and with me, i was just finishing high school and on my way off to college. My sister and I knew that our parents divorce was the best thing for them and us and we were happy that they were getting separated, because that meant no more arguing and that they would both be happier around us. Though with my brother, it hit him differently, he took the divorce negatively. My brother seemed to need my parents to stick together, to be with him togther to watch him grow through his teen years, to have structure, and it didnt happen for him. My brother first lashed out at my dad blaming him and wanting nothing to do with him, then he'd do the same to my mom.

My brothers performance in school started to slip and fade away. He would act out towards his teachers and fellow classmates getting in fights and all sorts of trouble. He then started spiraling down into more severe negative actions like drinking alcohol to a point of having to have his stomach pumped to becoming addicted to heroin and cocain to where it finally took over him and sadly took his life. I always remember him saying over and over that he wanted out parents back togther again, and no matter how hard my parents tried to explain to him how much they were there for him and loved him and were apart of his life, it just wasnt the same for him if there werent "together". throughout his troubles my parents endlessly and continually tried to help my brother in every way shape and form but it seemed never enough.

So I strongly believe that divorced parents definelty varies from child to child. I dont believe that all children are negatively effected by it and I dont believe that all children are not effected by it at all. It definetly depends on the severity of the divorce and the child himself.

Video games have been talked about a lot in the last week or two of class and that's what I'd like to hit on here. Before learning about some of the research for video gaming and children, my immediate thoughts were that it doesn't do anything. I grew up a kid playing violent video games, and I consider myself a very reserved person, keeping my emotions away from things, and hardly ever becoming physical. But once we started looking into the research of video games, it made me question just how much was this because of the actual video games themselves, or was it because my parents let me play video games in a manner which still allowed me to grow into a non-violent human being. After watching the video's of Barney and the Power Rangers, I was swung to believe that although some kids like myself aren't as violent, some violence is inevitable when playing these video games, especially at a younger age. The mom of the little girl who was sitting in the corner while the rest of the kids were acting like power rangers, stated that her daughter would never do that, yet sure enough, after some time...it happened. This goes to show that there are factors in which one will become violent, and video games and media are not the only factor. Parental supervision and peers acting a certain way can change one's behavior. Overall, it is a very hard subject to prove, but also very entertaining to hear different points on. download.jpg

Being a PSEO student with the May 1st college decision deadline quickly approaching, so many decisions are in the process of being made. Kahneman & Tversky's Prospect theory comes largely into play. An over view of the Prospect theory is that people make decisions based on the potential value of losses and gains. These losses and gains are evaluated using heuristics. People use these heuristics to make a reference point then determine the worth of a situation. Evaluating which college I plan to attend next year is all in the matters of risk. I have developed my ideal school and weighed how much each aspect is worth. For example, I want a large university and that is important to me so that would be a higher gain. Some people make a big deal about a school's colors. For me school colors are of lower worth. It would be gain if I liked the colors, but if I didn't it wouldn't effect my decision. Some people also make decisions not only on their own losses and gains, but also on others losses and gains. No matter what type of decision one is making unconscious weighing of risk is involved. I hope in my upcoming major decision the prospect theory guides me along the way. Unknown.jpeg

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Violent video games have been a target of controversy for quite some time now. Do they really cause normal kids to transform into something else? Will playing these games make you more aggressive?

Some people say yes, they will cause more aggression and may change kids to commit terrible actions. On the other side of the table, people argue that it does not affect them; these kids were already aggressive to begin with. I think that both sides are right and wrong; the effects that are made depend on the person who plays these games.

Video games can change the behavior of certain people. Young children are an easier target as they like to mimic things they see. It would be wise for parents to restrict their younger children to age-appropriate games. Teenagers and adults, however, will probably not become more aggressive.

Based on my own experience, my behavior has not changed because of violent video games such as first person shooters and horror games. My aggression level is still the same as it was before. I am equally prone to throwing my controller in frustration while playing Mario Kart as I am playing Halo. However, I have become desensitized because of exposure to gore in these games.

The issue of correlation vs. causation applies greatly on this topic. A person who plays violent video games may be more likely to commit a crime, but that doesn't necessarily mean that video games were the cause for these actions. Their own aggressive behavior may have been.

http://www.harrypotterrealm.com/movie/ss_dursleys5.jpg

Growing up in a large extended family, I've seen various parenting styles. Because of this, I was particularly drawn to Diana Baumrind's study on parenting. After analyzing over 100 families, she divided parenting styles into three major groups: authoritarian, authoritative and permissive. According to Baumrind, authoritarian parents have strict rules that are stringently enforced, without any feedback from the children. This parenting style disallows questioning and utilizes firm punishment. Authoritative parents set firm rules for children, but are also willing to discuss and address their children's questions. When children don't meet expectations, authoritative parents tend to be more forgiving and their punishment is less harsh. The third parenting style is permissive, in which parents are extremely lenient with their children and provide little, if any, punishment. A fourth parenting style later added by Maccoby & Martin is "uninvolved." This style is marked by parents essentially ignoring their children. In her study, she concluded that authoritative parenting resulted in "the best social and emotional adjustment and the lowest levels of behavior problems." The children of uninvolved parents tended to have the greatest difficulty.
What makes Baumrind's study particularly interesting is the possibility for many confounds. Both the parent and child's genetic predispositions could lead to certain behaviors and subsequent responses. Also, because Baumrind's study was limited to Caucasian middle-class American families, her findings cannot be generalized to the entire population. The Lilienfeld text concludes that particular parenting styles aren't as crucial as previously thought. I would be curious to see a more broad cross- cultural study on parenting.

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        When I read through Chapter 10 one of the phenomena's that sparked interest in me was contact comfort. Most people, including myself, usually think that a baby will be attracted to the person who feeds it or gives it its wonderful toys. According to Harry Harlow's pioneering research in the late 1950's on rhesus monkeys, he showed that infants will not just cling to a figure for nourishment but cling for comfort. I found his research interesting so I decided to go a bit deeper into it.

        Harlow's research also experimented with how a comforting inanimate object (like a terry cloth mother) can build up the confidence and social satiability of these monkeys, even to the point where the monkeys "love" their surrogate mothers. He would show the preference for a terry cloth mother by having two separate monkey infants exposed to a fear stimulus and having the choice to run behind a wall to escape or to a terry cloth mother still in sight of the stimulus. The monkey that had grown up with the terry cloth mother would immediately run towards it rather than an infant that grew up with no mother ran to the obscured corner rocking.

        These behaviors would be consistent with those like dogs and how their owners treat them. If you own a dog and only feed him and deny attention and affection like petting then the dog will be more likely to not grow attached to you and would easily become very anti-social or develop social problems such as extreme aggression towards other dogs and people. Of course that is what I think could be the cause and there could be other factors that play a role such as maybe the monkeys were operant conditioned to the mother; that could be misinterpreted at "love" and so many other variables.

If you wish you can look at the videos of the experiments he did here

Calculus Frustration

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In order to do your calculus homework you've got to know how to utilize your own problem solving skills to create an answer to your homework problems. Recently, when trying to solve a problem I spent almost a half hour trying to solve a problem, but kept coming up with an incorrect answer each time! I can attribute this to the fixed mind-set problem because I kept trying to use the same methods each time on this specific question. Eventually, I had to figure out a new way to solve the problem, which required me to learn another method of approaching this problem.

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Overall, the fixed mind-set seems to be a problem for me because I'll feel as though I know how to do something and keep trying a useless method to do it. Sometimes, I'm too stubborn to learn a new way of approaching problems. If you can realize you're having trouble with the fixed mind-set early on in problem solving, you can save yourself a lot of time. Keeping an open mind to alternative approaches can prove to be useful. Sometimes you overestimate your confidence in your abilities and will be hesitant to change the way you do things.

In my biology class, our long-term project involves the genetic modification of an organism. My group decided we wanted to genetically modify rose plants to express resistance to Japanese beetles. However, once we got to the research proposal part of the project, we found ourselves running into some problem-solving issues. We were having a really hard time applying what we learned in class (broad info) to our specific project. Moreover, we were pretty hung up on this one procedure that was provided in a sample project: the genetic modification of bananas. For a while, all of the methods we could think of were somehow influenced by the procedure detailed in the banana sample project. The unfortunate thing was, our project and the banana project-- while both related to plants-- were extremely different!! Our situation is an example of a "mental set," one of the obstacles to problem solving which "inhibits our ability to generate alternatives" (Lillienfeld 310). One way my group got around this was a hardcore brainstorming session, as well as talking to our professor. Getting new ideas from different sources and just sitting down and thinking things through thoroughly can help avoid the negative effects of mental sets, surface salience, and many other obstacles to problem solving. In the end, our research proposal consists of a completely different plasmid, promotor, transformation, and overall genetic manipulation plan than the sample. All we had to do was a little more thinking outside the box!

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Bandura: The Bobo Beater

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As we learned today in discussion, Albert Bandura tested observational learning and reaction to the violence one of his experimenters displayed towards a Bobo clown doll. Not surprisingly, after throwing, kicking, and abusing with a mallet, the kids followed suit by beating up the doll in similar ways, as well as pretending to shoot the doll with a gun, stab it with a fake knife, and many other things. Also, the experimenters used words like 'pow' when they were beating up the poor Bobo doll, which also resulted in the children using words to describe the violent actions. One thing that I thought was particularly interesting about this study is that even the children that were put into rooms with other appealing toys (i.e. firetrucks, dolls, etc.) still chose to beat up the doll. To me, this makes me wonder if subconsciously we are violent, uncaring people that just want to be violent and claim our spot as the alpha of a group of people, or if as children we just mimic these actions that appeal to us, whether we think they are just cool to copy (like pretending to beat up baddies like Power Rangers). As one final point, I would like to say that IF by chance the Bobo doll were to come to life, it would most likely be violent towards the experimenters and children in return (i.e. Stephen King's IT...coincidence? I think not...)

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1567717/Bobo-doll-experiment

After doing the homework I decided to learn more about the effect of video games on violence. Over the lasts 40 plus years many different types of experiments have been done to try and figure out whether video games induce violence or not. The most common position I have found that seems to be most supported is ," Yes, playing violent video games can contribute to violence, however, it does not directly induce bad behavior." To me this seems pretty accurate but I'm sure many people will have other opinions. There is a lot of proof that shows that agression areas of the brain are activated when playing violent video games. Also, according to the APA, Immediately after exposure to media violence, there is an increase in aggressive behavior tendencies because of several factors.
1. Aggressive thoughts increase.
2. Aggressive affect increases.
3. Heart rate increases, which tends to increase the dominant behavioral tendency.
4. Direct imitation of recently observed aggressive behaviors sometimes occurs.

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Although, for many years, data has been available to the public concerning the negative health risks of smoking cigarettes, many Americans still smoke. The addictive quality of the nicotine in the cigarettes creates the physical attachment, the way that cigarettes are portrayed in the public creates the social or emotional link. The picture above is a perfect example of the marketing strategies for cigarettes. A picture of a beautiful woman with her delicate feature is the unconditioned stimulus that creates the unconditioned response of lust and arousal. Pairing the cigarettes with this woman creates the mental illusion that the cigarettes are in turn what makes you beautiful. Thus creating the conditioned stimulus as the cigarettes and the conditioned response is lust and arousal for the cigarettes. Now whenever the consumer sees the cigarettes they will associate the same beauty and lust towards the cigarettes as they did to the beautiful lady. This marketing technique is very commonly and most of the time effectively used today .

Alzheimers.

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If you've seen Rise of the Planets of the Apes, starring James Franco, you know that James Franco plays a man named Will Rodman. He is a researcher/inventor trying to find the cure to Alzheimer's because his father is suffering from that disease. When his project is dismantled and essentially, canceled, he steals one of his prototype capsules (and a baby ape name Caesar) and gives the treatment to his father who does recover and is even better than how he was even before the Alzheimer's hit. Now, it would be a pretty awesome ending if that was it but it isn't. Caesar grows up to be smart and obedient. Will's dad, though he was able to recover from Alzheimer's, eventually starts to fall back into Alzheimer's after many years, and it's much worse than the first time.

http://youtu.be/f8D2NIGEJW8

Alzheimer's is one of the most common forms of Dementia (this can be seen by Gena Rowlands playing the older Allie Calhoun in The Notebook). And although you may think that Alzheimer's is a normal part of getting older, it's not, and it worsens over time. The most important risk factors are age, family history and heredity. If you have a loved one that you suspect may be starting the beginning phases of Alzheimer's, visit this website for the ten warning signs of Alzheimer's Disease:

http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_10_signs_of_alzheimers.asp

And although there is no cure yet for Alzheimer's, visit this website for ways to prevent Alzheimer's later on in life:

http://www.alz.org/research/science/alzheimers_prevention_and_risk.asp

Almost anyone who has ever had a cat "knows" it speaks to them. Our cats take on personalities and little anthropomorphized lives, but never actually say a word. Some people think our ability to communicate with them is due to a kind of telepathy.
http://www.stuff.co.nz/nelson-mail/features/weekend/6523440/Can-we-talk-to-our-animals-or-not

But really something much more basic and comprehensive is actually going on. If you think about what we've learned about behavior, learning, and conditioning it becomes pretty apparent that their way of speaking to us is very much related to rewards like food or affection. But most cats are pretty independent and self-reliant, why communicate, why not just force humans to do what you want like this cat?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H1oxlZkgWa8

Some scientists now believe that beyond simple back and forth communication, cats are actually manipulating us in interesting ways. Again this sort of behavior can be seen as closely related to conditioning, but it is interesting to note the rather ingenious and complex way this happens, particularly with cats.

Scientists have discovered that cats are very sensitive to their owners and work out rather complex relationships with them. These relationships are remarkably similar to the nonverbal relationships mothers have with their babies.
http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=the-manipulative-meow-cats-learn-to-2009-07-13 (there are a few of these, just google!) :)

This makes so much sense to me because we spend so much time with them and they are dependent on us for so much, it seems perfectly logical that they could easily pick up on these verbal cues and become conditioned to communicate in this blatant way. Cats also have a large vocabulary and it wouldn't surprise me if "Fluffy" sounded the cry in one way that'd we'd "know" what she was saying even though it all happens without us even thinking about it. Both the cat and the person have become conditioned to respond with similar vocal sounds, actions, or body language. It's a real give and take, just like most relationships.


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Alzheimer's and Love

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In the film "The Notebook" the main character Allie ends up with Alzheimer's as she gets older. Alzheimer's disease, is one form of dementia that gradually gets worse over time. It affects memory, thinking, and behavior. It happens because the brain stops working. In a modern-day nursing home, an elderly man begins to read a love story from his notebook to a female fellow patient. He is telling the love story of Allie and Noah. As the story unfolds and comes to a conclusion the old woman begins to remember that the love story is about her and her husband, the man reading the story. As the viewer, we learn that Allie wrote this story when she learned she had Alzheimer's and gave it to Noah to read to her so she would remember her life and their love.

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-wA4GkH5vsGk/TyMarhJhm7I/AAAAAAAAALY/QuvFK4-szHk/s1600/notebookoldandyoung.jpg

The doctor in the movie tells Noah that there is no hope for Allie and that she won't remember him and their life together because she has a more serious case. Noah knows that she will remember if he continues to read to her everyday. When Allie does remember that the story is about them she only remembers Noah and there life together for about 5 minutes before she relapses and doesn't know what is going on. When Noah sees her relapse it crushes him because he wants so badly for her to remember for a long time period and for things to go back to the way they were.

This movie besides being one of the greatest love stories of all time is a great example of how loved one's deal with Alzhemier's. It has to be so hard to watch the one you love slowly losing their memory and not even knowing that they are married and what happened in their past. Noah perseveres and doesn't give up hope on Allie which is all that she can unknowingly ask for.

Alzheimer's Disease is the most common form of dementia, associated with tangles and plaques in the brain. Affecting memory, thinking, and behavior, it starts off slowly. At first, a patient has mild memory loss - they may repeat themselves, display poor judgement, or understand new ideas more slowly. As it progresses, they need help to remember to eat or bathe. They may become clingy or irascible. In the final stages, they become totally dependent on others, displaying extreme memory loss.
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Currently, the exact cause of Alzheimer's is unknown, but there appears to be a genetic basis. For the early onset variety (before age 65), most cases are caused by mutations in presenilins 1 and 2 or amyloid precursor protein. This causes greater production of Aβ42, which forms the characteristic brain plaques. For the other "sporadic" cases, some genes appear to be connected to the disease. For example, he APOE ε4 gene is present in 40 to 80% of people with Alzheimer's, but the gene itself does not guarantee the disease.
There's currently no cure, but researchers are working to change that. One tactic among many is a vaccine that the would prevent Aβ42 from building up to form brain plaques, and to possibly break down existing plaques.
As far as prevention today goes, researchers advise maintaining blood pressure, eating a low fat diet, and keeping active mentally and socially. It's also recommended to eat foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids as well as eating less linoleic acid ands more antioxidants.

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Alzheimer's disease is a progressive fatal neurodegenerative diseases, the clinical manifestations of the cognitive and memory function deteriorate, daily living skills progressive decline, and have all kinds of neurological and psychiatric symptoms and behavior disorders. Prevalence study shows that the United States in 2000 years of alzheimer's cases for 4.5 million cases, aged five years every increase, alzheimer's disease patients will rise by 2 times the percentage of, that is, 60 people prealence was 1%, and the 85-year-old prealence was 30%.

Currently accepted pathogenesis basically has two kinds: First, the defect in protein component leaks out cell membranes, and cause neurons fiber tangles and cell death. Gene is located in no. 21 chromosomes. Second, it is related with apolipoprotein E (APO-E4 gene. The increase of APO-E4 against APO-E2 or APO-E3 function. APO-E4 can make nerve cell membranes-E4 stability reduced, cause neurons fiber tangles and cell death. For now, there is no cure for the disease, which worsens as it progresses, and eventually leads to death. We can only use medicine to slow the progress of the disease.

In Chinese medicine, there are some different treatments for AD. They found that deficiency of the kidney, turbid phlegm and blood stagnation are main reason which cause AD. Therefore, by reinforcement for these part and coordinating with food can slow the progress of the disease. Besides, acupuncture and moxibustion can also slow the progress of the disease.
I found two website of AD organiztion. There are lots of information about AD. ADI is one of the most professional organization in the world.
http://www.alz.co.uk/ Alzheimer Disease International
http://www.alz.org/ Alzheimer's Association

I read the book Sybil while I was still in High School and it was one of the most interesting books I have read. It is a true story about a girl named Shirley Ardell Mason and it follows her through her life, her life is a little more complicated then most. Sybil is a girl that has multiple personality disorder, also known as dissociative identity disorder, she seemed to have associated with around 16 different personalities. She associated with these different personalities throughout her years gaining more and more personalities as she became older. In the book she becomes co-conscious of her personalities as her therapist Wilbur attempts to integrate her multiple "alters" so that they can interact and gain the knowledge of the other selves. In the end she is able to integrate into one whole individual that is able to remember everything from her past and present life.

Here is a link to a short video that I found on youtube, it shows a clip of Sybil the movie.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8kPIDt3yu1M

Now, here is a little more information on Dissociative Identity Disorder. This disorder "is a severe form of dissociation, a mental process, which produces a lack of connection in a person's thoughts, memories, feelings, actions, or sense of identity." (webmd.com) It is believed that this disorder usually stems from a traumatic experience and this multiple personality disorder is used as a coping mechanism. The way that this is used is that they literally are to traumatized by this experience that they do not want to assimilate with their conscious self, so rather they literally disconnect themselves from the situation, and gain an "alter." That is a brief idea of what this disorder actually is.

If any of you are familiar with the epic trilogy of the hero Jason Bourne you know that most of the violence and destruction is a result of Jason not knowing who the heck he is. The movies portray Jason a.k.a David Webb a.k.a Charles Briggs a.k.a Paul Kay as a secret agent who has no recollection of his past 5 or so years, and is struggling to find out. As many Hollywood writers do, they exaggerate amnesia for a more interesting story line. In psychological terms Jason suffers from severe retrograde amnesia. Jason's amnesia could be a result of erasing painful memories, brain damage, or someone else eliminating his memories but in any case the real life applicability is very rare. Having such large retrograde amnesia is quite uncommon among memory loss victims, usually they lose their ability to form new memories (anterograde amnesia) because of damage to the hippocampus or amygdala. Jason's ability to remember new information is still intact, and unfortunately for his foes Jason has just lost his explicit memory, not his procedural memory, thus allowing him to retain his deadly hand to hand combat skills along with an uncanny talent for turning ordinary objects into weapons, as seen in the clip. Jason not remembering his past life drives the plot and allows for the entertainment of many action hungry viewers. Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uJ4dFcm4ML0

The disease of Alzheimer's is the most common form of dementia. People affected by this disease will first appear to be forgetful but as the time passes it will become much more serious making it difficult for victims to understand language, recognize family members, and even remembering their own identity. Other symptoms include hallucinations, change in sleeping patterns, loss of ability to recognize danger, becoming easily agitated, and even withdrawing from social contact. After much research on Alzheimer's disease, the causes of this tragic disease that affects 1 in every 85 people still remains unknown. There are various complex hypotheses attempting to explain why so many people are affected by Alzheimer's but the only certainty is that the disease is associated with plaques and tangles in the brain. There is no cure for Alzheimer's but there is treatment in order to manage the symptoms. Treatment includes: drugs, which attempt to reduce the rate at which symptoms worsen, supplements such as vitamin B12 and vitamin E, which are said to slow down or prevent Alzheimer's if used early enough, and changing of the home environment in order to make daily activities much easier to perform. There is no proven way to prevent Alzheimer's but some suggestions to incorporate into a daily routine if your family has a history of the disease include maintaining a normal blood pressure, consuming a low-fat diet, and keeping an active social and mental lifestyle.


My husband and I stopped at a Hardee's for a couple burgers on our way home one night and had our common occurrence when it was time to order. I have a hard time deciding what to eat so I have become content telling anyone with me or even the cashier who is taking my order to please choose between options one and two. On this night, my husband was also having a hard time deciding and once we ordered and were eating our sandwiches, I was almost certain that he was eating mine!

What I remember: I couldn't decide between a Chicken Filet Sandwich and a Turkey Burger. My husband couldn't decide between a Chicken Filet Sandwich and a Charbroiled Burger. With knowing that, I suggested that I get the Chicken Filet Sandwich and he get the other since I couldn't decide and he'd probably eat it anyhow if I didn't like it. We order and he eats my Chicken Filet!

What he remembers: I couldn't decide between a Chicken Filet Sandwich and a Turkey Burger. He couldn't decide between a Chicken Filet Sandwich and a Charbroiled Burger and went ahead and ordered the Chicken Filet and ordering for me the Turkey Burger. Since he ordered the Chicken Filet he should be allowed to eat it!

One of us (who knows which one!) stored the event in a wrong manner and to this day believe we had ordered the Chicken Filet and should have been the one eating it!

The Notebook is one of my favorite movies of all time; of course it is a love story and captures thousand of hearts. The interesting thing about this movie is it ties into psychology. Psychology is around us all the time. One of the main parts of the movie is how Allie is suffering from dementia at an older age and she can't remember whom Noah, her children, or her grandchildren are. She is suffering from severe memory loss and throughout the whole movie Noah tells Allie the story of her life, and he thinks she will begin to remember again. At one point in the story Allie remembers who Noah is, and it is such a sad but wonderful part, she can only remember who he is for a moment though, before she relapsed.

Dementia is a chronic brain syndrome that affects many older people. Dementia is a loss of brain function and it affects the memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior. Alzheimer's Disease and dementia are very similar but dementia is just a syndrome and Alzheimer's disease is the actual illness. Allie probably suffered from Alzheimer's disease. Many types of dementia are nonreversible, so the patient would never get their memory back. In some cases, like Allies, it does come back for small instances. Allie's hippocampus was being damaged because that is where memory is located in the brain.

I think it is really amazing how Noah held on to Allie even though she did not even know who he was. In the end of the movie Allie remembered who Noah was and true love conquered all.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001748/

Where did I put that?

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Alzheimer's disease is a neurologic disease of the brain. It causes the brain to lose neurons and intellectual abilities including memory and reasoning. It is the most common form of dementia and gets worse as it develops. During the disease, plaques and tangles develop within the structure of the brain. Plaques are deposits of the protein beta-amyloid that accumulates in the spaces between nerve cells. Tangles are deposits of protein tau that accumulate inside of nerve cells.
Alzheimer's disease does not have a treatment yet, but there are medicines available that can help treat symptoms. When diagnosed early, treatment may enable people to be able to carry out their daily activities and manage themselves at tome. Some symptoms that can be treated are depression, sleeplessness, aggression and agitation. One can prevent Alzheimer's by eating right, exercising, quality sleep, staying mentally and socially active, and maintaining a low stress level. Doing these things can help prevent symptoms of Alzheimer's disease entirely or at least slow it down.
People who develop Alzheimer's disease are all affected in different ways but the main similar factor is that they have difficulty remembering new information. People with Alzheimer's disease experience memory loss that disrupts daily life, challenges in planning or solving problems, difficulty completing familiar tasks at home, confusion with time or place, new problems with words in speaking or writing, poor judgment, and misplacing things and losing the ability to retrace steps.
Pat Summit, the coach of the Tennessee Lady Vols women's basketball, has dementia and I remember seeing a segment of her on ESPN. One thing that she did to try to help it not get worse is play memory games on her IPad. These memory games she does may not "cure" dementia, but it can help slow it down from getting worse so she can still coach.

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/159442.php
http://www.webmd.com/alzheimers/guide/treatment-overview
http://www.helpguide.org/elder/alzheimers_prevention_slowing_down_treatment.htm
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Method of Loci, which was discussed in our lecture as well as in our text books, has another more impressive name, Memory Palace. This is a memory method originated from ancient Greek. People who can successfully make use of this skill have a brain just like a supercomputer. Sounds amazing, right?

There are actually several key steps to follow this tremendous techniques.
Memory palace.jpg
Reference: http://www.wikihow.com/Build-a-Memory-Palace

I realized almost all kinds of memory techniques are associated with our vision imagination and creativity. We first need some basic and easy stuffs that we are familiar with and comfortable to remind. Then using some hooks to link those stuffs in our mind to something we really need to remember. Try to be as much creative as possible, because the more exaggerated our pictures are, the easier we can remember those things. Also, we need to go back to review those stuffs and hooks regularly, or we will forget those cues soon.

For my owe experience, it's hard to build my own palace and set those rehearsal cues, since I always forget my routes and those original cues. It seems I need more sugar or lemonade to enhance my basic memory first...>_<

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