I work at a large elementary school (1,200 children on 4 tracks). This diversity includes a large population of children that fit the following profile:
Their dominant language at age 5 (kinder) is English. Their parents say "he's English only"; and does not speak the home language. But the language history often includes:
1)first words in a home language other than English;
2)history of being in daily daycare with a home language speaking relative when the child was a toddler;
3)as the child used more language, English became dominant because the household (siblings, cousins, parents) all spoke English
4)parents report minimal oral language "exchange"; (true give and take conversations) between the child and adults;
5)and the child's parents often speak to one another in the second language (which I would think reduces exposure to "adult"; English modeling).
Is there any emerging research to establish a timeline for English acquisition with such a mix of experiences? Or is the whole concept of ELLs everything and everything and nothing is clear cut? Parents often want to know why their "English only"; child is struggling as they're compared to their monolingual peers.
I wish I could reference more research to support the difference between "English only" as a monolingual vs. "English only"; as a child who has experience/exposure with another language.