« Digital Carpets Showcase | Main | Turkish Lecture / Ottoman Tiles + Ceramics »

Graphic Design History Project

Part 1>> Research + Presentation
Students in Graphic Design 1 classes Spring 07
post a brief description of your design history topic
and three links to more info on the subject in the comments below...

http://www.d.umn.edu/~jrock2/design_history/


Design History Topics include:

Arts + Crafts:: 1880-1915 (William Morris)

Art Nouveau:: 1880-1910 ( Jules Cheret, Alphonse Mucha)

Wiener Werkstatte:: 1903 - 1933:: (Josef Hoffmann, Koloman Moser)

Expressionism :: 1905-1925 (Kathe Kolwitz, Kokoschka, Kirschner, George Groez)

Futurism:: 1909 - 1944 (Fortunato Depero, Marinetti, Severini)

Constructivism:: 1915-1940s (El Lissitzky, Rodchenko, Stenbergs)

DADA:: 1916-1920s (Hannah Hoch, John Heartfield, Kurt Schwitters)

De Stijl :: 1917 - 31 :: (Piet Zwart, Van Doesburg, Mondrian)

Bauhaus:: 1919-33 :: (Herbert Bayer, Oskar Schlemmer, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy)

New Typography :: 1928 (Jan Tschichold, Ladislav Sutnar, Joost Schmidt)

Art Deco:: 1920 - 1940 :: (A. M. Cassandre, Rene Vincent, Charles Loupot)

Modernism:: 1940-50s (Lester Beall, Paul Rand, Cipi Pinelles, Gyorgy Kepes)

Swiss design:: Armin Hofmann, Emil Ruder, Kunstgewerbeschule Basel

Push Pin Studios :: 1956 - 70s (Seymore Chwast, Milton Glaser)

Psychedelia :: 1960s (Victor Moscoso, Wes Wilson)

Post-Modern :: 1970s - 1990s (Tibor Kalman, April Greiman, Rudy Vanderlans, Paula Scher)

Deconstruction :: 1970s - 80s (Katherine McCoy, David Carson, Ed Fella, Neville Brody)

Women in Design :: (Martha Scotford, Sheila Levrant DeBretteville, Cipe Pinelles)

Punk /Music Graphics :: 1970s - 90s (Art Chantry, Stephan Sagmeister, SubPop)

Street Graphics:: 2000 (Shepard Fairey, Banksy, stencil /graffiti)

http://www.d.umn.edu/~jrock2/design_history/

Comments

I chose the topic of Arts and Craft. This movement was all about using your hands to create a work of art that could not be duplicated a million times. It happened around the industrial revolution so it is a reaction from all of the mechanism and duplication. The height of the movement was between 1880 - 1910 in Britian. Some of the art being made during this movement were: wallpapers, furniture, and other decorative design. The graphic design by the Arts and Crafts people was often times hand lettered and laid out, their fonts were all hand designed. An overall belief of the Arts and Crafts movement was that machines were the root of all mundane evil, but it should be understood that they were not anti machines. They just would have liked a mastercraftsman to be watching over all of the work that was done. Some of the big people involved were William Morris, Walter Crane, and Aubrey Beardsley. Morris was well known for furniture design, and wallpaper design. Walter Crane did illustrations, paintings, and ceramic tile works. Aubrey Beardsley is a very interesting character, he only lived to 25 and was an absolutely fabulous designer. He did lots of illlustration for books, book design, and poster design. I think this movements ideas are very important today, because if they thought things were bad back then, now everything is automated, and we barely design anything now according to them. I think its just something to think about because it's very strange to think all design was done by hand. I handlettered some text for this project and it was extremely difficult, try it sometime, you learn alot.

One of Aubrey Beardsley's drawings:
http://www.francesfarmersrevenge.com/stuff/archive/oldnews5/beardsley7.gif

A William Morris wallpaper:
http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/sharemed/targets/images/pho/t241/T241503B.jpg

A Walter Crane book design:
http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/speel/pici/crane.jpg

I got Women in Design, which wasn't really a time period or specific movement, but I'll try to sum it up...
Today, women are among the most influential designers of American books, having forged key paradigms in the exterior packaging and internal architecture of jacket and page. Promoting moral uplift through meaningful labor, the Arts and Crafts movement was relatively open to women. Several women were leaders in the postmodern return to historical styles that reshaped the top level of commercial book cover and jacket design in the 1980s. Designer Louise Fili changed mainstream publishing, bringing in new ideas about the design of standard packaging for mass-market books. Cipe Pineles was the first woman art director of a mass-market publication and an early role model for women in design. Pineles was art director of Glamour, Seventeen, Charm, and Mademoiselle magazines and taught generations of students at Parsons School of Design. Marlene McCarty is part of a younger generation that has used graphic design as a tool of social agitation. She created posters and media-savvy demonstrations on current issues. Sheila Levrant de Bretteville is a graphic designer, artist and educator whose work reflects her belief in the importance of feminist principles, user participation in graphic design, and diverse local community issues. Martha Scotford is a “design academic� known for her feminist intentions.
Many of the women who were key practitioners were also influential educators, including Cipe Pineles, who taught during the 1960s at Parsons School of Design; Marlene McCarty, who has taught at Harvard, Princeton, The Rhode Island School of Design, Yale, New York University, and The Cooper Union; and Sheila Levrant de Bretteville, who in 1990 became director of the graphic design program at Yale University School of Art.

Links:
Cipe Pineles @ AIGA website
http://www.aiga.org/content.cfm?contentalias=cipepineles

Louise Fili flash website
www.louisefili.com/

Marlene McCarty's Site
http://www.vbureau.com/

Street Graphics involves any art that is created, “in the streets�. Though the term usually refers to art of an illicit nature, as opposed to government sponsored initiatives. Artwork under the category of Street Graphics includes; traditional graffiti, stencil graffiti, sticker art, wheat-pasting and street poster art, art intervention, and street installations. Typically, Street Graphics is used to distinguish contemporary public-space artwork from territorial graffiti, vandalism, and corporate art. The motivations and objectives that drive street artists are as varied as the artists themselves. There is a strong current of activism and subversion in urban art. Other street artists simply see urban space as an untapped format for personal artwork, while others may appreciate the challenges and risks that are associated with installing illicit artwork in public places. However the universal theme in most, if not all street art, is that adapting visual artwork into a format which utilizes public space, allows artists who may otherwise feel disenfranchised, to reach a much broader audience than traditional artwork and galleries normally allow. Some artists of Street Graphics include Banksy (Robin Banks), Shepard Fairey, and Twist (Barry McGee). Banksy is a very well known English graffiti artist from Bristol. A lot of his artwork is satirical, and revolves around politics, culture, and ethics. He is well known for his unique style of stenciling, and his artwork appears around the world. Shepard Fairey is actually a graphic designer/illustrator. He graduated from the Rhode Island School of Design. Some of his artwork includes the “Obey Giant� campaign, and an anti-war poster campaign. He has also worked on a great number of movie posters, and album covers. Twist (Barry McGee) is a well known graffiti artist from the San Francisco Bay area. He became famous during the graffiti boom during the early nineties. He also was an early participant in the practice of painting directly on gallery walls, imitating the intrusive nature of graffiti.

Banksy Homepage
http://www.banksy.co.uk/outdoors/

Twist PBS Gallery
http://www.pbs.org/art21/artists/mcgee/card1.html

Shepard Fairey Gallery
http://www.sixspace.com/gallery/shepard2003/index.php

De Stijl was an art and design movement founded by a group of Dutch artists from around 1917-1931. Influenced by cubism, the artists of De Stijl looked to evoke a utopia of spiritual harmony and order. They used only primary colors with black grey and white as their color palate. They used pure abstraction in their works, using only vertical and horizontal planes. In architectural and three dementional works they made the vertical and horizontal planes so that they would not intersect allowing each element to exist independantly from one another. In graphic design they used mainly modular grids to lay out their work. They also used mainly sans serif fonts. Many of their designs used geometric shapes, mainly squares and rectangles, and these were arranged vertically and horizontally into the grid. Later in the movement designers started to use diagonals whithin the grid. The artists of De Stijl saught their ideas to be world wide, but in present times it is usually reffered to as Dutch. Some of the big names of this movement were Piet Mondrian, Theo Van Doesburg, and Gerrit Rietveld.

Some of Piet Mondrian's works
http://www.the-artists.org/posters/posters.php?search=Mondrian&submit=prints

This has works by both Mondrian and Van Doesburg
http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/d/destijl.html

This is somne Gerrit Rietveld works
http://www.moma.org/collection/browse_results.php?criteria=O:AD:E:4922&page_number=1&template_id=6&sort_order=1

Psychedelia / Psychedelic Design & Art
The Psychedelic era of design and art was from around the mid-1960s to the early 1970s in the Us and UK and is strongly associated with drugs (LSD and marijuana mostly), sex, and music. In fact many Psychedelic artists of the time did album covers and concert posters. The style of art was meant to mimic effects of hallucinogens and also to be experienced while under the influence of them. Its aim was to resist the behaviour and attitudes of accepted society and to create mind-expansion through visual representation. Psychedelic art is usually abstract, with swirling organic shapes and vivid colors. Leading proponents of the Psychedelic Art movement were San Francisco poster artists such as: Rick Griffin, Victor Moscoso, Stanley Mouse & Alton Kelley, and Wes Wilson. Their Psychedelic Rock concert posters were inspired by Art Nouveau, Victoriana, Dada, and Pop Art.
Main characteristics of Psychedelic designs are:
-Kaleidoscopic, fractal or paisley patterns
-Bright and/or highly contrasting colors
-Extreme depth of detail or stylization of detail.
-Morphing of objects and/or themes and sometimes collage
-Inclusion of phosphenes and other entoptic motifs
-Repetition of motifs

Links
Art And Culture Article
Official Site of Victor Moscoso (artist)
Wes Wilson Official Site (artist)
Wikipedia Article: Psychedelic Art

Art Nouveau was a popular art movement that swept the majority of Europe as well as the United States and spanned close to thirty years (1880-1910). As Walter Crane described it, this movement had a “strange decorative disease�, in which expressive decorative curves were used and objects often found in nature became important subjects. Flat space was also highly used in art and design of this era, because the artists were trying to suggest and evoke a feeling rather than depict reality. The people of this movement rejected the earlier historical styles of art and design and embraced the ideas that came out of the Arts & Crafts movement. Art Nouveau was most successful at abolishing the line between “fine� art and “crafts� – architecture, furniture, glassware, graphic design, jewelry, painting, and textiles were all embraced equally as art. The artists also focused heavily on handcrafted pieces rather than embracing the beginning of the industrial revolution, afraid that the old techniques would be lost forever.

Not only was Art Nouveau birthed in France, this country also produced two of the finest artists to come out of the Art Nouveau period. The first is Czech artist Alphonse Mucha, whose incredibly detailed and delicate poster designs evoked as much power and emotion as Guimard’s architecture. The second is Jules Cheret, a painter and poster artist who depicted females as free-spirited rather than puritan, thereby sparking the women’s liberation in France. Out of Scotland came Charles Rennie Mackintosh, one of the most important artists who came out of the Art Nouveau. He worked in architecture, furniture, and textiles, and the majority of his strong and decorative architectural work can be found in Glasgow, where he grew up. Across the big blue pond, artists in the United States picked up on the “decorative disease� that was sweeping across Europe. Rookwood Pottery began making pottery with decorative plant-like designs on the surface, and Tiffany Studios in New York began creating beautifully organic stained glass pieces. Louis Sullivan, an American architect, designed the Wainwright Building, which encompasses both strong geometry and highly detailed decorative forms. The impact of Art Nouveau on the world is immense, for it sparked the beginnings of Modernism and erased the line between “high� art and the crafts created, bringing together artists across the world.

Links:

Info on the life and work of Jules Cheret
http://www.cheret.info/

Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society
http://www.crmsociety.com/

Alphonse Mucha
http://www.mucha.cz/

I chose to do my History Presentation on Post-Modernism. It is a movement that is tough to define and find clear-cut information on. I think that there is a lot of gray areas with-in it.
Post-Modernism is an idea that has been extremely controversial and difficult to define among scholars, intellectuals and historians. It implicates that the Modern Movement has passed. Many do not agree however Most would say that Post-modern Ideas have influenced philosophy, art, critical theory, literature, architecture, design, marketing/business, interpretation of history, and culture since the late 20th century.
The late 20th Century would be the age in which Post-Modernism Began.

Post-Modernism's main emphasis is whether the ideals of modernism can actually exist at all. Two examples could be rationality and objectivity. One Post-Modern argument is that today's economic and Technological conditions have led to the rise of a decentralized, media-dominated society.

After learning about the New Typography movement, I realized that it was not a movement in the sense of Dada, Post-modernism, De Stijl, etc. It was more of a result of the ideas created from the Constructivism, Bauhaus, and DeStijl movements. It took the ideas of modern design and applied them to typography. New Typography was brought to the forefront by Jan Tschichold upon his publication of Die New Typogrphie in 1928, which was a collaberation of his ideas and design principles. Tschichold believed that typography should crisp, clean, but still aesthically pleasing for the viewer. I noticed in a lot of his works that he based them on a diagonal grid style which creates a lot of visual movement. Another established designer of this "movement" was Ladislav Suntar. Ladislav hit his mark in the 1940's and 1950's by expanding on the ideas of Jan Tschichold. I was also surprised at how young these designers were when they hit their mark and with how little education they had.

Links:

http://www.designboom.com/history/sutnar.html

http://transcriptions.english.ucsb.edu/archive/courses/liu/english25/materials/graphic-design/tschichold.html

http://www.aiga.org/content.cfm?contentalias=ladislavsutnar


Dada is a cultural movement that began in Switzerland during WWI most promonent from 1916 to 1920. It developed originally as a literary movement after poet Hugo Ball opened a gathering place for young poets, painters and musicians called Cabaret Voltaire. Dada writers and artists were concerned with shock, protest and nonsense. The Dada movement claimed to be anti-art and had a strong negative destructive element. Dadaists didn’t even agree on the origin of the name Dada. One version says the movement was named when a Dadaist opened a French-German dictionary and randomly selected the word dada, meaning a child’s hobbyhorse. One of Dada’s most promonent visual artists was French painter Marcel Duchamp who outraged many when he painted a mustache on a reproduction of the Mona Lisa. Dada quickly spread throughout Europe as Dadaists said they were not creating art but mocking and defaming a society gone insane, even though many Dada artists produced very meaningful visual art and influenced graphic design. Also Dada artists claimed to have invented photomontage, which was a technique of manipulating photographic images to create jarring juxtapositions and chance associations. Through spontaneous chance actions with planned decisions, Dadaists helped strip typographic design of it’s traditional precepts. Also continuing cubism’s concept of letterforms as concrete visual shapes, not just phonetic symbols.


Links:
http://members.chello.nl/j.seegers1/dada_files/

http://www.artic.edu/reynolds/essays/hofmann.php

http://www.english.upenn.edu/~jenglish/English104/tzara.html

Expressionism (1905 – 1945)

“Expressionist art is not an impression from outside but an expression from inside�. (Herewath Walden, German artist 1879-1941)

Expressionism is an artistic style and movement in which the artist seeks to provide emotional insight through their use of medium. Although the external world is inescapably influential in terms of imagery, the artists abstract in order to express their ideas and states of mind. An expressionist artist will stretch common conceptions of art and design in order to communicate an emotion. Emphasis is achieved through abstraction in terms of distortion, exaggeration, color use, etc. Most expressionist works of art deal with emotional angst or fear.

Links:

http://wwar.com/masters/movements/expressionism.html

http://www.artcyclopedia.com/history/expressionism.html

http://www.artmovements.co.uk/expressionism.htm

Punk / Music Graphics

Album artwork was created to decorate the protective packaging for vinyl records. Many artists conveyed the artistic expressions of the musical artists on the packaging of the record or CD. It eventually became a huge part of marketing and advertising. Bands started inserting multiple pages with lyrics and more artwork. Companies started to specialize in album artwork. Today album artwork is a huge part of new CDs, it can be the deciding factor of whether or not people buy an album.
Some well known artist are Stefan Sagmeister and Art Chanrty. One of my favorite artists is Stanley Donwood, he is most popular for doing Radioheads artwork.
Punk music brought change to music art scene. It rejected mainstream politics and popular music. Many bands tried to get away from typical pleasing music and images. Mark Vallen said, “Punk had a unique and complex aesthetic. It was steeped in shock value and revered what was considered ugly. The whole look of punk was designed to disturb and disrupt the happy complacency of the wider society. Outside of punk's torn and safety pinned anti-fashion statements, this impulse to outrage was never more apparent than on punk album covers.�

http://www.sagmeister.com/
http://www.artchantry.com/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punk_visual_art

Street graphics is an outdoor art form placed in the public. It includes stencil, graffiti, installations, stickers, and posters. The graffiti may include images or "tags," writting a name or nickname. Graffiti has been around since ancient civilization and has evolved through time. During the 1940's and 1960's it was used for propoganda. There is speculation that graffiti is vandalism and without the owners concent it is, but the artist sees it as art and is an easy way for public exposure. Modern graffiti is thought to be influenced by the hip hop and punk rock culutures. A popular american graffiti artist is Shepard Fairey. a well-known english graffiti artist is Robin "Banksy" Banks.

http://www.banksy.co.uk/outdoors

http://www.sixspace.com/gallery/shepard2003/index.php

http://www.calendarlive.com/galleriesandmuseums/cl-wk-cover18jan18,0,6429701.story?coll=la-home-headlines

PUSH PIN STUDIOS

The Push Pin Studios took place during the 1950's, 60's and 70's. The Push Pin the the Beatles of Illustration and Design. The studio transformed mainstream culuture, awoke the post war methods and revolutionalized advertising adn book design. So who was behind all of this revolutionalized all this?? Seymore Chast and Milton Glaster. Both are nativies of New Yorkers. Once out of design school they both were eager to get out there and make an impression and also make a couple of bucks doing it. They Studio was founded in New York during the summer of 1954. The Push Pin also had an almanak that acutally had 6 issues published before the studio even opened. Distinctive color combination during this time were orange, pink navy and green. Push pin reprised VINTAGE graphic style which caused a renaissance of graphic art history. The Push Pin studio was not a money making success. by the mid 70's the push pin was struggling. Most of the advertisements were done by Schwast and in return he would get suppliers services for free. A design for free for free services.

http://www.pushpininc.com/

http://www.aigany.org/events/details/?event=05PP

http://www.creativepro.com/story/feature/23215.html

The Futurism movement, ranging from 1909 to 1944, originated in Italy as an avant-garde movement that took technology, speed and modernity as its inspiration. Futurism conveyed the technological dynamics of twentieth century life. The futurist style glorified the machine age and war, and favored the rise of Fascism. Futurism was at its peak in 1909 when Filippo Marinetti created his first manifesto of the art style. Marinetti expressed violent sentiment regarding art and literature, and it seemed that his comments were more about shocking the public than exploring an art form.

Futurism also took place numerous media, such as poetry, literature,painting, graphics, type, sculpture, architecture, cinema, photography.
The car, the plane, the industrial town were all legendary for the Futurists, because they represented the technological triumph of
man over nature.

http://www.depero.it/
http://www.arthistoryguide.com/futurism.aspx
http://www.wikipedia.org

I chose to tackle Swiss Design, also known as the International Typographic Style. The Movement itself began in Switzerland in the 1950's with early pioneers such as Ernst Keller, who first adopted the trademark discipline and quality of the style, and Max Bill, who adopted geometric elements and layouts that emphasized order, as well as Armin Hofmann, who founded the Basel School with Emil Ruder, a Swiss teacher and typographer. The style became well known for its use of sans-serif fonts, asymmetrical layouts, and use of grids. The style also preferred the use of actual photography over cartoons and graphics, though there are some exceptions to the rule. The Swiss style helped create the modernist idea of the term "poster". Some typefaces to emerge from this movement include Akzidenz Grotesk, Helvetica, Optima, and Univers. The cities of Zurich and Basel became the development grounds for the style. In 1965, Hoffman produced the "Graphic Design Manual," which documents his design principles. The influence of the Swiss Style held providence through the mid-1990's; an example of its influence is the commonly used Arial typeface, which takes inspiration from Helvetica.

Constructivism started out in russia around 1913, the russian avant-garde artists decided to move away from traditional 'fine" art and they began to make non-representational art with a purpose. What these artists were trying to do was to link art with concrete and tangible ideas, such as portraying an idea or a political message. Similar to futurists, machines, technology, funtionalism and modern materials were greatly admired by constructivists. Alexander Rodchenko's work was the first to be described as construction art in 1917 and was meant to be an insult. Constructivism isn't seen as a positive term until around the 1920's. The constructive movement was mainly composed with geometric shapes and having very little emotion in the work. El Lissitzky, Alexsander Rodchenko, and the Stenberg brothers were a few of the major players in bringing constructivism about and perfecting it.

links:
http://www.duke.edu/~nsr3/images/construcpage.htm
http://www.cs.mcgill.ca/~kaleigh/film/film_essay_constructivism.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructivism_%28art%29

WIENER WERKSTATTE: 1903-1933
Founded by Koloman Moser and Josef Hoffman. This movement aimed to restore the handcraftmanship in industrial societies in which such art was dying. Inspired by the arts and craftsmovement the Wiener Werkstatte crafted things such as jewelry,furnishings,ceramics, interior design. Another goal of the workshop was to make all facets of human life a unified work of art. Often the designs took on simple shapes making the art very geometric Although geometric the weiner werkstatte movement was widely known for its elegance and innovition. You can see similar qualities in later movements such as the Bauhaus and in artist Frank Lloyd Wright's work.

"Better to work 10 days on one product that to manufacture 10 products in one day."

WIENER WERKSTATTE closed in 1932 due to financial problems.

The Bauhus movement was from 1919-1933 in germany. It was a reaction to the effects of WWI and the industrial boom. The Germans were also looking for a new way of life after the war and and the Bauhuas art represents that idea. Walter Gropius founded the movement and the school named "Das Staatliche Bauhuas" (The State Home of Building) Main figures of the Bauhaus movement were Laszlo Moholy-Nagy and Herbert Bayer. Nagy inspired the Bauhaus' interest in visual communications and Bayer made typographic inovations. The Bauhaus is know for it's simplistic and pleasing style as well as using a strong grid system while establishing new visual theories and approches to education.

http://students.philau.edu/HESS3/Bauhaus_Site/

http://www.dezignare.com/newsletter/bauhaus.html

http://www.bauhaus.de/english/bauhaus1919/index.htm

Typography has gone on a rollercoaster ride of new twists and exciting spins all of which leading it to being renamed: New Typography. This new breed that all us designers both new and old alike use daily, is not for the timid or cautious. It did come to life at a time when the avant-garde was changing the rules in art, around the turn of the century. Bold new techniques, like right-justification and working outside the classic writing rules were on the rise. A deconstruction was forming and taking shape, waiting for certain individuals to take an open arm to it and let the type explode in their works. One of the earliest, great advocator’s to typography was Ladislav Sutnar, a Czechoslovakian (born 1897) was well aware of the importance and practical uses of type in a world that was changing. Not only type but also the symbols that were closely associated were a main interest of his, all in order to help others and in return help those who would also become interested in typography. Another brilliant pioneer of typography was Jan Tschichold, a German (born 1902), who at first wanted a Modernist view on type to prevail but later did a complete turn around by condemning it and supporting, solely, a Classic (san serif) style. Lastly, a typography artist who feels very much like one who might be designing still today is Joost Schmidt (born 1893). Free forms, uniqueness to style and a firm grasp onto the capabilities of typography gave Schmidt an edge in his work.
As technology advances, so too does typography. In order to make it in this ever demanding world the type used must be daring and visible, otherwise it will be overlooked and simply be a waste of space. Again, some thought must be used to figure in how people will see type when it is out on the web, since browsers and the user’s font directories all are different and display the fonts differently.

Links

The New Typography
http://www.clagnut.com/blog/266/

New Typography…has anything changed?
http://www.graphic-design.com/DTG/bergsland/new_typography.html

The “New� Typography
http://www.jaddesignsolutions.com/theory02.html

Okay... first off I don't know why I always choose the topics I know least about. WTF? Anywho, I chose deconstruction... break down the word and i'm sure you'll get the gist. I'm finding out this Derrida guy has a lot to do with it. and that it was mucho popular in the 80's.

here are the three sites
www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/deconstructivism
www.mapress.com/books/history
www.csudh.edu/dearhabermas/termsart

I chose to do punk/music graphics as my history topic. This artwork is found on punk rock album covers, flyers for shows, and magazines. You can characterize this type of artwork by the violation of typography such as letters cut out of magazines. When color is used it's very high key including bright pink and yellows combined with black.
Punk art can include pretty much anything, and often it includes images cut and pasted from magazines. Shock is important in this type of art.
One Punk Music graphic designer is Art Chantry who is a designer often associated with his posters and album covers for bands such as Nirvana, Hole and The Sonics. Another is Stefan Sagmeister who has done posters and album covers for such artists as The Rolling Stones and Live.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_Chantry

http://www.designmuseum.org/design/stefan-sagmeister

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stefan_Sagmeister

Expressionism... everyone has there own definition of it and as it is talked about in every class of mine, there are many answers. The most common is that it is art work done with extreme emotion; ranging from fear and anger to happiness or sadness. Through out the years, most seem to be filled with little happiness. The movement of Abstract Expressionism hit after World War II. While combining emotion and self expression, it is said that each stroke of an artist hand has a "deep thought" behind it. From non-artists, I have been told by MANY that "How is that even called art, I could do that!" But really, it has a lot more depth to it. It is a topic that can be deeply talked about.

The DADA movement started in Switzerland roughly between the years 1916 and 1920, was geared to protest World War 1. Because Switzerland was a neutral country during the war and they strongly opposed it, they figured the only way to help stop the horror of war was to make anti art. The movement is recognized as the anti art movement and its aim was to have no meaning because it went against what was at the time considered high art. The movement mainly included visual arts, poetry, theater and graphic design, but also included activities such as public demonstrations. Some of the original dadaists include Hannah Hoch, Marcel Duchamp, John Heartfield, and Kurt Schwitters. By definition DADA art is not considered art and the DADA artists not artist because almost anything can be considered DADA. Although this may be true DADA art is said to have laid the groundwork for such movements as Cubism and Futurism, and it also said to have made assemblage, collage, photomontage, and ready made objects more socially acceptable.

Links

http://www.yellowbellywebdesign.com/hoch/gallery.html

http://www-camil.music.uiuc.edu/Projects/EAM/Dadaism.html

http://www.towson.edu/heartfield/art/art.html

the PSYCHEDELIC art movement, was inspired by the developing youth countercultures during the hippie movement. following the beatniks and preceding the punk era. it has one simple aim, and that was to create mind expansion, through visual representation.

wikipedia defines psychedelic art as art inspired by the psychedelic experience induced by drugs, such as lsd, mescaline, and psilocybin. and the literal translation of psychedelic, is mind-manifesting. neat.

the typefaces and letterforms are commonly illegible, which is purposefully crafted with vibrant, flat colors, to simply get your attention. images are warped and distorted to the point in which they appear to be 'fueled by their own movement', curving and spiraling off the page like a beautiful trail of smoke.

leading artists include wes wilson, bonnie maclean, victor moscoso and peter max. jim marshall was an amazing photographer during the movement, but has nothing to do with what im talking about.
it was said that Victor Moscoso did for graphic design, what Grateful Dead and Jefferson Airplane did for rock and roll. hahha, thats deep.

all these elements worked together to alter the language of the generation. psychedelic art was not meant to be viewed; but to be felt, and reacted upon and experienced.

http://www.sixtiesposters.com/fillmore2.htm

http://www.nicke.abelgratis.com/page%20006.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychedelic_art

Art Deco was a popular design movement from the 1920s to 1930s. It affected the decorative arts such as interior design, architecture, industrial design, as well as the visual arts such as painting, fashion, film, and graphic design. This movement was an amalgamation of different styles and art movements within the 20th century, including Cubism, Art Noueau, Modernism, Constructionism, Bauhaus, and Futurism. It’s popularity was at its peak during the 1920s. Although, most movements have political or philosophical roots or intentions, Art Deco was simply decorative art. It was seen as elegant, ultra modern, and functional.

Typefaces used in this movement uses a lot of all caps, including Broadway, Anna, Chic, Gallia, Bernrd Fashion. Some popular graphic designers in this movement include A.M. Cassandre, Rene Vincent, and Charles Loupot. There are a lot of gradients, bold colors, and geometric shapes used echoing the industrial/technological movement at the time.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_Deco

http://www.adsw.org/resource/websites.html

http://www.decopix.com/

L'Art Noveau took place from roughly 1890 to 1910. It is a movement characterized by undulating lines and curved organic shapes. This movement was an international movement that started in Paris. The orgins of L'art nouveau come from Seigmnd Bing's Parisian gallery of the same name. It was a movement that included works of many mediums including: furniture, jewelery, arcitechure. print graphics, textiles, and more. This movement was lead by the father of the modern poster: Jules Cheret who was revolutionary in his combination of text and graphics. As well as Alphonse Mucha another very important poster maker of the era characterized by the flowing hair of his female figures.

Links:
http://www.artchive.com/artchive/art_nouveau.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_Nouveau

http://www.nga.gov/feature/nouveau/exhibit_intro.htm

Here is my paragraph for the poster

Deconstruction gave the idea that there is more than one possible meaning for a text and that they could be contradictory. Deconstruction also plays with the traditional way of looking at text. It is a philosophy applied to literary criticism,as well ass to criticism of the other arts, which began to gain popularity in the 80's. The field of deconstruction arouse partially in reaction to the literary theories of structuralism.

Paragraph from poster:

Expressionism 1905 - 1945

Originating in germany, Expressionism encompasses all art in which the artistis free to move beyond the limitations of objective subject matter and to concentrate on the feeling and impact derived from the artist's inspiration. Expressionist sought to reveal inner, spiritual and emotional foundations of human existance, rather than the external, surface appearencs depicted by the Impressionists . The Expressionist movement took inspiration from Symbolism and Cubism, in its departure from accurate subject matter. Expressionism found its roots in two groups of German painters, Die Bruecke, meaning "The Bridge" and Der Blaue Reiter, meaning "The Blue Rider."

Street graphics and graffiti have been around since ancient civilization to the present. It is an expression of both our culture and counterculture. City streets are littered with billboards, posters, graffiti, and stickers of artists expressing their thoughts and idea to world. It is a very public and inexpensive way for a person’s art to be seen. During the 1960’s and 1970’s a lot of the street graphics were used for propaganda posters, not on in the United States, but also in Southern Europe and South America. Street art became really popular in New York during the 1980’s with the rise of punk and hip-hop. They used more pictorial images and became more creative with their typography. Some street graphics or graffiti artists are Banksy, Shepard Fairey, and Gerardo Yepiz. Banksy was born and raised in England and got involved with graffiti during the late 1980’s. Banksy is well known for his strong sense of ridiculous. He liked using stencils for its strong history and he was not very good at the traditional New York style of graffiti. Shepard Fairey is an American street artist and began around the mid 1980’s. Fairey is well known for his ‘Andre the Giant’ campaign and ‘Obey Giant’. He got involved with stencils during the 1980’s and used them to mass produce the Giant imagery. Gerardo Yepiz was born in Mexico and cut his first stencil around the 1980’s. Now his stencil art expands into fine art, mail art, and propaganda.

Banksy: www.banksy.co.uk
Shepard Fairey: www.obeygiant.com
Gerardo Yepiz: www.acamonchi.com/gyepiz

i switched topics to deconstruction, so here is a little about that:

Deconstruction: a clash of new technologies and old styles. Among the early origins of the graphic revolution, Cranbrook Academy helped to spawn various theoretical alternatives. Deconstruction theorists proposed that a participatory audience “constructed meaning� through individual interpretations and common messages. Deconstruction questioned the authority of traditional communications. The merging of dissonant type styles on a single page offered the “receiver� optional pathways. This approach symbolized the new politics of diversity found in academia during the late eighties. Deconstruction revealed levels of transparency and showed the inner structure of a designed page: “These pieces talk about themselves, expose their own mechanics, and hold a dialogue about their own constructs,� wrote Katherine McCoy. The Deconstructionist style is characterized by chaotic type and image.

I JUST reread the requirements for this project and noticed that "Hey! I forgot to post on Joellyn's blog!" Sorry about that. Here's my information.

The Bauhaus was formed in 1919. The school was created in Weimar, Germany under the leadership of Walter Gropius. The school went through three different eras in Germany, then shut down due to Nazi rule.

The Weimar years (1919-1925)
were origionally dominated by expressionism and spirituality. “A Unity of Art & Handicraft� was the focus of the school. In later years teaching switched to a modern blend of art and technology, embracing the machine as a tool to create art.

Up to 1923 the school focused on furniture design and typography. During this year Laszlo Moholy-Nagy took over as head of the preliminary course, and introduced painting, photography, film, sculpture and graphic design into the school. Moholy-Nagy created a mix between the poster, text, and photography which he called “the new visual literature.�

The Bauhaus faced several problems with the government at Weimar, and after an extremist Conservative government took power, they left the area based on unacceptable new conditions forced upon the school.

The Dessau years (1926-1932)
After moving to the small province of Dessau, the Bauhaus fully bloomed. The De Stijl form of art fully took shape and design problems were solved based on principles developed specifically for the work. Massive amounts of modern work was created in these years. Design for furniture, functional architecture, as well as typography all came into place. Modernization of the school became a constant process. In 1926 the Bauhaus was renamed High School of Form and production of Bauhaus magazine commensed. Sans serif fonts were used exclusively, including Gill Sans and Futura.

The Berlin years (1932-1933)
Walter Gropius and Moholy-Nagy left the school for Berlin in 1928. A student at the Bauhaus named Hannes Meyer took over. He favored many fonts, and thought strict constructivist ideas futile. While Gropius ran the school, dealing with the Nazi party became more and more difficult. In 1932 they canceled Bauhaus contracts. By 1933 the staff decided to end the Bauhaus.

The Chicago Years (1937-1938)
As the Nazi party became more powerful in Germany, most members of the Bauhaus left the country. Gropius and Moholy-Nagy among others fled to the United States, brining modern design, a fusion of art and design, as well as brilliant teachings to the US.

Bauhaus links:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bauhaus
http://www.cs.umb.edu/~alilley/bauhaus.html
http://architecture.about.com/library/blgloss-bauhaus.htm

I am glad I got to research this era because I think it was a very fun and booming time. Although the art is more corporate than emotional, it is from a time when corporations wern't so corrupt- this era seems very innocent to me in comparison to others and that is probably why I like it.
Art Deco was a popular design movement from 1910 until 1939, affecting the decorative arts such as architecture, interior design, and industrial design. Also the visual arts such as fashion, painting, the graphic arts, and film. This movement was, in a sense, an amalgamation of many different styles and movements of the early 20th century, including Constructionism, Cubism, Modernism, Bauhaus, Art Nouveau, and Futurism. Its popularity apexed during the 1920s. Although many design movements have political or philosophical roots or intentions, Art Deco was purely decorative. At the time, this style was seen as elegant, functional, and ultra modern.
Art Deco themes affected the visual arts, lending Fauvist palettes and Futurist and Cubist concepts while standing in opposition to traditional art formats. Strong, dynamic lines; bright colors; and fast, modern landscapes can be commonly seen in painting, lithographs, and posters from this design period. Some of the best samples can be seen during the 1933, Chicago international fair Century of Progress, as all murals, posters and samples have the influence of the Deco line.

Here are the links to some of my art deco research:
Art Deco furniture, Jewelry and Interior desin
www.retropolis.net/
Art Deco history
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_Deco
Art Deco sites
www.adsw.org/resource/websites.html
Art Deco Movement
www.artlex.com/ArtLex/a/artdeco.html

**Here is a better? overview of what I had said New Typography was all about..and this is what is on my poster.**

THE NEW TYPOGRAPHY IS MOST SIMPLY DEFINED AS A REJECTION OF THE CLASSICAL RULES OF TYPOGRAPHIC SYMMETRY. IN A 1927 ESSAY, EL LISSITZKY TRACES ITS DEVELOPMENT BACK TO MARINETTI’S PAROLE IN LIBERTA, WYNDHAM LEWIS’S LAYOUT FOR BLAST, AND THE DADAIST PHOTOMONTAGER JOHN HEARTFIELD’S LAYOUT FOR THE MAGAZINE NEUE JUGEND. EL LISSITZKY’S TYPOGRAPHY WAS THE FIRST FORMAL APPLICATION OF THE NEW APPROACH, AND HIS SANS SERIF LETTERFORMS, LIMITED RANGE OF PRIMARY COLORS, AND GEOMETRICIZED FORMS WERE TO BECOME LASTING CLICHES IN ADVERTISING TYPOGRAPHY. IN 1925 A YOUNG PROFESSOR OF TYPOGRAPHY FROM LEIPZIG, JAN TSCHICHOLD, WHO HAD NO DIRECT CONNECTION WITH THE BAUHAUS, COLLECTED AND ANALYZED THE SIGNIFICANT EXAMPLES OF MODERN WORK IN A SPECIAL ISSUE OF TYPOGRAPHISCHE MITTEILUNGEN, TITLED “ELEMENTARE TYPOGRAPHIE.� THREE YEARS LATER, TSCHICHOLD FORMULATED AND CODIFIED THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF ASYMMETRY IN DIE NEUE TYPOGRAPHIE (THE NEW TYPOGRAPHY), WITH WHICH HE SOUGHT TO CHANGE THE BASIC PRACTICES OF THE GERMAN PRINTING INDUSTRY.

The topic I chose for my design history project was Swiss Design. Beginning in the 1930's a new typographic style and drastic uses of photography created the look that is now known as Swiss Design. I focused my research around four key players in the Swiss Design movement. Herbert Matter was a Swiss designer and photographer whose posters for the Swiss National Tourist office used collage and photo montage along with extreme camera angles and scale to create dynamic images.
Another Swiss designer using photo montage and collage at this time was Walter Herdeg. Herdeg was creating publicity material for Swiss ski resorts
In 1947 Swiss designer and teacher Armin Hofmann evolved a design philosophy based on the graphic-form language of point, line, and plane. Swiss designer Josef Muller-Brockman sought to present objective and impersonal designs without any of the designer's feelings or tecniques of persuasion.
Some of the key characteristics of Swiss Design are angular forms and linear patterns that convey a sense of movement, montage and collage, especially involving photographs, high and low camera angles, dramatic scale contrasts, light and shadow, and lively composition.

Some links to learn more about the Swiss designers listed above:

Herbert Matter: www.aiga.org/content.cfm/medalist-herbertmatter

www.artandculture.com

Walter Herdeg: www.typotheque.com/

Hi, my sites:
687a6b988979de8952e06f6eae21c9c3

Very thoughtful comments. I am researching the history of web design and the influence of the technology over the design.

That is very attention-grabbing, You're a very professional blogger. I've joined your rss feed and look forward to in the hunt for extra of your excellent post. Additionally, I've shared your website in my social networks

If you meet someone you are searching for for the first time,
start up a conversation by emphasizing things that are non-threatening and impersonal such as weather, surrounding
e. Are there people you would like to talk to or activities that you wish to take part
in, but restrain due to some unspoken insecurity. However, when it turns out
that you're feeling lonely and isolated since you don't have enough close friendships and relationships that you experienced, you will need
to decide what steps you'll want to take to make positive changes to situation.

This site was… how do I say it? Relevant!! Finally I have found something that helped me. Thank you!

Great ¡V I should definitely pronounce, impressed with your web site. I had no trouble navigating through all tabs as well as related information ended up being truly easy to do to access. I recently found what I hoped for before you know it in the least. Quite unusual. Is likely to appreciate it for those who add forums or something, web site theme . a tones way for your client to communicate. Excellent task..

Hi there, I do believe your web site could possibly be having browser compatibility issues. When I look at your web site in Safari, it looks fine however, when opening in I.E., it’s got some overlapping issues. I merely wanted to provide you with a quick heads up! Apart from that, fantastic blog!

I absolutely love your site.. Excellent colors & theme. Did you build this site yourself? Please reply back as I’m planning to create my own site and would love to find out where you got this from or just what the theme is named. Appreciate it!

Next time I read a blog, I hope that it doesn’t disappoint me as much as this one. After all, I know it was my choice to read through, however I really thought you would probably have something interesting to say. All I hear is a bunch of crying about something that you can fix if you weren’t too busy looking for attention.

I am regular visitor, how are you everybody?
This article posted at this site is in fact good.

I like what you guys are up too. Such smart work and reporting! Carry on the superb works guys I have incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it'll improve the value of my website :).

You need to be a part of a contest for one of the best sites on the web. I most certainly will highly recommend this site!

To simulate a multitasking environment and see when it will affect runtime efficiency.

Yet, here you stand, traveling through time, hanging out with grandpa.
Deliver appropriate Ram memory to Windows 7 Virtual Machine, however, not more that cause the OSX begin paging.

Post a comment

(If you haven't left a comment here before, you may need to be approved by the site owner before your comment will appear. Until then, it won't appear on the entry. Thanks for waiting.)