Recently in Anthony Crowell Category
The presentations given today were pretty easy to listen to. I enjoyed some of the reasons why presenters decided to choose that specific organization to analyze. I also enjoyed Laura's presentation because it featured a small organization for a changeup to the large organizations that most everyone one else was picking. She could also use her firsthand knowledge of the organization in her presentation. It was interesting to hear that the owner of the Pittsburgh Steelers was very instrumental in some of the recent changes in the National Football League. The New Orleans Saints organization was also in the limelight today. I thought Tony did a good job of displaying the change that had taken place in 2006 to get the organization going in the right direction towards obtaining their on-field goals. There were some flaws in every organization and the presenters came up with great recommendations for each of their organizations.
As it states in the book, decision making can is argued to be the most important process within an organization. The decisions that have to be made within an organization can be classified important to trivial. The definition of decision-making in the book states, "a decision is a judgment...a choice between alternatives." According to the book there are two types of decisions that can be made in a sport organization. A programmed decision is repetitive and routine. Programmed decisions are the decisions that are easiest to make because they can be solved by using the sport manager's past experience. However there is also another kind of decision called a nonprogrammed decision. These decisions happen to be more difficult because they are usually new and unique. In a sport organization, it likely that a senior manager or highly trained staff member would be called upon to make these decisions instead of lower level managers.
There are three conditions upon which decisions are made. The first is certainty, when managers know what available alternatives are, and the cost of each alternative. Another condition involves the manager knowing the available alternatives, but not having a clear understanding on potential cost or benefit from the alternative. Lastly, decisions can be made under uncertainty. The manager is in tough position because he does not know any decision alternatives nor does he know what potential outcomes would be.
There are two types of individual decision making models that can be used in an organization. The first is a rational model, which consists of several stages. The first step involves monitoring the decision environment. The second step is where the manager defines the problem about which the decision has to be made. The next step involves the manager diagnosing the problem. The fourth step would then include identifying decision alternatives. Then they can analyze the alternatives to find the best course of action to take in the decision making process that will best benefit the organization. The next step is selecting the best alternatives, followed then by implementing the alternative. Lastly, the sport manager must evaluate the decision that has been made. The type is the administrative model in which the sport manager does not have all of the facts in the situation. They then try to make the best decision that they know how.
There are many types of decision making styles that can be made within the organization that are not made by individuals. They include management science, the Carnegie model, the structuring of unstructured processes, the garbage can model, and the Bradford studies.
In the end, the decision-making process in a sport organization needs to have multiple sources of input to be effective. When a sport manager can gather a large amount of information he can better develop alternatives to problems. These can then be analyzed to find out which decision will best benefit the sport organization.
The ability to change is very important to the success of a sport organization. Every organization needs to understand the concept of change and be able to utilize it in their environment. Change in a sport organization can occur in four different areas: technology, products and services, structures and systems, and people.
The change in technology refers to an organization's production process, the skills and methods it uses to deliver its services, or its knowledge base. The products and services part of a sport organization undergoes change by the addition, deletion, or modification of other areas. Structural and systemic changes occur when modifications are made to areas of a sport organization. This can be areas such as division of labor, its authority structure, or the control systems. Lastly, people change requires modification to the way people think and act and the way they relate to each other. There are two levels of change which is radical change and convergent change. Radical change is when a sport organization completely changes its orientation. Convergent change is more of fine-tuning a specific orientation.
There are several different perspectives on change within an organization. Population ecology is an approach that deals with the survival of the fittest attitude. Resource dependence is an approach that is used in the organization's structural change process. The life cycle approach states that organizations change as they go through the different life stages. Institutional theory helps organizations increase their legitimacy and boost their flow of resources necessary for their operation because they change to based on the environment they are in. Evolutionary change and revolutionary change are also involved in organizational change. Evolutionary change involves incremental adjustments of the organization's strategy, structure, or processes while remaining in the same design. Revolutionary change takes place when a major upheaval or crisis happens in an organization that needs a sharp shift in strategy, power, structures, and controls.
In any organization there is likely to be someone or some group that is resistant to change. They do not like change and do not see it as a positive for the organization. Self-interest and lack of trust and understanding about the implications of change are two of the types of resistance that pertain to the individuals within an organization. Differing assessments of change consequences and the cost of change are more likely to concern the organization or subgroups resistance rather than on the individual level.
The thing to remember about organizational change is that being pressured to change can come from a number of different sources both internally and externally. The organization that can best adapt and change with the environment that they are in will be successful.
Every organization has some type of conflict within it or surrounding it. The thing about conflict is that it is harmful; most people describe conflict as such. However, it can actually be utilized to be a positive for an organization. Functional conflict serves the organization's interests. Dysfunctional conflict threatens the organization's interests.
There is a five stage model of conflict that determines the levels of conflict within an organization. The first stage is latent conflict. The first condition is competition for scarce resources. An example of this could be when two departments within the same organization have differing opinions on who should have the most resources within the organization. The next condition is the drive for autonomy. For example the marketing department within an organization may have a dispute with the corporate office on the ways they want to present products to the stakeholders. The third condition is the divergence of subunit goals. Each subunit within an organization is not likely to have the same goals as another subunit within the organization. This could cause conflict but if managed right, the conflict could work as a motivator to make the organization more effective. The second stage is perceived conflict. In this stage, one or more of the individuals or parties engaged becomes aware that there is potential for conflict. The third stage is felt conflict. Emotions are encountered between the two participants in this stage. The fourth stage is manifest conflict. In this stage oppositional behavior takes place, which can range from avoidance to physical violence. The fifth and final stage is conflict aftermath. The conflict is either resolved or is basis for future conflicts in this stage.
There are several sources of conflict in a sport organization. Differentiation happens when subunits have different goals, management philosophies, and time orientations. Interdependence is another source of conflict and it creates an opportunity to interfere and block associated with conflict. Low formalization forces subunits to rely on political tactics and coercion to operate. As stated previously, competition over resources is another source of conflict. Differences in reward systems are another source of conflict. Each manager within the subunit tries to accomplish the goal of the organization and sometimes may have to abandon their goals within the subunit. This may award them more resources than another subunit causing conflict. Power incongruence, communication problems, participative decision-making, and role conflict are all sources of conflict that may occur.
For an organization to be effective it needs to recognize conflict and stop it from being a problem. A good manager will be able to recognize and diffuse the situation. If an organization can use functional conflict and not dysfunctional conflict it will be on the right path of being effective.
Power and politics are heavily involved in the effectiveness of sport organizations. There are five organization-based sources of power relating to subunits within an organization mentioned in the book. They are acquisition and control of resources, the ability to cope with uncertainty, centrality, nonsubstitutability, and control over the decision-making process.
The first way a subunit within a sport organization can obtain power is through its ability to acquire resources and the control of resources. The organization that can acquire and control the most acquisitions will be seen as most powerful. The opposite is true about an organization that does not acquire or control many resources. When an organization can acquire large amounts of money they will be perceived as very powerful.
Another is the ability to cope with uncertainty because of the constantly changing task environment. There are three methods that can help organizations cope with uncertainty. Acquire information about future trends to stay ahead of other organizations in the same market. Absorption is another method that helps an organization cope with uncertainty. By using absorption, an organization can take action after an event has occurred. You can also cope with uncertainty by preventing its occurrence. The organization can use certain measures to meet the demands of stakeholders before it becomes an issue of uncertainty.
The third source of power is the relationship of the subunit's position in the work or flow of a sport organization, also called centrality. Subunits that are more centralized to the work or information flow will be most powerful within the organization. The subunits that are less centralized will be the least powerful within the organization.
The fourth source of power is being irreplaceable otherwise known as nonsubstitutability. Being irreplaceable is not only an important means of gaining power for subunits, but it is also important for the individuals. Individuals with power will utilize strategies to maintain their status to make their subunit more powerful within the organization.
The fifth and last source of power is control over the decision-making process. Power is gained by having input in the decision process and through the control of the process itself. The individual or subunit that is highly involved in the decision-making process will be one of the most powerful in the organization.
Political power also plays a key role in organizational power. Building coalitions is a way for members of the organization to spend time communicating with each other about their views, establishing trust relationships, and gaining mutual respect. The use of outside experts is a way to legitimize or support one's decision. Networks can be either formal or informal. The importance of networking is to better learn about the sponsors, peers, and subordinates in the organization. Lastly, by controlling information individuals can influence the outcomes of the decision-making process.
Obviously many decisions are made to make the organization effective. The subunits that make the most money or have the most resources will be the first ones to be recognized as powerful within the organization. The more powerful individuals in the organization usually influence the direction that the organization takes whether it is through politics or other power sources.