September 2009 Archives

Literature Review Progress

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I started my literature review by trying to write the outline of what I want to write, however had a rough start. I found that the literature map/chart helped out a lot, and the outline came easier once the map was done. I also added a different column in which I put the description of what the article talked about, trying to group them together so when I write the actual review it will help me find all the articles that talk about a specific topic faster.

Lit Review

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For anyone who would like to get some good tips and learn more about searching databases for literature, Scott Marsalis was a great help. He is in the Cooke Hall lobby on Tuesdays from 2:30-4:00. He spent a lot of time helping me search my research topic and gave me a lot of great tips on how to find more information in different areas. I actually have found some good information in some law databases which I would not have found otherwise. Hope the lit search is going well!
The scapulo thoracic motion, which plays a very important role in the overall mobility and stability of the upper limb, is affected in many of the orthopedic problems like trapezitis, myofascial pain syndromes, surgery, frozen shoulder, and so on. This results in the abnormal mobility of the scapula and thereby affecting the normal functions of the shoulder and the upper limb. To restore the scapulo-humeral rhythm and the normal functions, the abnormal component of the scapular motion needs to be identified. With scapula-thoracic motion being one of the complex movements, the values of normal displacement varies with individuals. So, identifying the abnormal component of scapular motion/kinematics in the presence of clinical pathology is difficult. The questions are, how much of scapular displacement does occur in normal healthy individuals during activities of the upper limb; Is there any variation between the scapular kinematics of different individuals; and if there is any variation, what is the range of the variation?

Kelsey Savoie

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Research Problem: I am currently working with the Special Events and Fundraising department within a local non-profit organization. When asked to brainstorm a new event for the organization I began to think about what it is that draws people to participate in non-profit fundraising events and thus, makes them a success. I plan to research what variables are most important in motivating participants to take part in an event: the act of competing, exercise, supporting a good cause, entertainment, gift bags, familiarity with the condition or organization being supported, camaraderie, etc. Research question: What factors entice people to participate in non-profit fundraising events?
The topic I have chose for my business plan is an Alaskan Outdoors Television Show focusing mainly on Hunting and Fishing in the Alaskan Wilderness. The reason for choosing this mainly the passion I have for the outdoors and being from Alaska. But more, the industry of hunting shows and the target people interested, I don't think have an understanding of what that enormous state has to offer in the Outdoors department. Hunting shows around America tend to show the common animals (deer, elk, pronghorn, ducks, and pheasant) and how to hunt them. Very rarely does someone see an Alaskan hunt (Moose, Black bear, Grizzly Bear, Dall sheep, Caribou, Bison, and Grouse) and how it's performed. Then from the fishing aspect, there is amazing fishing, and an incredible amount of species of fish in the state. People really should have a better understanding of what that state has to offer. It would also include rafting, four wheeling, and snowmobiling. I would like to include many different people participating in each event, not just myself on film. I would like to produce a product line, and eventually creating my own magazine. Have a show host, and produce lots of great footage. I know the target market is there. My research question is: What would it take in order to start up my own company in getting it running in the industry? This includes: funding, equipment needed, certain seasons of which each takes place, advertising, getting the exposure on a national television level, and the amount of footage to get a good starting base.

Jonathon Janz

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I will be participating in research examining human physiology (in particular, thermoregulation) in extreme environments. The focus is on optimizing the design of an existing liquid cooling and warming garment for use in space exploration, hazardous occupation, athletics, and medicine. The purpose of the garment is to properly regulate the user's core body temperature in conditions of extreme cold and extreme heat during exercise and rest. By maintaining a steady, optimal, and comfortable core temperature, the risks of hypo/hyperthermia (and their associated complications) can be mitigated. Working Title: Design optimization of a liquid cooling garment for improving astronaut thermoregulation Four areas of examination: 1. Determine amount of core heat extraction per degree Celsius of LCG water temperature 2. Determine amount of core heat extraction per 100 ml/min of LCG water flow 3. Determine amount of core heat extraction per body zone 4. Determine amount of core heat extraction per length of tube in manifold
Research Problem: A typical class for an elementary, middle and high school physical education class is to have students warm up, stretch, and participate in that day's activity. Likewise, almost every coach from the youth level through the interscholastic, intercollegiate, and even some at the professional level have their players warm up, stretch, and play. Without discrediting the importance and necessity of ample flexibility and range of motion for performing athletic endeavors, nor disregarding one of the five components of healthy physical fitness (flexibility/range of motion), there is no definitive research stating the correlation between stretching and injury prevention when performed prior to exercising. Therefore, the question remains as to why stretching is ingrained into the pregame and warm up routines of so many coaches and physical educators today. Is this a result of habit and perceived logic or is this accurate, research-based teaching and coaching? Therefore, my research question is: Should stretching be performed prior to exercising?
Research problem: As an event manager for Twin Cities Marathon, Inc., I have observed a trend in the racing business where offering a race is no longer enough for participants. The market is becoming oversaturated and in order to maintain and increase the number of participants in races, organizations have to offer events that extend from their major race. Without participants, companies that put on running events are not profitable and can not survive. Research questions: 1) Does a trend indeed exist in the racing industry where organizations have to offer more than just a running event? 2) For those races that include extension events such as festivals and parties, what factors make them successful at maintaining current and attracting new customers?

Research Problem

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Physical activity plays a major role in prevention of chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity, as well as the promotion of positive development. Physical activity behaviors have been shown to distribute across individuals' lifespan; healthy, active children are more and likely to become a healthy, active adults. However, childhood obesity is on the rise to epidemic levels, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 9 million children in the United States are considered obese, that is 16 % of American youth. In 2008 the Center for Disease Control stated that American Indian and Alaskan Native youth had the highest obesity rate of 21.2 % when compared to other ethnic groups; attributed to physical inactivity. Although there have been efforts to implement physical activity interventions within tribal populations and they have proven to be unsuccessful and ineffective. Social and environmental factors, cultural differences specific to Native American populations have been overlooked, trust, and accessibility to American Indian populations are reasons this marginalized population have been left untouched by the benefit of physical activity interventions and left the risk of physical inactivity. Incorporation of community and family based interventions, acknowledging social, environmental and cultural elements of motivation and adherence, creating culturally relevant physical activities, and trust of American Indian population that best interests are the foundation of interventions are all crucial elements to success of developing and implementing a successful physical activity intervention for American Indian populations. Therefore giving American Indian youth the opportunity to reap the benefits of physical activity and improve quality of life.
I hope to someday be able to work more in the business side of athletics, whether being a CFO or an AD or somewhere in this area. The issue that I want to address is the escalating football coaches salaries and its effect on the athletic budget. Many schools justify the large salaries saying that the payout from more money and revenue and booster giving is more than enough reason to be handing out salaries this large. I want to research whether this is really the case, or are these schools budgets becoming worse and worse off, especially in this economic time where money is harder and harder to come by. Are schools just digging deeper into the red. My research question is this: Have schools that have given extremely high salaries to high profile coaches brought more money into the athletic department or are these schools fiscally and financially unstable? I am still working out what the exact wording i want to have with my question. Any suggestions would be great. Thanks

Adam Lepley Research Topic

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Research Problem: The problem I want to address in my research involves lower back pain in the athletic population. Back pain is a common occurrence in sports specifically football where the athletes are ask to place excessive demands on the lumbar spine, and it has been shown that football is linked to degenerative conditions in the spine. It has been reported that in one year approximately 50% of all down lineman in college football will develop back pain, and as much as 27% of all football players will develop back pain in their careers. The problem is that when these players, and the normal population, develop this pain, there is no true therapeutic program developed to address this issue and we as clinicians may not be treating this to the best of our ability. Research Question: My research question is developed off of the notion that we all treat back pain differently and maybe if there is a exact protocol to follow we may return our athletes to play faster or allow them for better outcomes later in life. I would like to send surveys to either all the athletic medicine teams of the big ten or all NCAA to assess their treatment of back pain. Also, I thought it may be interesting to see the prevalence of chiropractor use in collegiate football which has been looked at in the NFL but never college.

Nick Janasik Research Problem

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Research problem: I currently work for the Minnesota Men's Basketball program as a graduate assistant. As the graduate assistant, I work closely with the assistant coaches trying to understand their methods of recruiting high school student-athletes to our program. It is established within the coaching community that recruiting is a vital component of a successful program. In order to achieve in the areas of winning games, high graduation rates, and a low number of NCAA violations, coaches must be able to recruit the right profile of student-athletes to their program. There is no proven method, however, that will automatically get student-athletes to sign with a program. While there is not one set-in-stone method to recruiting, our coaching staff believes that relationship building is the greatest factor to signing top recruits. It is my goal to research the area of relationship building not just in college basketball, but also in business and politics. Question: What impact does relationship building have in regards to recruitment?
For my action research project it is easiest for me to tell about the research problem by breaking down the area into smaller sections. Thus I will describe the overlying issue, the smaller problems involved with it, and some initial thoughts on how these problems might be solved. In the field of Sport Management, more particularly the management of collegiate sports, a large portion of the directing body's time is spent on dealing with conduct issues of the group they are in charge of managing, Student-Athletes. In order to let Student-Athletes know what is expected of them by the university in which they attend, a Student-Athlete Code of Conduct is available for revue through a number of different medians. The problem is that this document is used for more of an insurance policy for the athletic department than as an actual expectation for its Student-Athletes. More often than not the administration will reference the code of conduct after an issue and state that the Student-Athlete broke the agreement and will thus be punished. My action research project will look at the code of conduct on many levels. Initially, I will take a deep look into the actual language of the code of conduct and compare it to others around the country. If an athletic department is expecting a document to convey a message, it needs to be sure that message is clear. For the end of this phase I will write a series of suggestions on how the code of conduct could either be more complete, concise, or clear, depending on what its weaknesses are. Next, I will look at how the code of conduct itself is distributed to Student-Athletes. Even if the Code itself is perfectly written and flawlessly conveys the message to the Student-Athletes, it is doing the department no go if all it is doing is sitting on a shelf. For this section I will research the different ways a document or information can be presented and once the most popular and effective methods are summarized, I will suggest which method would be best for the given population. This will most likely result in multiple medians being available with the idea that repetition will help the population understand the information. Finally, I will research the effectiveness of a code of conduct in general. This portion will contain the largest amount of qualitative research. Here I am interested in knowing the decision making process of a Student-Athlete and whether or not the Code of Conduct comes into mind while they are making potentially dangerous decisions. This portion is important because if the Student-Athlete chooses to disregard the Code of Conduct while they are interacting with society it may be necessary to create a more effective mode. However I am hoping my research will conclude that if a Student-Athlete is fully aware of the consequences of their actions they will choose to make the correct, more responsible decisions. So after all of that my general research question is, "How effective is the Student-Athlete Code of Conduct in effecting the decisions Student-Athletes make?"

Betsy Kennedy

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The topic I have chosen to focus on is the effect of exercise on depression. Depression is one of the most common diagnosed mental health problems in the United States. Along with that, many people that are not diagnosed with depression will experience symptoms of depression at some point in their life. There have been numerous studies that have looked at how exercise can affect mood, with many showing that it can help relieve symptoms. If exercise can be shown to be effective in treating depression, it could ultimately be used along with or in place of medications and therapy. Also, if people were aware of the effects on mood they might be able to recognize that being physically active may help them. The population I am planning to focus on are college students. This is an age group that is going through many changes in their lives, which could potentially trigger mood changes. If anyone has any ideas for me, they would be greatly appreciated! I'm not sure if I covered it as well as I should. Thanks!

Mandy Krings

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The research problem I plan to address deals with cardiovascular disease and smoking. Coronary artery disease and smoking are two of the leading causes of death in the United States. Cigarette smoking alone is a risk factor for the early onset of atherosclerotic heart disease along with diabetes, hypertension and family history. Along with these well known risk factors, a few others have been studied previously and found to also lead to a poor prognosis. In particular, an individual's heart rate variability can provide information on their current health status. So my research questions will be: Does heart rate variability differ among smokers and non-smokers? And is a smoker's urge to smoke affected by a maximal bout of exercise?
I plan to do an action research proposal. The problem is within a company that I currently work for. It is a different franchise of the same company that I worked for last year. Both franchises (although owned and operated by completely different people) seem to have similar issues within the way they run their business. There is a complete lack of structure with in roles and responsibilities. Although there are employees working as trainers, sales recruiters, operations coordinators and community relations directors each of their jobs is not clearly defined. Because it isn't clearly defined employees spend a lot of time taking on tasks that aren't their responsibility either because a) they don't know who is in charge of it or b) because they don't trust the person who is supposed to be responsible for it to actually complete the task on time. Being that the company is a franchise there are already best practices set up by franchise coaches at the corporate level. The problem is that no one is either a) aware of those practices or b) chooses not to use those best practices and instead try to recreate the wheel on their own. On top of these apparent issues the one that I think is the most is that the owners themselves are unaware of how well their employees are working. They are no employee reviews set up to determine if people are doing their jobs or not, which in return some employees are not being held accountable for things they aren't doing. I believe that because of this there are tens of thousands of dollars that have slipped through the cracks already and on a day-to-day basis money continues to be lost. My question is what are the proper steps to set up in order to fix these issues so there is clear direction, goals, roles and responsibilities? I'd prefer to work smarter not harder.

Research Problem/Question

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Research Problem: Currently the H1N1 virus is reaching pandemic proportions. The population segment that is hit most often is young apparently healthy individuals. This also happens to be the group that Certified Athletic Trainers (ATC) primarily work with in many high schools and college settings. Often times ATC's serve as the first line of defense with regards to not only injuries but illnesses as well. H1N1 can have severe consequences if not handled properly. It is vital that all ATC's be able to recognize possible cases of H1N1 and make proper recommendations to those individuals who may be affected. Research Question: How should prudent Athletic Trainers prevent, recognize, and treat the H1N1 virus?

Karen Roth Research Issue

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The topic I would like to research is Iron (ferritin) deficiency among elite non-anemic female distance runners. There has not been a whole lot of research done on this topic. The majority of research I found on ferritin was from the early 1990's. Some of the research I found was on what classifies an athletic to be ferritin deficient without being anemic, I feel like there is an enough quality research done on this aspect to support a baseline number for my own research. I think my big questions are how prevalent is ferritin deficiency among elite female distance runners. As well as if oral Iron supplementation has a positive effect on the runner's ferritin levels and hemoglobin levels. Some areas I have been trying to find good research on are simply why ferritin/iron is so important to female distance runners and why they are more at risk of being ferritin deficient. Once I can show there is quality research for those things, I think it would be okay to look at how big of an issue this really is among elite female distance runners. Please let me know what you guys think or if you have any suggestions. Thanks

Matt Vollum Research Issue

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I am having some trouble getting to a specific question within my broad research area of interest. Overall I am interested in fan behavior at sporting events and also deviance in athletes/sport. My thoughts, as I try to narrow to a research question, are to look at the comparison of deviance of athletes to deviance of the general public. More specifically looking at the arrest rates of athletes in college athletics compared to that of the non-athlete population. In doing some informal research there are some interesting numbers such as: --In Super Bowl XXXIV- 11% of the players had been arrested. --A study looking at 30 universities found that athletes commit one in three college sexual assaults. While male athletes only comprised 3.3% of the university population they represented 19% of sexual assault perpetrators and 35% of domestic violence perpetrators. --Then I see a statistic that says in 2006 less than 1% of Big Ten athletes are "in trouble with the law" So I am heading toward a research question of: Do student athletes in Division I athletic programs get arrested at a higher rate than the non-athlete population? I will be meeting with my adviser tomorrow morning so I hope to get some feedback and focus from her.
Welcome to the blog of KIN/REC 5981: Research Methodology in Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport.