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The Omnivore's Dilemma

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Grass Fed

Chapter 10 "Grass: Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Pasture" is one of my favorites. In part, that's because it refers to one of my favorite poems, "Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird" by Wallace Stevens. (http://writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/88v/stevens-13ways.html) Even more important, the practice of rotational grazing has a strong appeal for me. Last fall, Kate and I took our freshman seminar class on The Omnivore's Dilemma to Cedar Summit Farm. I hope you know their milk. It's non-homogenized and is sold in glass bottles ... and it tastes great. Dave and Florence Minar practice rotational grazing on Cedar Summit Farm. We had a chance to spend a half hour out in a pasture with their cows. It was a transcendent experience.

One of the interesting things about rotational grazing is that it lets the cows do the work. In that sense, it moves livestock production back closer to nature. That works for the cows and it works for Dave and Florence. On the other had, rotational grazing is a remarkably intensive management practice that requires diligent record keeping, close attention to the condition of the pasture and the cows, and lots of experience and knowledge. In Chapter 10 we also learn about Joel Salatin's notion of "... layering one farm enterprise over another on the same base of land." (p. 215) So while rotational grazing mimics relationships found in nature, it does that in a complex and very consciously human way.

We had buffalo steaks for dinner one night back in early July. They came from Wild Idea Buffalo, a South Dakota Company owned and operated by Dan O'Brien. He's the author of Buffalo for the Broken Heart: Restoring Life to a Black Hill Ranch, and his Broken Heart Ranch happens to share a fence with the ranch that raised the steer, whose life Michael Pollan traces in Chapter 4. (See mention of O'Brien and his book in the "Sources" section for Chapter 4 on p. 422. The book is terrific ... and so is the buffalo meat.) Buffalo ranching is a big step closer to nature than rotational grazing with cattle. O'Brien was here in Minnesota earlier this month for a buffalo release in Afton. His account of that visit makes good reading. You can find it at http://www.wildideabuffalo.com/newsletter-archives-07-08.html.

One of the most stunning concepts from the Omnivore's Dilemma to me was the typical distance that the average food item travels to reach us in this country —1500 miles! (see the beginning of Chapter 13, The Market). That got my attention, in these days of accounting for our use of fossil fuels and our carbon footprint. Pollan states, "Today it takes between seven and ten calories of fossil fuel energy to deliver one calorie of food energy to an American plate (chapter 12, p. 183)." Previously, I had not really discerned the difference between Whole Foods â€" style organic foods and those that can be obtained from local producers. But Pollan's focus on the cost in fuel of food transportation made me rethink. The section of the book surrounding the third meal (Chapters 10 through 14) turned me into something of a locavore. This was consistent with my previous behavior of selecting local because of flavor, freshness, a desire for seasonal foods, and to support local producers. But now it has become more of a passion.

In his post on July 7th, Rob posed some questions about the Whole Foods, or industrial organic approach, which generated some more discussion. I am curious what readers think about the future of stores such as this. Do they play an important role? Or do we now have so many opportunities to buy local that they are not so relevant? In addition to farmer's markets and farm subscription programs (also called Community Supported Agriculture, or CSA), I have noticed that local grocery stores from Target to Lund's & Byerly's are offering more local alternatives. On your next visit to your local store, see what you find.

I also invite you to call on your inner naturalist to survey the natural history of your diet. Try making a list of all the different animals, vegetables and microbes you eat in a given week. How diverse is your diet? Although you may be unaware of the origin of your foods, inventory which of them could not have been produced locally. What would you most miss if you could eat only local foods? Please share some reflections on your inventory.

For those of you interested in reading more on local foods, here are two additional books I recommend for entertaining reading:

Animal, Vegetable, Miracle: A Year of Food Life, by Barbara Kingsolver
Plenty: One Man, One Woman, and a Raucous Year of Eating Locally, by Alisa Smith and J. B. Mackinnon

If you want identify more specific opportunities to eat locally, here are some suggested websites:

Local Harvest (http://www.localharvest.org/) directs you to local producers, restaurants, stores, and CSA providers with Google and Mapquest-like tools.
The non-profit organization The Minnesota Project has compiled (http://www.mnproject.org/food-intro.html) many links and resources
The Minnesota Department of Agriculture is also a great resource on Minnesota foods, including a directory by county (http://www.mda.state.mn.us/food/default.htm).

In his introduction to The Ominvore's Dilemma, Pollan sets up some themes that he revisits throughout the book. The one that speaks to me most is his concept of eating as our most prevalent link, our portal, our most "profound engagement" to the natural world. In any food chain, energy from sunlight is harvested by plants and converted to the building blocks of food, which are then utilized by herbivores, and may then be captured by carnivores. On p. 9, he says, "At either end of any food chain you find a biological system — a patch of soil, a human body — and the health of one is connected — literally — to the health of the other." Comparisons of food chains, long and short, industrial and otherwise, is the basis of the book.

To me, the closer food is to its original state, the easier this link is to see. When raspberries are freshly picked by the gardener or forager, their warm sweetness reminds one of the sun that powered the synthesis of the sugar. Those who routinely harvest their own food, or are few steps removed from the producer, think consciously about that link. We know that the time of day of the harvest affects the flavor, and that the food is sweetest after a sunny day, before it has had time to burn up the sugar for its own growth, or convert the sugar to starch. We know that vegetables brought from the fields are still alive, and through their metabolism convert flavor components from one thing to another post-harvest. My mother heeded the adage that for the best sweet corn, one should start the water boiling before picking the corn. I remember that in early summer when she was planning dinner, Mother would sometimes call up an asparagus producer outside our small town to say she was on her way, so please cut some fresh spears for her.

On page 10, Pollan also says that "Daily, our eating turns nature into culture, transforming the body of the world into our bodies and minds." An interesting question for discussion would be how do we as individuals see this connection, via food, between nature and culture? Is it from favorite ingredients in their elemental state? Is it from the way foods are combined? To you, how important is seasonal eating in underscoring this connection? Or does a favorite dish conjure up cultural associations, perhaps of family or ethnic history, whenever it is served? I'd like to hear from you about what foods have cultural connections for you, and why. And do these foods forge a link for you to nature?

Modern-Day Peddlers

Thanks to Tracey Deutsch for posting an interesting response to the questions I posed in my "Big Organic" posting. In her comment, Tracey observes that peddlers played an important role in the early 20th century food system. She goes on to say that they bought food in larger wholesale markets and then transported it to neighborhoods, were they sold it to individuals in small quantities. Tracey concludes by observing that a resurgence of peddling — with some 21st century twists — would encourage some positive changes.

I've been thinking about this ever since I saw her comment. One observation I had is that the produce stands we see popping up along thoroughfares that lead to suburban neighborhoods are a modern form of peddling. They give us convenient access to farm-fresh produce, though the variety they offer is not as great as that offered by the early 20th century peddlers. A second observation is that the "business model" of modern-day peddlers is shaped by the automobile. The automobile has had profound effects on our society and our landscape. It played a key role in the emergence of the supermarket ... and it has shaped urban and suburban settlement patterns and land use. With the current energy crisis, we are paying the price of our dependence on the automobile. It will be interesting to see if we begin to break that dependence in the decades to come. If we do, it will have significant impacts on our communities and our food system.

Finally, as an economist, Tracey's comments on peddling made me wonder whether a person could make a decent living as a 21st century peddler. I won't bore you with my back-of-the-envelope calculations, but I think it would be difficult for a person to be able to earn a living wage from peddling after netting our the costs of wholesale food purchases, fuel, vehicle ownership, food handler licenses, etc. ... especially when competition from supermarkets on price, quality, and convenience limits the retail price a peddler can charge. In the end a sustainable food needs to provide a decent living for those who work in it. This is where creative thinking about the "21st century twists" is so important.

Thanks again, Tracey!

Hello everyone,

I'm Andy Gilats with the LearningLife staff, and I'm really enjoying Kate's and Rob's discussion of The Omnivore's Dilemma. In fact, this weekend, I'm planning on paying a visit to my local Whole Foods as a follow-up to Rob's post from Silver Springs.

I wanted to remind you that on July 24, there will be a culminating, Beyond the Book dinner discussion with Rob and Kate at the U of M's beautiful Campus Club. The meal will be organic and local, and I think the discussion will be, too!

The cost is $45. If you're planning to attend, please sign up now or by the end of the day on Monday, July 14. To register online, and for phone, fax, and mail registration information, click:


We hope to see you on the 24th!

Big Organic

Greetings from Silver Spring, MD. My wife and I are here visiting our daughter, her husband, and our new granddaughter. It's great to be a granddad.

I've been re-reading Chapter 9 — "Big Organic" — since we've been shopping at a Whole Foods store this week. My daughter and I talked about Whole Foods as we walked home yesterday with cloth bags of groceries over our shoulders. On the one hand, many of the criticisms Pollan makes of Whole Foods are valid. On the other hand, we had a great shopping experience there ... and we were more than willing to walk by a Safeway on our way to the Whole Foods store.

This chapter of The Omnivore's Dilemma prompted an interesting exchange of letters between John Mackey, CEO of Whole Foods, and Michael Pollan. You'll find Mackey's first letter and links to others at:


Pollan's criticisms have prompted some changes at Whole Foods ... most notably increased efforts to source more foods locally. My daughter and I enjoyed the result when we purchased some great goat cheese from a nearby farm. On the other hand, much is still the same at Whole Foods.

I'd like to pose the following questions for further discussion: Can we deliver a more sustainable food system to everyone without exploiting the efficiencies of the modern supermarket industry as Whole Foods has done? If we answer in the affirmative, how would that food system work? It takes a lot of food to feed everyone in a large metropolitan area like the Twin Cities of the Washington, DC area. I'm convinced we can do better than we're doing now, but figuring out the best way to improve our food system on a regional scale will be a difficult challenge ... and the solutions may surprise us.

I've seen ads for a new Food Network program called something like, "How'd that get to my plate?" That's what Michael Pollan does throughout The Omnivore's Dilemma. I wonder if they got the idea from him? If you are reading at the same pace as Rob, you may have arrived at Chapter 7, where Pollan describes the meal that has come to him, maybe in a Styrofoam box, after tracing its path through the industrial food chain.

As a plant biologist, I was interested in the more historical story, presented in Chapter 1, of corn's domestication from the wild grass teosinte to a crop that would make it's way to modern plates. Teosinte still grows in the wild in Mexico, so modern biologists have been able to compare it to the elite cultivars of modern corn to reconstruct the genetic changes that happened over millennia (1). There were many changes in the grass' development: from a leafy, branched stem to a single stalk, from a file of a few seeds that shatters to an enlarged ear that retains the seeds, and from an undigestible seed to an important source of nutrition. This transformation apparently happened during the Neolithic due simple plant breeding by native Americans. One may wonder how they could have the foresight to establish a breeding program to make the many necessary changes to make corn edible. Amazingly, it turns out that a relatively small number of genes control these and other traits, so that only a few important mutations were needed to transform teosinte into something we would rerecognize. Of course, in modern times, breeders have continued to ‘improve' corn by enhancing productivity and disease resistance, by working towards more efficient use of nutrients, and by introduction of engineered traits such as herbicide tolerance and insect resistance.

For biologists, summer not only brings a chance to eat fresh, local foods. It's also the season of professional meetings. I just returned from a meeting of the Canadian Society of Plant Physiologists, where a biologist from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation talked about the strategies the foundation will take to help end hunger in Africa. The Green Revolution that so improved access to nutrition in Mexico, India and elsewhere in the 20th century pretty much missed Africa, so the Gates Foundation has made a new partnership for an Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (2). Like the old adage that starts, "If you give a man a fish, he will eat today...," their strategy for developing self-sufficiency involves enhancing local food production to move beyond subsistence. In addition to aiding small farmers, mostly women, in new practices, the AGRA efforts will breed new crops that are drought resistant and well adapted to local conditions. They are concentrating on just a few crops: cassava, chickpeas, wheat, and.... corn.

Pollan presents corn as somewhat of a malevolent plant monster that has manipulated humans. It is the bad guy in the story of section I of the book. He is a persuasive writer, but what's your viewpoint? Is the relationship between humans and corn a symbiosis gone awry? Or is corn a versatile resource that can do our bidding, from food to feed to raw material for fuel and renewable materials? Or something else?

(1) A good reference for those who want to get an introduction to the genetics of corn domestication is: Doebley, J.F., Gaut, B.S., and Smith, B.D. (2006) The Molecular Genetics of Crop Domesticaton. Cell 127: 1309 - 1321.

(2) See http://www.gatesfoundation.org/GlobalDevelopment/ for a description of the Gates Foundation's efforts to improve agriculture in Africa, with a link to the Alliange for a Green Revolution in Africa.

I re-read Chapters 4 through 7 of The Omnivore's Dilemma this week. Along with the content of these chapters, I'm struck by Michael Pollan's skill as a writer. The "participant observer" techniques he uses are remarkably effective. If you read his more recent book, In Defense of Food, I'm guessing you'll miss these entertaining first-person accounts.

I have just a couple of questions to share this week.

In the following passage from Chapter 4 (pp. 82-83), Pollan introduces the economic concept of an "externality."

"The $1.60 a day I'm paying for three meals a day here is a bargain only by the narrowest of calculations. It doesn't take into account, for example, the cost to the public health of antibiotic resistance or food poisoning by E. coli O157:H7. It doesn't take into account the cost to taxpayers of the farm subsidies that keep Poky's raw materials cheap. And it certainly doesn't take into account all the many environmental costs incurred by cheap corn."

An externality is a cost imposed upon or a benefit provided for others that is not priced in the marketplace. What effect would "internalizing" the cost of antibiotic resistence have on feedlot operations? Realistically, what kind of policy could be used to internalize this externality?

In the opening paragraphs of Chapter 6, Pollan describes the "national drinking binge" in the early nineteenth century that some have attributed to surplus corn production. He then goes on to say that, "The Alcoholic Republic has long since given way to the Republic of Fat." He attributes the obesity epidemic to our glut of corn. With the rapid rise of biofuel production, which is actually very similar to the process of making whiskey, the price of corn has risen rapidly and concerns have grown about conflicts between land use for food and for fuel. Could this dramatic change reverse the rise of obesity? Whether your response is "yes" or "no" how can we accurately trace the impacts of biofuels production through the complex "food system" we currently have.

Finally, I hope you're enjoying the fresh foods of early summer as much as I am. We've been eating lettuce from our garden almost every night, and we had fresh strawberries from the farmers' market for breakfast this morning. If the warm weather continues as expected, we'll be picking raspberries soon.

"What should we have for dinner?" This is the opening line of The Omnivore's Dilemma, the book we'll be discussing together over the next few weeks. I'm looking forward to reading the book along with you and to being part of an online conversation about the far-reaching implications of our food choices.

This week I read the Introduction and Chapters 1 through 3. The following are some thoughts and questions that are intended to be discussion starters. Please feel free to share your thoughts on any of the issues I raise or on anything else related to the book.

As you read the introduction to the book — titled "Our National Eating Disorder" — think about how quickly the focus of attention changes as we collectively think about food. This book was published in 2006, and most of it was written the year or two before that. Hot topics for discussion today — e.g., food versus fuel, carbon footprints, and food miles — don't even appear in the index. Yet many of the fundamental questions Pollan poses are timeless. What questions are most important for you as we begin this exploration of food choices?

I am fascinated by Pollan's description of the history of corn in Chapter 1. Back in the 1970's, I spent an afternoon on Roswell Garst's farm in Coon Rapids, Iowa. Garst, along with Henry Wallace (who later became Secretary of Agriculture and Vice President under Franklin Roosevelt) were early commercializers of hybrid corn and founded Pioneer Hi-Bred. The fact that farmers can't save hybrid corn seeds for planting the next crop made their business possible. At the end of Chapter 1 Pollan notes that "Hybrid corn now offered its breeders what no other plant at that time could: the biological equivalent of a patent." Why does society grant patents? What benefits do we get from the protection of intellectual property? What costs do we incur?

In Chapter 2, the description of George Naylor's farm is full of irony and conflict. The central conflict is between productivity and cost. For example, Pollan says, "Measured in terms of output per worker, American farmers like Naylor are the most productive humans who have ever lived. Yet George Naylor is all but going broke....(p. 34) " What factors contribute to this seeming contradiction? What surprised you about the description of challenges farmers face? Do you think George Naylor is a "typical" farmer?

In a very short time, we have gone from the "plague of cheap corn" that Pollan describes in Chapter 2 to record high prices for corn, soybeans, wheat, and rice. George Naylor started farming in the early 1970's, at the time of our last great price run-up. How is the current situation like — or different from — that which Pollan describes in the section of Chapter 2 titled "The Sage of Purdue"?

The evolution of the logistical system that Pollan describes in Chapter 3 has been driven by a desire to minimize the cost of moving corn from thousands of farms to a myriad of users. What benefits do we derive from this system? What costs does it impose on us?

I'll close by returning to the basic question of what's for dinner. Last night we had braised grass-fed beef that we bought online from Whole Farm Coop in Long Prairie (www.wholefarmcoop.com), rice that was probably grown in California by farmers who participate in U.S. commodity programs, asparagus that came to our supermarket from Washington state (local asparagus is just showing up in farmers markets), and a salad made from lettuce raised in our garden. Along with this we enjoyed a bottle of wine from the Cahors region in France — a place my wife and I will visit this fall. Our meal had ingredients from each of the three food chains Pollan following in this book: the industrial, the organic, and the hunter-gatherer. For us, that's probably the norm. What did you have for dinner last night?

Welcome to Beyond the Book, the program that connects you with outstanding authors, U of M faculty, and community experts for live and online conversations about nonfiction books that grab our attention and stay with us.

Discussion. Each Beyond the Book program begins with a four-, five-, or six-week online discussion in which the author/expert will post weekly discussion questions, conversation starters, and personal thoughts. You can read the book before or during the discussion period.

Evening Gathering. Shortly after the online discussion ends, you can choose to attend a special live dinner and discussion hosted by the author/expert. Here, you'll go beyond the book's pages with light, healthy fare, great company, and new insights.

For full information, visit LearningLife.

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The Omnivore's Dilemma
by Michael Pollan

Program Leaders: Kate VandenBosch, head of Plant Biology, and Rob King, head of Applied Economics

Our answers to the question, "What should we have for dinner?" can have far-reaching impacts on our health, our environment, and our economy. Renowned journalist Michael Pollan explores the consequences of food system choices in The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals.

Free online discussion with Kate and Rob opens Thursday, June 19, 2008, and continues through July 17, 2008.

Live dinner and discussion at 6 p.m. on Thursday, July 24, 2008. Enjoy a chef-prepared meal of organic and local foods at the U of M's beautiful Campus Club.