Precursor nanoparticles that form spontaneously on hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate in aqueous solutions of tetrapropylammonium (TPA) hydroxide evolve to TPA-silicalite-1, a molecular-sieve crystal that serves as a model for the self-assembly of porous inorganic materials in the presence of organic structure-directing agents. The structure and role of these nanoparticles are of practical significance for the fabrication of hierarchically ordered porous materials and molecular-sieve films, but still remain elusive. Here we show experimental findings of nanoparticle and crystal evolution during room-temperature ageing of the aqueous suspensions that suggest growth by aggregation of nanoparticles. A kinetic mechanism suggests that the precursor nanoparticle population is distributed, and that the 5-nm building units contributing most to aggregation only exist as an intermediate small fraction. The proposed oriented-aggregation mechanism should lead to strategies for isolating or enhancing the concentration of crystal-like nanoparticles.
- Davis, T.M., Drews, T.O., Ramanan, H., He, C., Dong, J., Schnablegger, H., Katsoulakis, M.A., Kokkoli, E., McCormick, A.V., Penn, R.L., and Tsapatsis, M. "Mechanistic Principles of Nanoparticle Evolution to Zeolite Crystals", Nature Materials, 2006, 5 (5): 400-408.
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