The U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science and Technology has released the a report on Scholarly Publishing.
The Roundtable's core recommendation is:
Each federal research funding agency should expeditiously but carefully develop and implement an explicit public access policy that brings about free public access to the results of the research that it funds as soon as possible after those results have been published in a peer‐reviewed journal.
This public access objective can be accomplished in several ways: Some agencies may choose to develop and manage central databases; others may elect to work with university libraries, one or more publishers, or other external partners to establish centralized or distributed databases of journal articles resulting from the research they fund.
Learn more about the NIH mandate for open access to research on the library's Scholarly Communications web site.