Boettcher, J. V. (2004). Designing for learning: The pursuit of well-structured content. In J. J. Hirschbuhl, D. Bishop, (Eds.). Computers in education 04/05, Eleventh edition, (pp. 30-32). Guilford, CN: Mc Graw-Hill/Dushkin.
Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R., (Eds.). (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press.
Collison, G., Elbaum, B., Haavind, F., & Tinker, R. (2000). Facilitating online learning: Effective strategies for moderators. Madison, WI: Atwood.
Johnson, J. L. (2003). Distance education: The complete guide to design, delivery, and improvement. New York: Teachers College.
Jonasson, D. H., Carr, C., & Yueh, H. (1998). Computers as mindtools for engaging learners in critical thinking. TechTrends, 43(2), 24-32.
Kowch, E., & Schwier, R. (1997). Characteristics of technology-based virtual learning communities. Paper presented at the Second National Congress on Rural Education, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, February 21, 1997.
Ludwig-Hardman, S., & Dunlap, J. C. (2004). Learner support services for online students: Scaffolding for success. In J. J. Hirschbuhl, D. Bishop, (Eds.). Computers in education 04/05, Eleventh edition (pp. 190-197). Guilford, CN: Mc Graw-Hill/Dushkin.
Well structured content:
1. Integration/grounding in previous knowledge (pre-assessment)
2. Multi-modal (gaming, music, multiple paths)
3. Content types scaffolded
(a) core concepts/principles
(b) well-structured problems with known solutions
(c) less structured complex problems without knows solutions
*Also described in class as explain, explore, & expand
Collison, 2000, et al
See separate BLOG for detail
- Examples: Oregon Community College, Western Governor's College, Britain's Open University
- Practicals: pedagogy, case studies, design to delivery, course ingredients, student support
- Quality: assessment & evaluation, standards, accredation, how policy makers view DL, implications for future development
Kowch & Schwier, 1997
- Theoretical issues for building community:
1. Theory & form of online community should be aesthetically pleasing
2. Consider moral connections where "I" thinks about "we" - facilitate discourse on common shared values and committments
3. Robust, innovative, & integrated approach to technology that fits the community
- Organized around relationships (belonging), ideas (shared concerns), mutual support, and a common goal. Students need continuity, time to settle in, to become responsible for their physical surroundings, to take part in a caring community.
-Negotiation- purposes, intentions, and protocol constructed by participants
-Intimacy- participants free to select level of intimacy desired without limits
-Committment- community depends on participation, they feel this
-Engagement- immediacy, effervescent, legitimate, and authentic discourse
Ludwig-Hardman & Dunlap, 2004
- Online course attrition between 20-50%
- Student persistence predicted by degree of academic and social integration.
- Attrition linked to: lack of interaction, feeling isolated, not feeling a part of community, not possessing skills needed for success*, not self directed learners
- Self directed skill set: self-discipline, ability to work alone, time management, learning independence, ability to develop plan for completing work