They use the ARCS model of instructional design.
Literature review for clickers:
- Mayer, et al. -- enhance questioning methods
- Gauci, et al. -- PRS fosters active learning
- Barbara Petersohn's pilot study -- PRS in library instruction leads to moderate increase in learning outcomes
- Emily Dill -- cautions against putting too much faith in instructional technology
They use Keller's ARC Model of Motivational Design
- Attention: Use the clickers to gain attention early and keep attention going
- confidence: students know what the objectives are and believe in their ability to master the material. Over-confidence can lead to students feeling that the material is not relevant.
- satisfaction: students should feel that they should be able to apply what they learned and that it is helpful to them -- this actually valence in an expectancy-valence model.
They are measuring the ARCS motivational outcomes and pre- and post-learning outcomes. They tested ACRL (Assctn College & Research Libraries) literacy standards.