Recently in Yuri Nagai Category

I thought today's presentations went really well. All of the presenters had the key points on the PowerPoint and expanded into detail and not reading directly off the slides. I felt that the presentations got better and better as the day went and today was a good way to end it. They were all cleared about the information and well researched. It was interesting to hear the two guys presented on the Twins since they researched the same organization and it was presented back to back. But they both presented different information and there were less over lapping which was really good. In general, from all the presentations, it was interesting to hear all the different kind of organizations people presenting from professional sports teams, sports clubs, and private organizations and others. I was able to learn many different kind of structure of the organizations across the nation for sports.

I thought today's presentations went really well even though we were crushed in time for the last presentation. All the presenters had good information and presented very clearly. Also every presenter did a good job on expanded more on the information for each slide and not just reading off the PowerPoint which made the presentation much better. I really liked the presentation on the Pittsburgh Pirates, it had a really good flow and it was well presented. Also it was nice to see an organization which is not currently effective since there will be a different perspective on talking about the areas in conflict and change compare to an effective organization.  

I think all the presentations went really good today. They did a good job on the length of time for the presentation and the PowerPoints were creative and clear. They all had good understandings of the organization about if they are effective or not and presented clearly for us to understand the structure of the organization. Most of the presenters had a good introduction why they had chosen the organization; some had an experience with the organization, or wanting to become part of the organization in the future. From today's presentations it was interesting since it was a wide range of organization from professional teams, local teams, national governing body, youth programs, and corporate fitness chain. For all organization it is important to keep the positive image to the community to keep the organization effective.

I thought most of the presentations today went pretty well. There was couple presenters went a little over time but had great information. Some of the powerpoint had a lot of text in the slides and reading right off the slides. However, they all have presented good information about their organization and very interesting. I think Alexa gave some great recommendations to the organization.  Being part of the gymnastics team at the university, I agree about what she has stated about getting another coach to the program to support the team and promoting more about our gymnastics program to the university by hosting clinics for students. So we could increase attendance at our competitions. About Emily's recommendation for the Under Armour, I agree about what you have stated in your presentation, it will be nice to have more women's apparels not only men's apparels in store. I think to increase that, they could learn from its competitors like Nike and Adidas since they have been increasing their sells on women's apparels too.

Throughout this course I was able to learn what an effective organization is and how organizations are formatted. I have learned new concepts, theories, and ideas that could change the organization's effectiveness. Also I was able to have more interest in how sports organizations are structured to be efficient.
 Starting of the semester organizational effectiveness was the matter of how the team performs in the field. However, there was more to call if an organization is effective or not. To have an effective organization it need to have great communication, great leadership, and a strong understanding of the organization's goals and many other concepts we learned in class. Having a great communication among the organization it will have a less chance create conflict between subunits and within the organization. Also to be an effective organization it is importance to have strong leader who is able to take risks for the organization. Lastly, the organization will need to have clear stated organization goals so the employees are able to strive and work towards the goals. I believe that the best way to measure organizational effectiveness is by looking at their goals and how the organization faces change and conflict. The organization should be working toward the same goals to say it is an effective organization. Also the goal has to be measurable, because we will not be able to see the progress of the direction where the organization is trying to accomplish. The other way to measure organizational effectiveness is by how the organization faces change and conflict. In a sports organization it is constantly changing by the internal and external environment. It could be effective if they are able to accept change and face conflicts in the organization to become more efficient and be successful. By the organization ignores the conflict among the organization they will not be able to move forward to make changes and try out new ideas and make necessary changes to the organization.
Overall, from this course I have realized the importance of all aspects of effectiveness in the organization and what works and what doesn't. From learning all about the effectiveness, organizational structure, strategies, power, conflict, organizational change and conflict, and decision making now it is my time to start using these concepts and theories into my leadership style so I can be successful for myself and for my future.  

Organizational Decision Making

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In life we all make decisions. In an organization decision making is important to the overall effectiveness. Peter Drucker suggested in his book The Effective Executive management guru stated, "a decision is a judgment...a choice between alternatives." All managers use their judgment to see if the decision will be effective to the organization or not and they all find alternatives. In this chapter Simon suggests that the decisions a manager makes can be categorized into two types: programmed and nonprogrammed. Programmed decisions are made on the basis of clearly defined policies and procedures and a manager's past experience. This type of decision making is well structured, have adequate information available, and present clear alternatives. From all of these characteristics the decisions are generally made by the lower-level managers and operators. In comparison, nonprogrammed decisions there are no established guidelines or procedures to direct the way this type of decision should be handled. Also there are no clear alternatives to select from.  From all the characteristics of nonprogrammed decision making they are more likely to be handled by senior managers or highly trained professional staffs. Most managers will prefer programmed decisions because from all the characteristics I have stated and they are more predictable. In a sports organization the environment and the structure of the organization can change constantly, so the sport managers will have to face the consequences of any decisions they make. There are three conditions of how the decisions are made and to the outcome of a decision alternative is predictable. The three conditions are: certainty, risk, and uncertainty. Certainty is when the manager knows exactly what the available alternatives are, and the cost and benefits of each alternatives. The manager is 100 percent certainty for the outcome for each alternative. The other condition is risk. Under a condition of risk a decision makers has a basic understanding of the available alternatives, but the potential cost and benefits associated with each are uncertain. The third condition is uncertainty. Under conditions of uncertainty the decision alternatives and their potential outcome are both relatively unknown and there are no historical data or past experience on which to base of decision. By understanding the decision process and hence the factors that influence decision making, sport managers can make better decisions and become a better managers.  


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Chapter 14 talks about the organizational culture and how important a culture can play a role in a sport organization. From Slack and Parent it shows four different perspectives for the definition of organizational culture. First, Pettigrew describes it as "amalgam of beliefs, ideology, language, ritual, and myth" (275). Second, Schein describes it as "a pattern of basic assumptions that has worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems" (275). Third, Sathe sees it as "the set of the important understandings that members of a community share in common" (275). At last Wilkins it is "the taken-for-granted and shared meanings that people assign to their social surroundings" (275). All of these are important concepts about organizational culture among managers and organizations. To have an effective team, the organization will need to provide stability to an organization and convey to new members the understanding that enables them to make sense of organizational activities.
By understanding the principle manifestation of an organizational culture: stories, myths, symbols, and rituals, it will help and lead the organization to come together and understand the real meaning of the culture of values, beliefs, and norms. Stores and myths are often about the origins and transformations of a company that is not supported by the facts. It could help transmit messages about organizational goals and the way employees should act and it can reduce uncertainty for employees. Symbols are used to convey meaning about a sport organization to its members and to the public at large. Slogans are part of a symbol in organization. For example USA Gymnastics slogan is "Begin Here. Go Anywhere". Slogan has taken on particular significance for the company. Each sport organization develops its own specialize language to communicate to each other. Through language, members acquire the structural ways of the group, and along with the language the value implications of those way. Being on a gymnastics team at the university we have our own cultural language we use in the gym. We are able to communicate to each other with the language we use because we understand our roles and cultures that are shared in the team. At last most sport organizations will have ceremonies in the company by having a team awards night, pregame meals, and an annual Christmas party. Form having these events it will show what the values are in the organization and they are symbolic representations of the type of beliefs and activities important in the organization.
In a sport organization it is very important to understand how much you understand about the culture of the organization because that could help each other to be successful and be effective.

Organizational Change

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Chapter 12 concentrates on the changes the sport organization develops and implements to retain a competitive advantage in its market it targets. Slacks and Parent show four different areas of sport organization to make changes: technology, products and services, structures and system, and people. First, "technological change refers to the changes that occurs in an organization's production process, the skills and methods it uses to deliver its services, or knowledge base" (239). Second, products and services of a sport organization may involve the addition, deletion, or modification of other areas. For example if one sport becomes popular, the sporting goods stores will increase its sells. Third, the structural and systemic changes "involves modification to areas of a sport organization such as its division of labor, its authority structure, or its control system" (240). The Skirstad article "Gender Policy and Organizational Change: A Contextual Approach" will be a good example for the structural change. The article examines gender equality in sport organizations, and they focused on the relevant statues of the organization and how these have influenced gender representatives in Norwegian sports. In this article they showed Pettigrew's eight factors of how to facilitate change: quality and coherence of policy, availability of key people leading change, long-term environment pressure, supportive organizational culture, effective managerial-clinical relations, co-operative  inter organizational networks, simplicity and clarity of goals and priorities and fit between the district's change agenda and its locale (Skirstad 3). These eight factors are important lessons on how the sport managers will facilitate change.  In this study the contextual approach is used to examine how gender statutes were passed in the general Assembly of Sports in Norway. The changes occurred in the organization process refers to the actions, reactions, interactions of various stakeholders and their negotiations around the proposals of change. However, the gender equality has not yet been won by the sport federation. The forth different area of sport organization to make changes is people. This involves to the way people think and act and the way they relate to each other. This can be implemented by having sensitivity training, team building exercises, and group planning. These four areas of sport organization to make change in technology, products and services, structures and system, and people are all interrelated. So a change in one area in the organization could change one or more in the organization.


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In every organization there will be conflict especially differentiated and interdependent natures of the organization were identified as precipitating conflict between organizational sub-units. The organization could have a communication problem within sub-units, the authority of hierarchy of making decisions, and specialization results in different expectations as to what constitutes as appropriate reward structure. The differentiation arises from an attempt to increase organizational efficiency through development of specialized sub-units. This will allow individual sub-units to develop a certain degree of autonomy: structure, goal orientation, time orientation, and managerial style. If each sub-unit within the organization had its own autonomy, it will be difficult to collaborate because each manager from different sub-units approaches the problem with different frame of reference. However differentiation is an important influence to conflict, if there is no interactions between sub-units there will be any conflict in the organization. Unless the sub-units have some form of task interdependence. From the Amis's article, Thompson identified three types of interdependence in which organization sub-units can engage, pooled, sequential, or reciprocal. Pooled independence occurs where the organization collaborates as a whole. Amis's article has an example of "the separate even groups in a multi-sports organization such as a national athletics association rely little upon each other in order to function, and yet all contribute to, and are supported by, the organization as a whole" (3).  The second independence Thompson identified is sequential; this type is used in assembly line production since the output of the one sub-unit for s the input for the next production sequence. "With each sub-unit being heavily reliant on the one previous to it, there is potential for conflict if one party has the perception of being hindered by other" (3).  The last type is reciprocal interdependence; this exists when the output of one sub-unit forms the input of another and vice versa. This is the most interacted between sub-units and is hence inherently conflictual. Reciprocal interdependence is often found in Voluntary Sport Organization's with professionals, volunteers, coaches, athletes, and officials all depending upon each other for successful programs, events, and performances. "With the pressures for efficiency and specialization which have been placed on these organizations, differentiation and interdependence of organizational sub-units becomes inevitable and necessary" (14). This will increase the influence of conflict between sub-units and they must be addressed within the organization to be efficient.

Power is the ability to act. There are many ways the organization includes the power within the individual and within the organization.  Slack and Parents shows five sources of individual power: legitimate, reward, coercive, referent, and expert. Some of these powers may overlap to make the organization effective. The first type of power is legitimate, is the same as authority. Authority is the power that is formally sanctioned by an organization, the power that accrues to a person because of his or her role within the organization. Authority is only legitimate within the sport organization that grants the authority. The second type of power is reward; this power comes form the ones person's control of another person's reward. The larger the reward is the better the organization gets. Being part of the gymnastics team at the university the coaches gives us reward from doing a great job at a competition. From receiving this reward it makes us want to do better. The third type of power is coercive; this is the opposite of the reward power. It is the power derived from the ability that one person has to punish another. In some occasions it is beneficial to have reward power but in an organization the members of the organization cannot be always rewarded. But the fear of the punishment can be a strong motivation to make things effective. The forth type of power is referent; this is based on individual's charisma and another person's identification with this quality. This can happen when one of the members of the organization has a strong values advocated by the leader. The last type of power is expert; this is from expertise in a certain field in the organization. To have this power you will not have to be high up in the organization of hierarchy. The only way to show is to be the expert through the information you have to the organization to make it effective. Organizational politics is about how effective the organization can use to the bases of power of one's resources, information, and technical skills. The organization acquires political power by building coalitions, using outside experts, building a network of contacts, and controlling information. By having a more network the organization will be able to gain high qualities to the organization from the extended relationship, a higher chance of success, maintain and achieve the organization's goals.