1. In Celluloid Indians, Kilpatrick discusses the American frontier, stating that it "provided a challenge against which Euro-Americans, especially white males, could pit themselves. ... It was the cultural frontier that established the identity of the American West and the settlers and cowboys who pushed that frontier ever westward." In "The Battle at Elderbush Gulch" what type of identity is portrayed in regard to the American West? Additonally, what role did the orphans play in shaping the Indians' identity?
2. Kilpatrick also discusses the level of intelligence of American Indians in film. She states that "Aside from bloodthirstiness, (Bird's) Indians seemed only slightly more intellgent than the rocks they hid behind. One very effective method for transmitting their stupidity to the reader was linguistically through the use of pidgin speech, recognizable now as Tonto-talk." What methods were used in The Battle of Elderbush Gulch to convey the Indians' level of intelligence? Which methods were most effective in their pursuit? Consider the role of music as well as film.