Ablative of Accompaniment

  1. Expresses the person that accompanies another noun in the sentence.
  2. Always uses the preposition cum.
  3. The farmer came to the party with a poet.”

 

Ablative of Means

  1. Expresses the thing (instrument) by means of which an action is performed.
  2. Never uses a preposition.
  3. “The farmer is fighting with a sword.”

 

Ablative of Personal Agent

  1. Expresses the person or agent by whom an action is performed.
  2. Occurs with verbs in the passive voice.
  3. Requires A/ab.
  4. “Filius ā regīnā vocābātur.”
  5. “The son was being summoned by the queen.

 

Ablative of Manner

  1. Expresses the way or manner in which an action is performed.
  2. Requires cum when NOT modified by an adjective.

3.       May use cum when modified by an adjective.

4.       “Magnā (cum) diligentiā laborat.”

5.       “She works with great diligence.

 

Ablative of Respect

  1. Limits or specifies the meaning of an adjective or adverb.
  2. No preposition used.
  3. “Magnus consiliō erat poēta.”
  4. “The poet was great in (respect to) judgment.

 

Ablative of Separation

  1. Expresses the idea that some one is apart from someone or something.
  2. Preposition (ā/ab, ē/ex, or ) is used.
  3. “Populum perīculō liberāvit.”
  4. “He freed the people from danger.

 

Ablative of Cause

  1. Expresses the cause or reason for a quality or verbal action.
  2. No preposition is used.
  3. “Incolae irā pugnābant.”
  4. “The inhabitants were fighting from/because of anger.

 

Ablative of Place from Which

  1. Expresses motion from a place.
  2. Preposition (ā/ab, ē/ex, or ) is used.
  3. No preposition is used with names or cities, towns, small islands.
  4. Ab Italiā vela dedimus.”
  5. “We set sail from Italy.

 

Ablative of Place Where

  1. Expresses location.
  2. Preposition (in; sometimes sub, pro) is regularly used.
  3. In oppidō erant multī nautae.”
  4. “There were many sailors in the town.

 

Ablative of Time When

  1. Expresses the point in time when the action of the verb occurs.
  2. No preposition is used.
  3. Is translated with the English preposition “at” or “on.”
  4. Eā nocte Pompeius oppidum cēpit.”
  5. On that night Pompey took the town.”

 

Ablative of Time within Which

  1. Expresses the limited period of time within which the action of the verb occurs.
  2. No preposition is used.
  3. Is translated with the English preposition “within” or “in.”
  4. Paucīs diēbus Vergilius magnum Carmen perficiet.”
  5. With in a few days Vergil will complete a great poem.”

 

Ablative of Origin

  1. Expresses the parentage or ancestry of a person.
  2. The prepositions ē/ex or may be used.
  3. “Aeneas (ē) deā natus est.”
  4. “Aeneas was born from a goddess.

 

Ablative of Description

  1. Used to describe another noun.
  2. Must be modified by an adjective.
  3. No preposition is used.
  4. “Ille milēs cum hoste pugnābit. Est enim magnā virtūte.”
  5. “That soldier will fight against the enemy. For he is of (with) great courage.

 

Ablative Absolute

  1. Employs a circumstantial use of the participle.
  2. Is equivalent to a subordinate clause with a subject different from the subject of the main clause.
  3. Translate first with the formula “with noun participling” for a present participle, or “with noun having been participled” for a perfect passive participle. Then move on to a temporal, causal, or concessive translation.
  4. Rēgī interfectō, Brutus creātus est cōnsul.
  5. After the king had been killed, Brutus was made consul.” (Since the king had been killed, Brutus was made consul.)

 

Ablative of Comparison

  1. Expresses an absolute standard.
  2. No preposition used.
  3. “Patria mihi vitā meā est carior.”
  4. “(My) country is dearer to me than my life.
  5. Equivalent to a comparison with quam: Patria mihi est carior quam vīta mea, “My country is dearer to me than my life.”

 

Ablative of Degree of Difference

  1. Expresses the degree or amount by which things being compared differ.
  2. No preposition used.
  3. Multō altior est filius quam pater.”
  4. “The son is (by) much taller than the father (is.)

 

Ablative of Price

  1. Used with berbs of buying, selling, valuing, and exchanging.
  2. No preposition used.
  3. Is a specialized use of the Ablative of Means.
  4. May be translated with the English preposition “for” or “at”
  5. “Tūne vītam filiī aurō vendidistī?”
  6. “Did you sell the life of (your) son for gold?

 

Dative of Reference

  1. Expresses a person or thing who owns or possesses another noun.
  2. To the sailor the danger of the sea is real.” – with no preposition!

 

Dative of Purpose

  1. Expresses an idea of purpose or service.
  2. May be translated “for the purpose of,” “serve as a,” “a source of.”
  3. “Librum donō mīsit.”
  4. “He sent a book for the purpose of a gift.” (He sent a book as a gift.)

 

Double Dative Construction

  1. A dative of purpose joined with a dative of reference.
  2. Usually appears when the main verb is a form of sum.
  3. “Tu mihi curae es.”
  4. “You are a source of concern to me.

 

Dative of Advantage

  1. Expresses the person for whose advantage the event of a sentence occurs.
  2.  “Poēta carmina puerīs canit.”
  3. “The poet sings songs for (the advantage of) the boys.

 

Dative of Disadvantage

  1. Expresses the person for whose disadvantage the event of a sentence occurs.
  2. “Moram nautīs fecisti.”
  3. “You made a delay for (the disadvantage of) the sailors.

 

Dative with an Instransitive Verb

  1. Is a special use of the dative of reference.
  2. Expresses the person or thing affected by the action of certain instransitive verbs.
  3. “Mea sententia Antoniō placet.”
  4. “My opinion pleases (to) Antony.” (My opintion is pleasing to Antony.)

 

Dative of Agent with the Passive Periphrastic

  1. Expresses the person by whom an action must be performed.
  2. Is used with the passive periphrastic instead of the ablative of personal agent.
  3. “Carmen mihi scribendum est.”
  4. “A poem must be written by me.

 

Dative with a Compound Verb

  1. May appear with certain compound verbs
  2. Is connected in sense with the meaning of the preposition.
  3. “Iste patriae bellum inferet.”
  4. “That man will inflict war on the country.