Vehicle factors include the way a vehicle is portrayed or used in an act of violence. Cars can be used as physical weapons of destruction, such as battering rams or as car bombs. Vehicle factors include use within all "zones of relevance": the mediate, intermediate and immediate zones (Rothe, 2008; Schutz, 1970). The mediate zone is the farthest one would consider the vehicle to be involved in an act of violence. For simplicity, the vehicle is not directly used as the weapon to commit the act, but is used for convenience to transport to and from the location where the violent act is committed. In the intermediate zone, the vehicle is integral to committing the act of violence; however, similarly to the mediate zone, the vehicle is still not used as the physical instrument to commit the violence. In the immediate zone, the perpetrator uses the vehicle directly to commit the criminal act of violence (e.g. homicide, suicide). Without the vehicle, the act would not be committed unless alternative methods or modes are used.