The alleged mastermind Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi and the other suspects were charged under Pakistan's anti-terrorism act and criminal code. All seven have pleaded not guilty.
A total of 174 people, including nine gunmen, were killed in the attacks in November.
The attacks led India to suspend peace talks with Pakistan. In July Indian PM Manmohan Singh said talks would not restart until the Mumbai attacks suspects were brought to justice.
The only surviving attacker, Muhammed Ajmal Qasab, is currently facing trial in India.
The charges were read to the seven accused at a special anti-terrorist court set up inside the high security Adiala Jail in Rawalpindi where they are being held.
Those in Rawalpindi's anti-terrorism court were Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi , Shahid Jamil Riaz, Hammad Amin Sadiq, Mazhar Iqbal, Jamil Ahmed, Abdul Wajid and Younus Amjad.
Prosecutors say they are determined to bring convictions and secure the maximum sentence for those in the dock.
Following the attacks, Pakistan rounded up a number of suspects - among them the Lashkar-e-Taiba founder Hafiz Saeed, who spent some time in custody before being released due to lack of evidence. He has denied any involvement.