This page is currently a dumping ground but will be pruned and organized as time goes on.


  • Barr, Marleen. "Blurred Generic Conventions: Pregnancy and Power in Feminist Science Fiction," 1 Reproductive and Genetic Engineering 167 (1988).
  • Braidotti, Rosi. "Mothers, monsters and machines", Nomadic Subjects, Columbia University Press, New York 1994.
  • Carvalho, Marcos and Conlon, Deirdre. "Spaces of Motherhood". Reconstruction, Winter 2003: Volume 3, Number 1 ISSN: 1547-4348.
  • Creed, Barbara. The Monstrous-Feminine. Film, Feminism, Psychoanalysis, Routledge, London & New York 1993.
  • Franklin, Sarah. "Postmodern Procreation: A Cultural Account of Assisted Reproduction". Conceiving the New World Order. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1995. pp. 323-345.
  • George, Susan A. "Not Exactly "Of Woman Born": Procreation and Creation in Recent Science Fiction Films (Critical Essay)" Journal of Popular Film and Television. Heldref Publications. Winter, 2001. Quarterly ISSN 0195-6051.
  • Meterau, Rebecca Bell. Woman: The Other Alien in Alien, in Women Worldwalkers: New Dimensions of Science Fiction and Fantasy 9 (Jane B. Weedman ed. 1985).
  • Sobchack, Vivian. "Child/Alien/Father: Patriarchal Crisis and Generic Exchange," 15 Camera Obscura 7 (Fall 1986).
  • Sofia, Zoe. "Exterminating Fetuses: Abortion, Disarmament, and the Sexo-Semiotics of Extraterrestrialism," 14 Diacritics 47 (Summer 1984).
  • Vlasopolos, Anca. "Frankenstein's Hidden Skeleton: The Psycho-Politics of Oppression," 10 Science Fiction Studies 125 (July 1983).
  • Invasion of the Womb: Alien Impregnation in Two Science Fiction Films - Elizabeth Dubert - Clemson University
  • Alien films and the maternal
  • Simians, Cyborgs, and Women by Donna Haraway
  • Whose View of Life?: Embryos, Cloning, and Stem Cells by Jane Maienschein
  • Playing Dolly: Technocultural Formations, Fantasies, and Fictions of Assisted Reproduction edited by Kaplan and Squier
  • Alien to Femininity: Speculative Fiction and Feminist Theory by Marleen Barr
  • Alien Constructions: Science Fiction and Feminist Thought by Patricia Melzer
  • Tropes Vs. Women #5: The Mystical Pregnancy by Feminist Frequency
  • Stay Awake by Laura Shapiro
  • Pregnancy: Fanlore Wiki
  • Pregnancy tropes: tvtropes
  • The dangers of mystical pregnancy as entertainment by Crystal Coleman, Persephone Magazine
  • Heffernan, Teresa. "Bovine Anxieties, Virgin Births, and the Secret of Life," Cultural Critique, 2003, Vol. 53 Issue Winter, p116-133, 18p.
  • Interspecies reproduction: Xenogenic desire and the feminist implications of hybrids; Squier, S. Cultural Studies; 1998 Vol. 12, p360-381, 22p.
  • Chapter 7, Pregnancy and Power, in Lost in space: probing feminist science fiction and beyond by Marleen Barr.
  • Artificial uterus in fiction: wikipedia
  • Interspecific pregnancy: wikipedia
  • Endoparisitism: wikipedia
  • Ex-situ (in-vitro?) conservation: wikipedia
  • Primate tales - Ferreira
  • Arwen Spicer, "Impossible, Yet Inevitable: Unintended Pregnancy in Farscape, Deep Space Nine, Star Wars, and The X-Files",, Jan. 23, 2007.
  • Linda Badley, "Scully Hits the Glass Ceiling: Postmodernism, Postfeminism, Posthumanism, and The X-Files", in Fantasy Girls: Gender in the New Universe of Science Fiction and Fantasy Television (2000), pp. 61-90.
  • Dominick Grace, "Frankenstein, Motherhood, and Phyllis Gotlieb's O Master Caliban!" Extrapolation, v.46, n.1, pp. 90-102 (Spring 2005).
  • A. Samuel Kimball, "Conceptions and Contraceptions of the Future: Terminator 2, The Matrix, and Alien Resurrection", Camera Obscura, v.17, n.2 (2002).
  • Aline Ferreira, "Artificial Wombs and Archaic Tombs: Angela Carter's The Passion of New Eve and the Alien Tetralogy", FemSpec, v.4, n.1, pp. 90-107 (2002).
  • Eva Federmayer, "Octavia Butler's Maternal Cyborgs: The Black Female World of the Xenogenesis Trilogy", Hungarian Journal of English and American Studies, v. 6, n.1, pp. 103-118 (Spring 2000).
  • Marleen Barr, "Blurred Generic Conventions: Pregnancy and Power in Feminist Science Fiction", Reproductive and Genetic Engineering, v.1, n.2, pp. 167-174 (1988).
  • Parrinder, Patrick. 2009. "Robots, Clones and Clockwork Men: The Post-Human Perplex in Early Twentieth-Century Literature and Science." Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 34, no. 1: 56-67.
  • Poon, Peter N. 2000. "Evolution of the Clonal Man: Inventing Science Unfiction." Journal of Medical Humanities 21, no. 3.
  • Sherryl Vint, Bodies of Tomorrow: technology, subjectivity, science fiction, 2007.
  • 2005. "Review Essay: The Politics of Science Fiction." International Feminist Journal of Politics 7, no. 2: 319-335.
  • Warkentin, Traci. 2006. "Dis/integrating animals: ethical dimensions of the genetic engineering of animals for human consumption." AI & Soc 20: 82-102.
  • Ferreira, Aline. "Primate Tales: Interspecies Pregnancy and Chimerical Beings." Science Fiction Studies. 223-237. 2008. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 2 Sept. 2011.
  • Åsberg, Cecilia, Malin Rönnblom, and Redi Koobak. "Survival Stories." NORA: Nordic Journal of Women's Studies 19.1 (2011): 1-3. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 2 Sept. 2011.
  • Kittredge, Katharine. "Wingless Women Living Backwards on the Moon: Melesina Trench's "The Moonlanders.." Science Fiction Studies 34.1 (2007): 19-41. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 2 Sept. 2011.
  • Pijnenborg, Robert. 2006. "Manipulating Human Reproduction: A Retrospective View on Aldous Huxley's Brave New World." Gynecologic & Obstetric Investigation 61, no. 3: 149-154. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed September 2, 2011).
  • Mitchell, W. J. Thomas. 2003. "The Work of Art in the Age of Biocybernetic Reproduction." Modernism/modernity 10, no. 3: 481-500.
  • Mueller, Gabriele. 2010. "Surviving Ourselves: Mothers, Clones, and the Legacy of 1968 in Blueprint (2003) and The Elementary Particles (2006)." German Politics and Society 97.28.4.
  • Jackie Stacey, The Cinematic Life of the Gene, 2010.
  • George, Susan A. "Not Exactly 'Of Woman Born': Procreation and Creation in Recent Science Fiction Films." Journal of Popular Film and Television.
  • Orbaugh, Sharalyn. 2002. "Sex and the Single Cyborg: Japanese Popular Culture Experiments in Subjectivity." Science Fiction Studies 29, no. 3: 436-452.
  • Susan Merrill Squier, Liminal Lives: Imagining the Human at the Frontiers of Biomedicine, 2004
  • Subverting the Gag Order: Pregnancy in Contemporary Hispanic Women's Literature, Norat, thirdspace.



  • Century City episode "Sweet Child of Mine"
  • Kyle XY (ectogenesis)
  • First Born, a mini-series based on the Gor Saga
  • Angel (womb invasion)
  • X-Files (womb invasion)
  • Torchwood (womb invasion)


  • Code 46
  • Alien (womb invasion, endoparasitism)
  • Splice (genetic engineering, ectogenesis)
  • The Matrix (ectogenesis)
  • Horror Planet (1981)
  • Progeny (1999)

Cultural connections

Xenophobia, invasion "through the womb"

1 Comment

Great content. Very useful.

Thank you very much.

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