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1. The company was presented with an accusation that their product was making people sick. After two years of research some employees stood firm that the product was safe. The company's options were to keep the potentially dangerous product on the shelves, which could turn into a law suit, or to accept the costs and do a recall. In meeting of the top managers there were huge disagreements on who should have the most power in the decision-making process and there was little organized discussion and not all the voices were being heard. There was a lack of centralized leadership that was able to weigh all the voices and make an ultimate decision. The committee members were not unified on what should actually be done. Employees in positions of power did not ask the right questions to make a well-informed decision. 2. The decision to recall ChargeUp was made under conditions of risk and uncertainty. The company knew the consequences of recalling or leaving the product on the shelves. This decision was a nonprogrammed decision that should be made by top managers. The company is located in Minnesota and the cultural norms, like "Minnesota Nice" play into the decision-making process. The situation was brought to a local radio station and the company began to panic that the information would go public ruining the company's reputation. 3. There are too many people giving their input and many took the accusations personally which limits objective, productive discussions on what is the best action for the company to take. The company needs to name a person or a small group of people that are able to take charge in times of crisis in order to manage discussions better and make the ultimate decision. This leaderships role should be able to question or conduct research of cases surrounding their dilemma. We would recommend the Carneige model because there was a high level of risk and cost involved. There is a single decision to be made with a lot of variables significantly impacting the decision-making process and almost the outcomes.
In the MLB, in regards to the anti-doping culture, they have developed a weak culture in their policies for drug use among the professional players. The first policies were implemented approximately 4 years ago, however the penalties are loose so far, because the MLB doesn't want to lose their top players, whom are the usual players using performance enhancing drugs. There are split attitude about performance enhancing drugs because to the public they want to be a self-righteous organization, but the underlying feelings are that they really do not want to lose their most valued players due to the policies, therefore the policies are made somewhat weak. For instance, under the ban for life after the third offense, players are given the chance to be reinstated after two years. The 2005 drug policy has served as an instrument of cultural change, because before this policy there was a policy that was not enforced to the extent it should have been. The new policy has helped bring awareness of performance enhancing drugs and enforce a stricter policy towards the illegal drugs. The organizational environment was shaped because there was so much pressure from the fans to have a stricter enforcement of a drug policy against the use of performance enhancing drugs with the players, and before the enforcement in 2005 it was more of a culture within the organization that everyone turned their heads to the fact that illegal drugs were being used. For the human element of cultural change, the players, coaches and administrators don't want any of the game,championships, and team to be tarnished by someone using performance enhancing drugs. There are subgroups of coaches and players that 1. uses the performance enhancing drugs, and does not worry about the rules 2. players that do not use, but also do not care that others are 3. there are people that want to enforce the rules to a higher standard to stick to the integrity of the game. The administrators roles are to try and keep the integrity of the teams, by what they believe the teams value, while also keeping in mind the values of their fans. Organizational activities that need to be changed are to not accept statistics of players that were using the illegal drugs, to not recognize them as record setting athletes, put a symbol by their records indicating that they have been a player that violated the performance enhancing drug policy of the MLB. Make sure that the society knows that the MLB is committed to enforcement of the drug use policy in the league. The players and coaches need to be committed to be on the same side as the MLB and be supportive of the anti-doping policy. For symbols, put asterisks or some type of symbol next to the players that have violated the policy. Stories, we should focus more on the players that are not using and breaking the same records, or scoring home runs, as the players that are using. To enforce a ritual, make sure that there is testing of every athlete twice a season to strictly enforce the policy. Also, to make it randomized that the players do not know the days they will be tested. It is more to not reward the players that are setting records, and being instated into the Hall of Fame. It is expected that players respect the integrity of the game by not using drugs. This plan will sustain the new culture, because people will be more aware what is going on. It will not be behind closed doors, the public will know after the testing happened. The testing will be more thorough, because in the past it was a randomized testing of a small number of players from each team.
Is Nike a learning organization? Nike has probably learned, more than anything, better ways of PR and ways to create a facade of social responsibility versus actually creating a better work environment. The stage of learning that Nike is at is somewhere between Managerial and Strategic. The company has created policies that have appeased the global community and now they are developing cost-saving strategies that still follow their now socially responsible policies. To address its critics Nike has worked to improve conditions in global supply chains improving safety standards and created child labor laws. Nike agreed to an external audit to ensure that the new policies were being enforced. A department was created within the company based around social and corporate responsibility. This department also oversees its supply chains partners' compliance with new labor laws. Then in July of 2000, Phil Knight attended the launch of Global Impact, UN based conference aimed at corporate responsibility for fair labor laws. Knight was the only US CEO to attend the conference. The objective of this conference is to get every company to report, publicly, on their labor practices. However, what evidence do we currently have that these changes in policy have made an real impact on the company's laborers? The only evidence we have now is that these strategies have succeeded in creating a new, re polished image for the company. The question should not be are these strategies effective, because effective must be defined and depending on who defines effective the answer may change, the question should be are these policies and strategies producing results for the marginalized labor force?

Strategic Change Case

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POWER 1. Establish a knowledgeable leader for the organization 2. Distribute power and input to volunteers that can be overseen by the paid staff with the ultimate power. CONFLICT OF INTERESTS 1. Organize a board to combine interests and strive towards the same goal and have a leader who can step in to promote compromise 2. Develop a code of ethics to define the point where conflicts should be avoided, and what should happen if there were conflicts. CAPACITY 1. Make sure that the changes that are needed/ or wanting to be done are realistic for the people working for the company at all levels 2. The capacity for change is strongly weighted on the leaders or the ones with the most power to make sure that the changes necessary are accomplished. The leaders and managers need to be successful at monitoring the change by making efforts to accomplish the successful and significant change.

NESCAC Case Study

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1.What are the common goals of the NESCAC -Academic Success -Student Personal Growth -Competing players are to be representatives of the student body. -Academic authority to control intercollegiate academic policy -Largest # of participants in a wide variety of sports coached by quality people. 2.How is the presidents compromised decision in line with the common goals. -They decided to only allow the conference champion to pursue post season play in one venue deemed appropriate normally. This allowed less strain on the academic scheduled there was more room for academic success. -If the team goes to the championship, they are more than likely to bring in the bigger recruits. -When students have a better academic success it gives the institution a better image. 3.Major Stakeholders -Alumni, Main Stream Media, Faculty, Athletic Staff, Conference Officials, Trustees, Athletic Director 4. -Athletes have potential to go to postseason play. -The school could bring in better sport programs and resources to help out. 5. - For coaches and players it would limit there success on a national level. -From the NESCAC cutting the teams down that make it to conference play. The main stream media is missing out on all those other games that they could of been a part of and interviewed people. 6. - With the presidents decision it is more of a centralized decision. So you would decentralize the organization so there would be more power to the other stake holders to make decisions throughout the organization. It would thus spread the power out instead of just having one person make all the decisions like what is happening now. We believe the divisionalized one would work the best in this case because it brings the power more to a middle line instead of a high power. 7. Yes there should be a playoff system so you could keep the players involved and if you did not have a playoff system the league would be pointless and there would be no end goal. Like we talked about in earlier chapters goals are a very important part to a successful system. This way it does not take away to much from the school and its academic accomplishments and academics could still be the main focus of the organization with a successful sports system. It allows the players that want to get recognized the chance to and also the chance to strive for something. If your team wins its only going to help you out in the long run! It also takes away from the universities ultimate goal from strictly sticking wit academics and not athletics. 8. As we indicated in #6 the best structure to deal with conference playoff structure and future policy issues would be the divisionalized form which is the middle line part of the organization.
1. Sponsors, General Athletic staff excluding players and coaches, University President, People that set out and define the university's overall standards 2/3. External Profile: player integrity, team success, leadership, all around sportsmanship (team, coaches, fans) Resource Management: efficient use of resources ($, sponsorships), performance (leads to more resources) Performance on the field: professionalism, sportsmanship, leadership (players, coaches) Ethics: respecting the ICA mission statement Education: graduation rates, team GPA, academic goals Institutional enthusiasm: proud to wear university colors and symbol, unify university to one cause (the game) 4.Set a high standard to winning while respecting all other values because the success of the team helps build and external profile for the university. Winning increases resources in the way that sponsors and donors give increase money, more people want to come to games of winning teams. With institutional enthusiasm if makes people want to be par of the tradition, connected to the university and attend games. 5. As far as the values we connected to the 6 determinants, we believe that all the values are intertwined into their mission statement and objectives. Expectations to add would be something slong the lines of leadership from the program to reach out to the community. 6. 1.) winning to increase donations to the university 2.) increase tickets sales 3.) seek out boosters 4.) produce more available scholarships through meeting academic standards 7. Goal attainment approach because MSU has many goals they hope to achieve. This approach identifies and evaluates how well the program is reaching and maintaining these goals.
We chose to look at the Twins organization. Contextual features: The Twins are a medium size organization within a much larger organization of MLB, they are by no means as large as the Yankees but not as small as Pirates. The technology they employ we thought is outdated, such as the MetroDome, however, with advancing with the new stadium. We also thought the training techniques allow them to remain competitive in the league. The Twins remain an affordable commodity even with the economy being down, they keep a strong fain base within the MN and surrounding states like Iowa, South Dakota, and North Dakota. We thought some of the main goals of the organization would be to stay competitive within the league, hold a strong fan base, all while making a profit. A strategy they use to accomplish this is to keep "high talent" and popular athletes such as Joe Mauer and Justin Morneau. Within the Twins organization we thought that there would be a strong sense of value in the sport and confidence in their athletes, coaches, and owner. The Twins culture in MN is strong so many of the employees feel as if they are all a team working together to keep the organization going. Structural Features: The Twins are a highly formalized organization, which uses written policies and procedures which ensure each employee knows his/her job and to help develop the most efficient way to carry it out. Contracts are also used considering the athletes and managers and rigidly adhered to. The Twins are also highly specialized as each person has an assigned task and there are subdivisions within each department to complete each task. Along with that there is a defined hierarchy within the organization starting from the owner down to the sub-contracted maintenance and janitorial staff on game-day. Therefore, the organization is also very centralized, meaning the decisions come down from the top. For example, with the trade of Johan Santana, the owner made the decision that his contract was too expensive for the organization and then the details were worked out from there to discuss trade agreements. The Twins employ highly educated people to handle the marketing, administration, HR, and other departments to make it as efficient and effective as possible. The Twins employ hundreds of people and as in many organizations the number of staff at the bottom of the hierarchy will outnumber those at the top. While both categories help shape and define and organization's mission, purpose and procedures but we think the contextual features affect the structural features more significantly. The environment and culture make the shape that the organization must adapt to and from there the formalization process and hierarchy are defined.