December 2011 Archives

Is seeing really believing???

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The more I learn about the brain the more I realize how uneasy our brains are! There is a saying that goes, "You have to see it to believe it". The truth is that whatever seems real to us may turn out to be a fabrication of our subconscious mind and our senses. I know now that what we feel and how we think about the world influences how we actually see it.
Five years from now, I will remember the concept of sensation and perception. Sensation occurs when your sensory organs absorb energy from a physical stimulus in the environment and your sensory receptors convert this energy into neural impulses and send them to the brain. Perception follows that when the brain organizes the information and translates it into something meaningful. Here is a video that I believe tackles the concept of sensation and perception called, "The Rubber Hand Illusion":

In this illusion, a brush strokes the fake hand and the real hand until you feel the sensation from the brush on both hands. Then your perception of the "rubber hand" changes and it starts to feel like your real hand. This is exaggerated when the experimenter pulls out the hammer and smashes the rubber hand and the volunteers pull back as if it was their actual hand.
Here is a short video that deals more with perception:

In that video we learn just how easy it is to not detect something when our attention is focused on something else.

I find both experiments to be fascinating, but the question that remains is what makes something "meaningful"? How do we know what information is important and what information should hold my focus? I have yet to understand how our brains choose to focus on one thing more than another or how we can see something we know is not real and still be convinced that it is! So I'll leave you with this, just because you touch something or just because you see something... is that all the evidence you need to believe it is true?

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

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The mention of fetal alcohol syndrome (in class and briefly in the book) broke my heart and especially resounded with me because my family has opened up our home to foster children, many of whom are affected by FAS. The choice to impair a child within the womb is not a typical one to make, but unfortunately, there are many cases in which families, specifically women as they carry the child(ren), affect their children so profoundly with the use of alcohol that the effects last a lifetime.

In professor Koenig's first lecture, she showed a video that talks about how alcohol affects the ventricles in the brain: these holes are much larger in children whose mothers use alcohol than those whose mothers do not. Also discussed was how the brain density is smaller and cell groups are in the wrong place for these children. The effect of alcohol leads to children with FAS having symptoms like facial malformations, physical growth retardation, learning and behavioral disabilities that can all impair their progress within society. My own adopted brother is one of these children; it's been upsetting to watch the ways in which he does not get a chance to live life to the fullest because he cannot function normally within society. His brain does not work normally because he is literally not all there; of course, despite the ways in which he might not "be all there," he is for my family because that is how we have always known and loved him.

The choice to improve a child's life is one that will always be necessary in order to create improvements within civilization. That is why steps to educate men and women on prenatal development and teratogens like alcohol is especially important if the world is to continue the advancements it is making and better opportunities for all.

FAS_Face3.jpg
Typical facial characteristics of a child affected with fetal alcohol syndrome as a previously mentioned symptom from http://www.nsnet.org/nsfas/symptoms.html

The Milgram Paradigm

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Over the entire semester of psych 1001, the Milgram Paradigm was the one most fascinating study that I've learned about. It's really scary to think about what normal people would do, if given an authoritative figure. The Milgram study was designed to understand the causes of obedience. Stanley Milgram thought obedience was more interesting to study than conformity because "he believed that unquestioning acceptance of authority figures is the crucial ingredient in explaining unjustified violence against innocent individuals," (Lilienfeld 508).
Two participants are said to be participating in a study used to learn the effects of "punishment on learning", with one participant being the learner and the other being the teacher. You are then asked to draw a card saying which role you would get where the actual participant always ends up being the teacher and the other participant who is actually a confederate gets the learner, because the cards are rigged. As the teacher you are required to read a long list of words in pairs, and present learner with the first word of the pair and have them repeat to you the second word. If the learner gets it wrong, you are required to give them an electric shock ranging from 15 volts, up to a lethal 450 volts which is listened as "XXX". If any of the teachers complained or asked to stop, the authoritative figure or the experimenter in the white lab coat would tell him they have to continue.
Yale psychologists hypothesized that only 0.1 percent of people would go all the way up to 450 volts, however they were proved completely wrong. All of the participants displayed some obedience by administering at least a couple shocks, and most went up to at least 150 volts, but an astonishing 62 percent of people displayed complete obedience going all the way up to 450 volts.
It's truly ridiculous thinking that people have capabilities to harm and even kill others just because some "official" person gave them instructions to. This makes me think back to the Holocaust and genocides, is everyone truly bad? Or does the influence of the few make everyone seem evil? I don't know what I would've done if I had volunteered for the Milgram study. I hope I would've stepped back and refused, but since so many people seem to have full obedience it makes me wonder if I would be just as bad. I am truly mesmerized by this study and I think this is something I will remember for years to come.

Mean Girls

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Five years from now I will remember the concept of conformity. I find this concept important and interesting because it is so relevant in our daily lives. Most people face conformity nearly on a daily basis and it's definitely not going away. The scientific definition of conformity is the tendency of people to alter their behavior as a result of group pressure.

Teen girls are especially prone to conformity. I know I was. Cliques start to form during middle school, and these cliques come with rules and expectations of their members. The following clip is the trailer of a popular movie called Mean Girls. The trailer doesn't quite show the real extent to which conformity is relayed throughout the movie, but it gives a pretty good idea. As you will see, there are many different groups which people are categorized into, such as the cool Asians, burnouts, jocks, and the plastics. The main character, named Cady, gets drawn into the plastics group, where she is pressured to dress, act, and even talk a certain way.

But conformity doesn't just take place in ridiculous cliques throughout the teen years; it remains constant through adult lives as well. It comes down to being as simple as facing a certain direction in an elevator because everyone else is facing that way, (as we saw in our discussion section). In the end, conformity will inevitably continue to exist.

Development

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We've learned about a lot of different areas of psychology this semester. When looking back, I see myself remembering the most about developmental psychology five years from now. Developmental psychology is the study of how behavior changes over the life span. I will remember this area of psychology the best because I am interested in learning how parenting and environmental factors play roles in a child's life. I also look forward to having kids of my own one day, and knowing developmental psychology will help understand what area of development my child is in, and how to parent during that stage. One area I find especially interesting in developmental psychology is the parenting styles and how they affect a child. After reading about the parenting styles; permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative, I realized that the best parenting style for me is authoritative. I think this is a lot like the way my parents raised my brother and me, and I believe they were successful in doing so. My parents set good authoritative rules by giving us a curfew, punishing us when we broke rules, and giving us appropriate punishments. However, they made sure reward us with our free time as well. They let us go out with our friends, and even when given permission, come in later then curfew. I would like to raise my children this way as well because I see the benefits of it by the way my brother and I turned out.

Pseudoscience

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Five years from now I am going to remember the differences between science and pseudoscience. More specifically, I am going to remember how to determine whether or not something is pseudoscience or an actual science. There are always people trying to scam you, and I don't want to be one of their victims. It is important to be able to tell the differences between the two because science can actually provide help, but pseudoscience generally just makes the situation worse.
For instance, people who write self help books are somewhat hypocritical. The term self-help means helping yourself without the help of others. It strikes me as odd that they are writing a self-help book, even though the goal is to help the reader. This doesn't see like it is actually about self-help, or helping people at all. It is only a ploy to gain money.
They don't care what so ever about helping people at all, so they claim to have proof and facts. People are desperate, so they turn to pseudoscience, which has "solid" proof, instead of actual science that only suggests. No one wants to get scammed or fall victim of pseudoscience, but they do because nothing stops them from stating that they have facts.
This YouTube video can't be embedded, but it is worth watching:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zn4EXAETBhA


Operant Conditioning in our World

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Years from now, I'm sure I'll still remember the concept of operant conditioning. If you aren't aware, operant conditioning is a theory of psychological learning that deals with "reinforcement" and "punishment." Good behavior is rewarded with reinforcement, while bad behavior is met with punishment. Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning in that it deals with one's own behavior, rather than others'.

I'm sure I'll remember operant conditioning simply due to the vast number of occurrences in our society. Even now, I'm a slave to my conditioning: I get frustrated while working on homework, which punishes my behavior of working on homework, so I tend to do it less or put it off. However, completing the homework is rewarded (hopefully!) with a good grade, so I tend to do it more. There are nearly infinite similar examples of operant conditioning's affect on our day to day life, in big ways and small.

An example of operant conditioning (possibly taken to extremes) is applied in this big bang theory clip: http://youtu.be/qy_mIEnnlF4

Note: Embedding is disabled on the video, otherwise I would have embedded it.

assignment 6

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Psychology 1001 has covered numerous topics this semester. It has outlined the important parts and the more commonly known pieces of psychological research and thinking. We haven't gone too far in depth on many of the subjects due to the large amount of material covered, but I will remember the subject of false memories. This topic was covered in discussion sections a few weeks back and outlined the case of Paul Ingram and his family. When we reviewed this in discussion it we were required to go further in depth on the ideas of false memories and how situations like this come about. The case of Paul Ingram centered on the facts of how his daughters accused him of abuse and he denied the accusations right away, but as more and more came forth from his daughters he began to believe them and doubt himself. The daughters accusations were meritless, but soon Ingram admitted to the charges. Paul Ingram was a religious man and he came to the belief that he had taught his daughters not to lie and thus they must be telling the truth and he eventually admitted guilt to all charges. Remembering the ideas of false memories in 5 years will be something that I know will still stick with me. The case of Paul Ingram is the main reason why I believe this to be. In a case like this where an innocent man spent over 20 years in prison makes me wonder how many other cases false memories may have played a part in an innocent individual admitting guilt. As we ventured further into the subject and got to flash bulb memories this made me wonder more on the whole idea of traumatizing events and how we are able to imprint memories i.e. flashbulb memories, or in some cases completely wipe the memory from our conscious. All in all false memories play a large part in proper investigation and the ability to back up claims whether true or false.

Assignment 6

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Five years from now, I will have graduated from college. I hope to have a BA in psychology and a job working with kids. I love kids. Actually, I have my life partially planned out already: when I was 12, I decided I would never have kids of my own. I wanted to adopt a little girl and name her "Maya." That dream still holds.

That being said, I think the concept from Psychology 1001 that I will remember most five years from now is the Attachment Theory, which looks at the attachment between a child and his or her mother. As discussed in class, there are three types of attachment: secure, avoidant, and anxious-ambivalent. The theory was tested by having a stranger be in the same room as a mother and her child, and after a while, having the mother leave and return to see how the child would react. Children with a "secure" attachment viewed their mothers as safe bases - they cried when their mothers left and calmed down when they returned. Children with an "avoidant" attachment seemed indifferent to their mothers' actions and refused to acknowledge their mothers' return. Children with "anxious-ambivalent" attachment to their mothers tried both to cling to their mothers and push them away at the same time, due to their disorganized coping behavior.

The reason I believe that the Attachment Theory is the concept I will remember most from this class is that I want to have a secure attachment with my future child. When the professor showed statements pertaining to each type of attachment in class and told us to judge ourselves based on those statements, I realized that I have more of an avoidant relationship with my parents. I'm the type of person who doesn't like to make it apparent when I'm upset, and I tend to want to deal with my problems by myself because I don't want to inconvenience anyone. Because of this, I went through a lot of depression in high school and it wasn't healthy by any means. I don't want my future child to go through the same thing.

I mentioned earlier that I want to adopt a child when I get older. The Attachment Theory that we discussed in class seemed to pertain only to children and their biological mothers, and one of the main things I was left wondering is whether or not it applies to adopted children as well.

This video shows how attachments can be made with adopted children:

Even after watching this video, I am left with a few questions: How early in life does attachment type become apparent? Can attachment type be changed (say you adopt a child who has a history of anxious-ambivalent attachment with her caretakers - can you still form a secure attachment with her?)

Conformity

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One thing that I will remember five years from now is the concept of conformity. According to the book, conformity is the "tendency of people to alter their behavior as a result of group pressure." In my own terms, I would describe this as something we do in order to fit in with a group of people to not look unintelligent. We are in fear of embarrassment when we engage in group activities or experiments where people are watching us or are a part of a social group.

The reason why I think I will be able to remember this concept in five years from now is because it is such a common thing that I'm sure all of us have experienced it at least once in our lives. So five years from now, I will remember the concept of conformity whenever someone tries to answer a question in a group setting in the same way as someone else.

One question with this concept that I've thought about is that do we only conform in front of groups? What about just in general by ourselves when we are talking to people? Don't some people answer questions or talk in certain ways that society "likes"? It seems as if society has such a big impact on us that we conform to the standards that it has for us. For example, since society seems to portray going to college as something that is needed in our lives, someone who didn't go to college (but who is around the same age as a college student) might try to sound more educated or "college-like" when speaking to someone. Or they may try to act smarter than they really are just to look good to people because of what society says.


Here is a video on social conformity:

Assignment 6

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The topic I will really remember would be Pavlov's classical conditioning experiment. It is something that has caused quite a bit of research. It is really something that is learned very early on in Psychology, and it is an easy topic to understand. Ivan_Pavlov_(Nobel).png Pavlov's face is quite memorable to me, and it is something that I have seen quite a numerous amount of time. It is really a well known experiment has won a numerous amount of prizes.

Conformity

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The one concept in psychology that I know I will still remember 5 years from now is conformity. According to Lilienfeld, conformity is "the tendency for people to alter their behavior as a result of group pressure." There is always the saying, "don't give into peer pressure," but it is not as easy as it may sound. In high school, there were many times when I saw people fall prey to conformity and did some pretty "dumb" things. I myself have also fallen prey to conformity during high school when I changed my fashion sense to match those of my friends (i.e. growing out hair, following fashion trends). Although we may hate to admit it, conformity plays a role in our decision making even if we don't consciously think about it. Returning back to my high school years, I remember buying clothes that my friends would of have bought not noticing that my fashion sense had change because of the people I was with. I feel like this concept will stick with me for years to come because now it is one that I personally deal with on a daily basis.

This image show an example of a man who refuse to conform with the bigger group. In high school, if you did not conform with the group, you were not "cool." Which may be why I consider high school a time period in my life where I conformed and why I will always remember this concept.
Mr_Fish_Non_Comformist_xlarge.jpeg

Final entry

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The five stages of REM sleep will always be with me throughout my life, not only did chapter five fully capture my attention, but I have always been interested in figuring out what goes on during my sleep. There are five stages to sleep and each stage has different wavelengths and periods' determining what is going on within that stage. REM sleep is biologically important and probably essential in everyday life. During REM sleep 82 percent is associated with dreams. Dreams have always been a mystery to me. As I learned in lecture, dreams are integrating new experiences with established memories to make sense of and create a virtual reality model of the world. This will always seems to amaze me that our dreams can produce so many implications of real life. With sleeping there comes different types of sleeping disorders like, insomnia, narcolepsy, sleep apnea, night terrors, and sleepwalking. When looking into these disorders you can relate them back to the five stages of REM sleep. All of these concepts are intertwined with each other and If I was going to peruse a degree in psychology I would choose to have an emphasis on the developments of the five stages and developments of dreams with also development and trying to cure sleeping disorders.

Neuroplasticity

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The capabilities of the human brain fascinate me, more specifically, neuroplasticity. The ability of one area of the brain to regain functions of a separate, damaged region is remarkable. The brain is capable of reorganizing itself. Simultaneously as we were exploring this concept in psychology, my freshman writing class was reading an excerpt from the book "The Brain that Changes Itself" by Norman Doidge. The text offered three case studies to explore the workings of brain plasticity, including the story of Cheryl Schiltz (see related video), whose vestibular apparatus wasn't functioning until she sought treatment from scientist Paul Bach-y-Rita. Another focused on Pedro Bach-y-Rita, who was 'permanently' paralyzed and unable to speak. After intense therapy, Pedro regained his normal functions. It was after his death that doctors discovered a large lesion in his brain resulting from his stroke that had hardly healed; his brain restructured around it.

Neuroplasticity is an ever-changing area in the psychological, scientific, and medicinal world, and I suspect that numerous breakthroughs will be made in the future. Not only will I remember learning about such aptitudes of the brain throughout my life because new experiments and advances will be shared by way of the media, but I'm sure at some point in my life I'll have the pleasure of meeting an individual who has experienced trauma, and in adapting, has rewired their own brain to cope.

"The Five Minutes That Changed My World"

Neuroplasticity

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The capabilities of the human brain fascinate me, more specifically, neuroplasticity. The ability of one area of the brain to regain functions of a separate, damaged region is remarkable. The brain is capable of reorganizing itself. Simultaneously as we were exploring this concept in psychology, my freshman writing class was reading an excerpt from the book "The Brain that Changes Itself" by Norman Doidge. The text offered three case studies to explore the workings of brain plasticity, including the story of Cheryl Schiltz (see related video), whose vestibular apparatus wasn't functioning until she sought treatment from scientist Paul Bach-y-Rita. Another focused on Pedro Bach-y-Rita, who was 'permanently' paralyzed and unable to speak. After intense therapy, Pedro regained his normal functions. It was after his death that doctors discovered a large lesion in his brain resulting from his stroke that had hardly healed; his brain restructured around it.

Neuroplasticity is an ever-changing area in the psychological, scientific, and medicinal world, and I suspect that numerous breakthroughs will be made in the future. Not only will I remember learning about such aptitudes of the brain throughout my life because new experiments and advances will be shared by way of the media, but I'm sure at some point in my life I'll have the pleasure of meeting an individual who has experienced trauma, and in adapting, has rewired their own brain to cope.

"The Five Minutes That Changed My World"

Tell A Story

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One concept/topic that I will remember five years from now is the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), which is used to indirectly study someone's personality specifically. In this test, 31 cards depicting ambiguous situations are used, most of which are interpersonal in nature. Examinees then construct a story based on each card, and the qualifiers given in the story will show their emotions, thoughts, and relations between people. This is then interpreted by the examiners on an impressionistic basis, where they inspect the content of the story and analyze it using clinician intuition. The story that the examinee tells will indicate their unconscious thoughts & emotions and also shed some insight into the harmful situations they may be involved in. Because of the unique story a person tells when looking at these cards, it's possible to glean a lot about a specific person based on how they respond and get to the core of WHY he or she feels a certain way. Through the TAT, it is possible for the person to safely project their unconscious thoughts and for the psychologist to understand the unique behaviors that a person shows based on the information given through this test. Below is a picture of a few cards that are used.

TAT Card
TAT Card 2

This concept is very interesting for me because of the way something subtle can be used to glean something important and meaningful to better understand a patient and their actions. As an inquisitive person, I like to understand the interesting behaviors that people have and what sort of situation factors can cause these behaviors, which is what a TAT shows. My interest in this was initially piqued when it (and other indirect self-projection tests) was used to analyze the members of the Third Reich after World War II to understand how they could come up with such horrific things, like the Final Solution and the idea of concentration camps. Since they were smart enough to lie on other psychological measures so that their true personalities couldn't be seen, the Thematic Apperception Test was one way to determine how the members' personalities really were so as to give insight into why these disastrous events occurred. For example, it was seen that some members had paranoia, which wasn't visible when they took other standardized personality tests.

All in all, personality tests are a way to describe the way a person is and what sort of characteristics they may hold. The TAT shows us how these characteristics may be hidden from the rest of the world, so as to present a normalized, stable front, but can also explain why we emulate certain behaviors.

Human Resilience

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One concept that I will not only remember, but do my best to implement over the next five years and beyond is my knowledge of the fact of how resilient humans can be. This applies from children all the way up to old people. I have had bouts in my life where I felt like stress had swallowed me whole. It would make it hard to think, move, and even listen to and play music; one of my very favorite hobbies. These vary in length and are often times concluded with the realization that I have had a pretty easy go at things thus far in life. Not that I haven't heavily exerted myself in order to accomplish desired goals, but I am given the opportunity to reach targets that I want to reach. The things that I do in this life have been geared towards bettering myself while of course keeping others in mind. While realizing this I look at experiences others have faced, whether it be a child an adult, that i haven't experienced. I have never lost a dear friend or close family member, nor have I witnessed heavily traumatic event. And many of the people who have had such experiences struggle, yet still find a way to bounce back and live life with a positive outlook. Certainly some don't overcome this so easily, and many who have suffered a real rough patch struggle from post traumatic stress disorder. And that is always a possibility, but I am determined to transcend that. So what I guess I am really trying to get at is the knowledge of this human capability, to press on when "the going gets rough", should apply to me even when I someday do come across a somewhat traumatic event. I don't at all look forward to it, but I know I'll manage to get through it.
Over twenty years ago, longer than I've been alive, my moms brother was involved in a life changing car accident that sent him into a coma then a wheelchair fort the rest of his life. She and her brother are very close, and I have never seen her break down in remorse on his account since I've been around. I'm sure she struggled for some time, but she has kept trucking with the matter since as long as i can remember. She and her parents are extremely resilient.
Other examples of resilient people depicted below:

The Role of Obedience in My Life

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Out of all the topics in psychology, the topic of obedience will definitely resonate in me for the rest of my life. For the majority of my life, obedience has played a big role. This is why I have been able to observe and analyze the positive and negative aspects of obedience. Obedience, as described in the text book, is "adherence to instructions from those of higher authority." This has started early in my life because I had to be obedient to my parents. I could not support myself and I knew that the only way to survive was to trust my parents and follow their advice. Parents, more often than not, know what is best for a child; therefore, it is wise to obey them. Obedience became more apparent in my life when I chose to attend Saint Thomas Academy for high school. This high school is special because STA, as we call it, is involved entirely in the Junior Reserve Officer Training Corp, or JROTC. This involved transforming the student body into a military set up. All students were entitled to a rank and were put under the command of upperclassman. The student body was run in a military fashion and overall, everything ran smoothly at the Academy because of this set up and it helped me learn to respect my leaders as well as how to be a leader myself. All I have learned from STA will definitely be prevalent five years from now because the school has taught me the benefits of obedience in the professional world, and also when to challenge authority in positive and productive ways.
Here, I have a video of how obedience to a higher authority is demonstrated at the Academy, through a military marching review. None of this would be possible if it were not for the obedience of underclassmen to the upperclassmen.

What I Will Remember Five Years From Now

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Of all the content that we have gone over in Psychology 1001, I will remember the topic of lucid dreaming five years from now. This may seem like a strange concept to remember, but I love sleeping, and have experienced lucid dreaming. As I remember, lucid dreaming was very fun. Lucid dreaming is when a person becomes aware that they are dreaming while asleep. This is usually caused when the dreamer experiences something so bizarre in the dream, that realize that it must be a dream.

The reason I find this topic so interesting is becomes it gives humans the possibility of controlling their dreams. I personally love sleeping, and enjoy when I dream. I have experienced lucid dreams, and when I realize that I am dreaming, it makes the dream much more interesting. When I realize I am dreaming, I can't necessarily control the dream, as some may claim, but I feel like I am in dreaming in an omniscient point of view.

Although lucid dreaming is very hard to verify scientifically, I do wonder why we experience lucid dreams, or why we think that we experience lucid dreams.


lucid dreaming.jpg

Assignment #6

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Although it is not a concept exclusive to psychology, I believe one of the most significant concepts explored in this course that will have implications for the rest of my life is critical thinking. Critical thinking refers to the evaluation of claims or ideas with an open-minded, cautious (perhaps even skeptical) approach. Critical thinking in psychology may also be considered scientific thinking and it includes a set of scientific principles. There are 6 of these principles: Ruling out rivaling hypothesis, correlation vs. causation, falsifiability, replicability, extraordinary claims, and occam's razor.
Critical thinking will continue to play a role in my life on an everyday basis. With any new information I receive, whether I encounter it on the news, in a gossip magazine, or in one of my college courses, I encourage myself to apply my critical thinking skills and assess things cautiously to prevent from falling victim to bias or irrational tendencies of myself and others. Due to the versatile and universal relevance of critical thinking, it can be applied to many (if not all) aspects of life, and this is why I'm confident that this will be something that will stick with me beyond this course.

This video presents is an example of the scientific principle, Occam's Razor, which encourages us to follow the rule of thumb: Simple is best. In other words, most of the time (not always) when presented with more than one explanation the more parsimonious one is generally best.

Although there have been many elaborate and imaginative theories behind the construction of Stonehenge, this video explores a more simple explanation.

The Six Principle of Thinking

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There are numerous topics from psychology, but the concepts of the six principles of thinking are what I'll really remember five years from now. The six principles of thinking were in every chapter quiz and each time I'd recall the definition of each six. The repetition of recollecting the meaning and studying them created the principles to be embedded into my long-term memory. After learning these terms they helped me stir away from confirmation bias and think in a different way.
For example, the media tends to sway our perception, but the media shares only one side of the explanation. In the newspaper if I see a head line that states "study shows depressed people who receive a new medication improves more compared to depressed people who receive no medication." It lets me think that the study could be due to the fact that people who received the medication were expected to improve, which in this case is using the principle ruling out rival hypotheses. Even, if a study stated speed-reading increases our IQ, I'll be skeptical if the study was replicable and have results of the same findings. I encounter all of the principles of critical thinking in my daily life.

Interpersonal Attraction

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A concept I will remember five years from now about psychology are the social influences on interpersonal attraction which are: proximity, similarity and reciprocity. Proximity is the physical nearness predictor of attraction, which allows for a relationship to be formed.

Sweet+Couple+on+Bench.jpg
Similarity refers to the extent to which we have things in common with others, which is important for maintaining a relationship. shrek-and-fiona.jpg Reciprocity is the rule of give and take and allows for relationships to move to a deeper level. reciprocity.jpg

I will remember this topic in five years, because I think that it's very simple, but logical by how it describes the reasons for why relationships form. I find this topic interesting because it explains thoroughly why we have the relationships we do. Reflecting on my own life, some of my closest friends are the ones who live on the same floor as me, and who share common interest of the biological sciences. The fact that this concept is so applicable to my life makes it more memorable for me in the long run. I am able to observe the influence of these factors in the lives of others which is not only entertaining at times, but bolsters their validity.

Even though this concept seems so concrete I still wonder why there are functional relationships that defy all three of these influences. By all logical reasoning these relationships shouldn't work, but I guess that's what makes humans interesting, the fact that we don't all follow a set of rules for our behavior.

Assignment 6 Parenting Styles

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I know that in five years I will remember the section about parenting styles because I have dealt with them on a personal level being a babysitter for many years and a nanny for multiple summers. In my family it has always been apparent that there are differences in parenting styles. For example, as a young girl I noticed that my aunt and uncle had more rules and would not let us watch MTV but on the other hand my other aunt and uncle were very different in that they never told us what we could and could not do. According to Diana Baurind's work there are three different parenting skills, permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative. Since Baurind's study some authors have also identified a fourth style of parenting, uninvolved. Permissive parents tend be lenient and allow a lot of freedom to their children. Authoritarian parents tend to be stricter with their children and allow little freedom.
parenting styles.jpg
Authoritative parents use a combination of permissive and authoritarian styles of parenting; they set limits but allow some freedom. Uninvolved parents tend to be neglectful and ignore their children. A couple summers ago I was a nanny for a family with the authoritative parenting style and I was able to keep control of the children but also have a great time and bond with them. As a nanny the next summer for a family who I would classify as permissive parents, it was difficult for me to keep control of their children and show that I was in charge. I know I will remember this topic in five years because when I have my own children I will want to parent them the best way I can.
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Assignment 6 Parenting Styles

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I know that in five years I will remember the section about parenting styles because I have dealt with them on a personal level being a babysitter for many years and a nanny for multiple summers. In my family it has always been apparent that there are differences in parenting styles. For example, as a young girl I noticed that my aunt and uncle had more rules and would not let us watch MTV but on the other hand my other aunt and uncle were very different in that they never told us what we could and could not do. According to Diana Baurind's work there are three different parenting skills, permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative. Since Baurind's study some authors have also identified a fourth style of parenting, uninvolved. Permissive parents tend be lenient and allow a lot of freedom to their children. Authoritarian parents tend to be stricter with their children and allow little freedom.
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Authoritative parents use a combination of permissive and authoritarian styles of parenting; they set limits but allow some freedom. Uninvolved parents tend to be neglectful and ignore their children. A couple summers ago I was a nanny for a family with the authoritative parenting style and I was able to keep control of the children but also have a great time and bond with them. As a nanny the next summer for a family who I would classify as permissive parents, it was difficult for me to keep control of their children and show that I was in charge. I know I will remember this topic in five years because when I have my own children I will want to parent them the best way I can.
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attachment styles

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Out of everything we have covered so far in Psychology, I believe in five years I will remember the attachment styles. I believe I will remember this because I am one to notice these styles within work, school, and at home. There is the secure attachment, avoidant attachment, and anxious-ambivalent attachment. I found that when I was younger I held more of the secure attachment because I was so dependent upon my mother and I was able to stay calm and controlled around her. I also see that with my younger brothers and sisters right now. On the other hand there is avoidant attachment where a child is able to cope with separation and tend to not rely on their mother. I have seen this a lot in movies with divorced parents. For example, the movie the Ring has a young boy who is able to coup with the death of his cousin and doesn't really need his mom to help him get through the tough times. I work at Chuck E Cheese's and I see many different relationships and attachments styles between a child and their parents. Anxious-ambivalent is a little more difficult to notice, but it is where a child is confused with the ability to cope with nonappearance of their mom, dad, or caregiver. After learning about the different attachment styles, it is definitely going to help me in five years because I will be thinking about having kinds and the way I want to raise them. I would love for my child to grow up and hold a secure attachment style I don't want them to have negative impacts on their behavior later in their childhood. I want them to be strong, independent, and to hold a high self-esteem. Therefore, I have learned a lot throughout this semester of Psychology, but the different attachment styles are what I am going to remember in five years.

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Remembrance

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As of right now my main interest in the Psychology 1001 course is probably Personality, which we learned about in Chapter 14. In the personality category of learning, in specific, I'm intrigued by the idea of the Big Five Model. The Big Five Model consists of five basic traits that have surfaced repeatedly in factor analyses of personality measures (trait terms in dictionaries and works of literature). The Big Five is moving to me, because the lexical approach to personality used to uncover this model proposes that the most crucial features of human personality are embedded in our language. When I think about what I'm going to remember in five years from this Psychology course, I think about the Big Five Model. The reason for this being, it was not a difficult subject for me to learn. In that sense, it would not be a difficult subject for me to forget. The model also slightly interests me, which means that I don't really have to think about it too hard in order to remember it. I'm sure I will remember more than just this model when five years has come, but this is just one example. I am also sure that I am not the only student who says that the Big Five Model is one of the topics that they think they're going to remember in five years, because it was talked about a lot in class and we did in-class assignments regarding this model.


I placed this video about dealing with unemployment, because unemployment can be a serious downfall in anyone's life. It can cause depression and many other things. This video gives ways for people to keep themselves happy and useful. These are important things for people to remember.

Classical Conditioning and Its Alarming Implications

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I am always late. It doesn't matter how hard I try or what precautionary measures I take. However, it has less to do with the fact that I am irresponsible, and more to do with the fact that I can't wake up to an alarm.

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When we started learning about classical conditioning, I realized why I am completely immune to whatever blaring sound I hear early in the morning. I have conditioned myself to not respond to the sound of my alarm.

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I found an article on how to start waking up to your alarm that specifically references conditioning. The author recommends practicing waking up to your alarm, thus conditioning yourself to wake up in the morning. I am currently working towards this goal, and I will definitely remember this in five years.

Assignment 6

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Obedience to authority figures is one of our inherent qualities as human beings. It is what allows us to live in societies with hierarchies and thus, is an extremely important characteristic in social psychology. The reason it will stay with me for the next five years though, is that it has a dark side. As shown in the Milgram Experiment, people can have their morals overridden by directions from a person wearing a lab coat. Stanley Milgram's experiment consisted of an experimenter who told you to deliver increasingly powerful shocks to a learner whenever they answered questions given by the experimenter incorrectly. However, the learner was really a confederate who was not actually being shocked. The purpose of this experiment was to determine how long the subjects would comply with the experimenter. A shocking 62% of the subjects delivered the most powerful shock, marked XXX. This will stay with me because I think it has extremely relevant repercussions for my everyday actions. I need to be aware of my own actions and the causes for them so that I do not simply do something "because I was being ordered to" that could compromise my morals, and more broadly, it's a lesson that would benefit humanity.

Dreams: What I'll Never Forget From Psych 1001

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One thing I will never forget learning about in psychology is dreams. I found it interesting that we go through different stages of sleep, five to be exact, and that when we go through the last stage, REM sleep takes place and the brain is activated as much as it is when we awake. I also found it interesting that there are two types of dreams: dreams that happen in REM sleep which tend to be emotional and illogical and non-REM dreams which tend to be shorter, more repetitive and deal with everyday topics of current concern (Lilienfeld). I will never forget learning about this chapter because it interested me and explained a few things about dreaming that I never knew. Dreams are an extremely complex subject that will always be a mystery of our subconscious and will never be an uninteresting subject to talk about. I find it extremely interesting that science has shown that all mammals dream. To think that my cat can be sleeping next to me and dreaming something just as bizarre as I am is a concept that just blows my mind. Although we may never know exactly why we dream what we do or why we even dream at all, dreams can provide an abundance of inspiration when you're lacking as well as something interesting to talk about.

Lilienfeld, Scott.Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding

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Attraction: theories to fall in love with

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I think I will remember many theories and principles from psychology 1001, but one that I know I won't forget is the psychological basis of attraction. This states that our attraction to others is derived from four areas: proximity, similarity, reciprocity and physical attraction.
We humans form relationships all the time and often we have theories about who we will be attracted to and form relationships with, but we can always count on our own common sense, something this class has also taught me well. We would like to think that high school sweet hearts were just meant for each other, but science tells us it was probably at least partially because they sat next to each other in a few classes. We would also like to think we are attracted to people that are different from each other as exemplified by many sitcom romances, but again stable relationships are probably formed out of similarity. The bad boy who ignores the girls seems to get all of them, but is this really true, or does give and take work just as well if not better, especially in later years. Finally we would like to think love is blind, but physical attraction may be just as important.
The separation between our ideas about who we will be attracted to and who we will scientifically be attracted to fascinates me and will I believe I will from now on question why I am attracted to someone. Am I interested in a girl in my class because it is love or because we like the same subjects, she sits next to me is physically attractive and engages me in conversation? This is questioning is why I will remember the theories about attraction for years to come.
High School Sweethearts

Ross and Rachel right for each other?

the bad boy gets all the girls?

I just like her because she is interested in comic books

The triarchic model

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If there is one thing I will remember five years after this psychology class, it will be the triarchic model. I've always been very interested in the idea behind intelligence and IQ, and always wanted to take an IQ test to see where I would place. After reading the chapter on Intelligence and IQ I think there is a lot of merit behind the triarchic model. It makes a lot of sense when I think about it, because I know plenty of people that take tests well (such as the ACT or SAT) but when you talk to them in person, they don't exactly carry it on well. And on the other end of the spectrum some people don't test well but can relate well in conversation and are great with people. This is why I think the idea of three kinds of intelligence, analytical, creative, and contextual, may have some merit. I can't say for sure if these are the three kinds, but they make sense. This finding, whether it can be proved or not, suggests that there may be more to intelligence than straight book smarts. Efforts should be made to find a way to test/measure the other kinds of intelligence that people have, so that better correlations or findings can be made and we can know more about the science of the brain and mind.
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(When I tried to embed this image it said permission denied.... technology troubles)

Learning and Chunking

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There were many interesting things I learned so far this semester is Intro to Psychology. One idea that I will keep with me for at least five years is the idea of learning and chunking, and how exactly the brain works when it comes to learning new materials and concepts. Before reading the chapter on learning and memory, I had no idea there was so much that went into learning, not to mention how complex it was. Chunking was one of the things that I found very interesting, which is the idea that you "chunk" or group together three or four simple items (numbers or letters) and learn them in groups versus learning each separate one individually. An interesting concept, but I find myself doing this at times when it comes to learning dates and names.

The reason I will keep this with me is because I will continue to learn things in the future, and will want to do it in the most efficient way possible. It is clear there is a science behind everything, and the fact that if you are able to understand and utilize this science and techniques, learning and memorizing and understanding will be more efficient. This is something I will definitely never forget.

Five Years

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Five years down the road, I know I will truly be happy that I took this class. I learned a few really valuable things that I will need to keep in mind for the next five years.
In five years, I will be in some other state with a child and my husband will be at work 100 hours a week in Medical Residency.

Key concepts that I will remember and could really come in useful are: the child development rates and when they learn to deceive and how they perceive things as well as how their perception changes, how your facial expression can change the way you feel, and how memories work. I'm sure I'll still have many flashbulb memories from having that first kid and finishing school and getting married. And knowing about my child's brain is very helpful for parenting (and that chapter on Authoritative parenting rather than Authoritarian parenting). I'll also have the haunting memories of Asch's conformity study to remind me how peer pressure could get to my child/children when they are old enough to be in school. I feel like I'm acting like a worried mom already.

There are so many concepts from this class that are helpful in everyday life and growing up. So the biggest thing that I take away from this class, is the joy and relief I will have in five years because I had simply taken it.

As seriously funny as this is, I pray that my child will not be influenced so easily...

Conformity: Join the Big Parade!

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I'm a teenager. Almost all teenagers deal with some sort of peer pressure at some point in their awkward journey to adulthood. You always hear your parents telling you "Don't give into peer pressure!", but after reading about the Asch study and seeing videos of everyday people falling prey to conformity so easily it makes me see conformity more and more everywhere I go.
This video is from the show Skins and it's funny how naive people can be when it comes to conformity.

Conformity is the tendency of people to alter their behavior as a result of group pressure. Now that I'm a freshman in college, I see it every weekend; especially at parties. I admit, I even fall prey to conform with others. Sometimes you may feel like a relaxing night to yourself may be what you need after a busy week or a night to do homework is needed versus going out to a party with a bunch of friends. But you choose to go out because all of your friends are and you don't want to feel left out. I dealt with this situation the past weekend. A bunch of rugby girls were going to go out, but I had to finish my chemistry assignment before midnight that night. This is conformity at its finest. I feel like this concept will stick with me through the years because it's the one that I personally deal with on a daily basis. Although we hate to admit it, conformity plays a role in our decision making most of the time even if we don't consciously think about it. By seeing how easily someone can conform to a group it also can be easily reversed by simple methods. I'm glad that we did a discussion activity on ways to avoid destructive conformity, such as ways to avoid drinking at a party if you find yourself in a situation where you don't want to. Finding someone else who won't drink or who won't conform to the group always helps.

Assignment 6

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The one the thing I think I will remember the most from Psychology 1001 five years from now would probably have to be the Milgram Study. I still remember learning about this in my high school psychology class too. This study showed how humans responded to authority. Experts predicted that less than one percent of participants would go all the way up to 450 volts during the experiment. I was extremely surprised when I found out that sixty-two percent of all participants went up to the full 450 volts shock. This just shows how much influence people with authority have. It makes people feel compelled to continue on with a task even though he or she may feel uncomfortable with it. The video we watched in discussion clearly displayed the "teachers" struggling with administering the shocks to the "learners", but when the experimenter told them to continue, they did as they were told. I kind of wish that this study was still around today just so I could see how far I would go with administering the shocks. I would hope that I would stop relatively close to the beginning of the experiment (like maybe two, three shocks only), but I cannot be too sure about that considering most people went up to 150 volts. This study was just beyond belief and I cannot believe that so many people fell under the command of an authority figure.

The Milgram Study:
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This picture shows the "teacher" and the "learner" separated by a wall. Studies show that if there is a larger distance between the two, the more obedience there will be.

On the bright side

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I think the one thing that I learned that will stick with me for the rest of my life is the is the idea that remaining happy and passionate about what I do will have lasting impact on my health, emotionally and physically. The positivity effect, or the idea that one remembers more positive information with age, comes to mind as I think about the years ahead. When I really think about it, it makes a lot of sense. With age, most people marry, develop more friendships, and earn college degrees. As stated in the text, people who are married tend to be more happy than those who are not. Those with many friends tend to be more happy than those with less. Those who have college degrees are also more happy than those who do not. Republicans tend to be happier than Democrats. Republicans also tend to be older and wealthier. All of these items simply imply correlation rather than causation, but I think it can be said that getting married, having friends, graduating from college, and making a living for yourself can increase your outlook on life. Additionally, when we look at exercise, there have been studies that show that when people exercise more, there is a release of endorphins that increase happiness. I can honestly say that in beginning to exercise more frequently, I have become a happier person.
To conclude an academically enticing semester of psychology, I would like to say that studying the mind has fortified my belief in exercise and maintaining a positive outlook on life. They really do impact personal health and well being more than I imagined, and continuing to enjoy the joie de vivre will be a focus of mine in the future. If the positivity effect holds a truth for me, it should be a very plausible emotional state to achieve.

Conformity

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One concept this year in psychology class that has really stood out to me, coincidently has been the most recent topic discussed in my psych discussion group. That concept is the social influence on conformity. Conformity is the tendency for people to alter their behaviors as a result of group pressure. Solomon Asch conducted one of the most popular tests on conformity in the mid 1950's, where he used "confederates" (fake subjects of people who knew what the test was about) to influence the actual subject's answers. The tester would show the subjects a group of lines and state which of the three lines matched a standard line. After a few tests where the confederates would say the true answer, they would switch it up and all the confederates would purposely say the wrong long matched the standard line and the real subject would be confused. Asch found that about 75% of the subjects would in-fact conform with the group and answer the question incorrectly. There were some ways where the subject was less likely to conform though. When at least one other confederate gave a different answer than the others, the subject was less likely to conform and more likely to say the actual right answer. The other way he found subjects less likely to conform is when he had the subjects write down their answers on a sheet of paper that would be kept quiet from the rest of the group. Subjects in this test answered correctly almost 100% of the time.

Conformity doesn't only happen with choosing lines though, as seen in a video during my discussion class, people conform to the group during real world situations. In one situation, four confederates would walk into an elevator where a "subject" was standing facing outwards. The confederates would walk in and face backwards in the elevator, and in nearly every test, the subject would eventually turn around to face the back of the elevator. The picture below is an example where this test took place, with everyone but one of the people in this picture being a confederate, you can see the subject turned around as well. (the guy in the black shirt)
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To further test the strengths of conformity, some friends and I conducted an experiment in our dorm. Four friends and I (all taking the psychology 1001 class) would walk into a room of one of our friends who was just watching TV, and the five of us would casually sit down and start reading a book from one of our classes. Of the five different subjects we tested, four of them stopped watching TV and picked up one of their books to start reading. The one subject who didn't conform with us, later admitted that he thought about studying for a class but he already took three midterms that week and had nothing to study for.

The fact that such a high percentage of people will conform to a group in any situation amazes me. It makes events that previously seemed unbelievable (such as the holocaust as an extreme example) actually seem realistic. The fact that people around us affect our decision making so strongly is remarkable. These reasons make me believe that I will still remember the concept of conformity five years from now.

Stanly Milgram Study

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The most interesting thing in the lectures during the past 2 weeks was Stanly Milgram study. When I was young I heard this experiment so that I knew it, however, I so surprised as I saw the video of Milgram study in discuss section.
A famous study by Stanley Milgram, a Yale University Psychologist, points out in a rather dark way, how our beliefs affect our experiences. The participants and confederated are told by the experimenter that they will be participating in an experiment to test the effects of punishment on learning behavior. The actor pretends to have a slip of "student," so the participant is led to believe that the roles have been chosen randomly. However, the both slips say "teacher," while the actor just pretends he or she has "student" on his/her slip. The participant gives a question to the student, and then if the answer is wrong, the student will receive an electric shock. The shock levels starts as 15 volts and increasing in 15 volts all the way up to 450 volts. While the participant believed that the student will receive real shocks, shockingly, the number of participants who continued all the way up to 450 volts was 65%, with every 'teacher' giving shocks up to at least 300 volts. Many participants seemed unable to disobey the experimenter even though they displayed signs of anguish while giving the shocks, such as seating, trembling and biting their lips. As a result, Milgram's experiment is to understand how strong a person's tendency to obey authority, even though it's immoral or destructive. I guess if the experiment is conducted today, the result is very similar to the old one.
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I found one interesting video. this is asking that "How evil are you?"
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XLfnwe4CgZ0

The Bystander Effect

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Reading the psych book, the stories of the bystander effect shocked me. The bystander effect is an aspect of social psychology in which individuals do not help or offer assistance to a victim while there are others present as well. Also, the greater number of bystanders, the less help that will be given by anyone present.
I find this topic intriguing, and I believe I will remember it five years from now, because of the appalling nature of it. I can't believe that the more people there are, that the less likely an individual will be able to obtain help. In addition, I found it stuck in my mind especially because I work as a lifeguard and would like to think that even outside of work I would notice someone in trouble and would offer help. And if I would, wouldn't others as well? How can someone with training or even just a nice person not help someone in need?
I remember when I was taking my lifeguard certification classes our instructor showed us a video that demonstrated the bystander effect in a lifeguard setting. In a pool at a camp, all the counselors and kids were in the pool and it was packed. The lifeguards were also on duty. A kid was lying face-down in the water, and after 30 seconds, he still hadn't resurfaced. The lifeguards were still scanning the water, and probably assumed he was simply floating on his front. After a minute, he still hadn't been spotted, and there was even a counselor who kept bumping into him but also thought he was just fooling around. None of the lifeguards, counselors, or other campers recognized that the kid was drowning and unconscious. There were so many people and they did not see the signs of trouble or simply chose to ignore them.
I think the general public should be more thoroughly educated about this phenomenon as it might shock people and motivate them to be on the look-out for endangered individuals more actively and prevent awful incidences from occurring.
Here is an experiment they did to find out how the public reacted to the abduction of a little girl:

Defense Mechanisms and Boy Problems

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Being a girl, and having girl friends, I deal with boy problems almost on a daily basis and interestingly, I have found that often the actions and conversations involved can be explained using a defense mechanism. The one topic from psychology that I think will stick with me for at least five years is the concept of defense mechanisms. I already find myself using them to put a name to what a person is saying and doing when they are upset.

"It's okay that he kissed that other girl because he was drinking and not in the right state of mind." This sentence is a real world example of intellectualization. It is very obviously not okay for anyone's significant other to be kissing another person. But, in order to feel better, the person being hurt will try to avoid the unhappy feelings by focusing on an abstract and impersonal thought.

Throwing your cellphone across the room and slamming the door sometimes seems to help alleviate upset feelings about a situation. This type of defense mechanism is called displacement. Instead of yelling and screaming, which would be considered socially unacceptable, throwing objects seems to suffice.

Not only do defense mechanisms appear in my life almost daily, they are everywhere. They can even be spotted in movies. This video clip shows the defense mechanisms appearing in a variety of movies.

You can see examples in this video.

I will hang on to the concept of defense mechanisms because they show up in my daily life and they are interesting enough in order for me to pick them out easily.

The Bystander Effect

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The bystander effect is a concept that immediately sparked an interest for me. I heard about the murder of Kitty Genovese, in which no one who heard her screaming called 911, at some point during my high school career. However, I never knew there was scientific evidence describing the reason people don't feel they need to call for help. The reason for this reaction is not necessarily due to apathy, but to psychological paralysis, in which these people find themselves frozen and unable to assist the victim (Lilienfeld, 2010).
I took a CPR class where my instructor made it clear that while I am preparing to give someone CPR, I need to point out two specific people, one to find an automated external defibrillator and one to call 911, because few people will not take it upon themselves to help voluntarily. This makes me think about all the moments in my life when I saw someone on the side of the road with a flat tire and I never stopped to see if the person needed help. Although it is very necessary to evaluate the situation to make sure it's not dangerous to help, I feel the vast majority of these people would appreciate a helping hand. Psychology has taught me never to fall victim to the bystander effect again and that it is better to have multiple people call for help, than to see that person's name listed in the obituaries.
This concept has raised awareness about the bystander effect to many students so far and will continue informing future students. I hope that all of the psychology 1001 students will hold this message close to his or her heart, so that we will never have another tragedy due to the bystander effect again.

The attached video is a staged abduction in which the bystander effect is demonstrated.

B.F. Skinner and Shaping Behavior

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I found professor Peterson's lectures on learning extremely interesting and especially enjoyed learning about B.F. Skinner's development of shaping. Shaping is the process of rewarding successive approximations of a behavior until the desired behavior is performed. For example, when B.F. Skinner was training the dalmatian to jump up the wall (as pictured,) he first rewarded the dalmatian when it got near the wall, then when it moved it's nose up towards the line, and again with each successive jump that got the dalmatian to the line.

Shaping is interesting because it can be widely used; shaping is used in training dogs, dolphins, seals and even pigeons (a personal favorite of Skinner.) I had heard of clicker training before the lecture, but I didn't understand the concept behind it or how effective it was. I left the lecture extremely excited to try the techniques on my dog and am still excited by the possibilities that shaping affords. Even animals that don't seem very intelligent, like pigeons, are able to be trained to perform seemingly incredible tasks like guiding missiles as this video shows.

One question I had about shaping is to what extent it is used with human learning. Of course parents often use shaping without even thinking about it, but to what extent can shaping be used within the classroom to help teach basic skills (basic arithmetic, reading, etc.,) or even more complex ideas? It would be interesting to see research along this line and in what ways the technique is modified for use on children or adults.

Milgram Study

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The Milgram study is one that I will never forget about. I have discussed it in several of my classes, including high school psych, Psych 1001, and my political science class as we discusses authority. This study was a shock to the psychological community. Before the experiment was done, it was predicted that less than one percent of participants would go to the highest voltage of shock, in the actual experiment over sixty percent of participants did. The authority of the scientist telling them to proceed with the experiment was enough for the participants to potentially kill their test subjects. This may explain why so many normal German citizens committed so many atrocious acts during the holocaust, the authority made them feel compelled to continue with their jobs, and they felt that the consequences would not go back to themselves but to the figure of authority telling them to do so. From this experiment, psychologists learned amazing things about the impact authority has on people. Although this experiment could never be conducted again in the United States do to ethical reasons, it would be very interesting to see if this experimented were done again with today's young generation that is known for being disobedient.

Overcoming the Bystander Effect

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One topic that I have always found to be fascinating in psychology is the bystander effect. The bystander effect is a social psychological phenomenon that refers to cases where individuals do not offer any means of assistance to those who are in emergency situations when other people are present. The larger the group of people who are witnesses, the less likely anyone is to help the person in need due to a diffusion of responsibility.

I find this topic fascinating primarily because of the fact that I witnessed it first-hand and overcame it when nobody else would. Here's my story:
It was my senior year of high school, and it was a normal morning as usual. I was just talking to my friends before classes started, but then something new happened: a fight broke out. Two women were having an argument that eventually escalated into a all-out, physical fight. There was punching, screaming, and hair-pulling. It looked pretty painful for the both of them. Soon after the fighting began, I noticed that nobody was doing a single thing to stop it. I couldn't believe it at all. I looked at the two women fighting, then I looked at everyone else. It was like everyone was in trance. They were statues unable to move. I finally just went to break up the fight. And even more fascinating than the actual bystander effect that everyone was experiencing was the fact that people started to help AFTER I initially broke up the fight.

Knowing how the bystander effect works is one thing; seeing it unravel before your very eyes is another. It's quite the experience, and it's even more of an experience when you overcome it.

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Where I see Pysch in my Future

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There are many things in psychology that I have seen in my everyday life. These things did not stand out to me until I learned about them and the terms that go along with them in Psychology 1001. One concept I learned in class that I have already seen and know I will continue to see for years to come is operant conditioning. This is when a person learns based on the consequences of their actions. I am going into special education in hopes of someday becoming a teacher, so ten years from now I will be around students who are learning all day long. I will be using operant conditioning to teach these children what kinds of behaviors are appropriate and what is inappropriate using positive and negative reinforcement.

I spend some time in and autism spectrum disorders classroom right now and just the other day I saw operant conditioning in action. One of the children screams a lot so in order to teach him to stop screaming the teacher decided to use positive reinforcement. She made a chart with seven boxes and then a break choice. For every minute that he was not screaming he moved one box closer to his reward, the break choice. This is positive reinforcement at it's best.

assignment # 6

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A study I will remember from psychology 1001 five years from now is the Milgram study. I had never heard of this study before and when i first read about it I was speechless! I couldn't believe the amazing (or sickening) ways our brain is capable of functioning. I had always naively thought that if a person knows something is wrong then they usually won't do it. This study showed me the way our mind takes the guilt of doing something wrong and placing it on someone of higher rank/authority. It was even more shocking and fascinating to watch the video in the clip we saw in discussion sections when modern psychologists replicated the study and gave the "teachers" a 45 volt shock to show them a small fraction of what the "learners" would be subject to. Even though the participants had felt a small jolt and most had jumped a little or said "ouch" most STILL administered the maximum voltage of 450 volts! The video shows many of the participants clearly struggling with their conscience while administering the shocks, but they still go through with it, with the 'encouragement' of the authority figure. This study really stood out in my mind and made me wonder if I were a participant in this study what would i do. I would hope that my conscience would not let me administer shocks to someone, but after reading about this phenomena our brain makes up i can't say for sure how i would fair.

assignment 5

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The Big Five model consists of five different traits that emerged from factor analyses of measures of personality, terms in dictionaries, and works of literature. The Big Five model was discovered by using a lexical approach to personality. A lexical approach suggests that the most important features of human personality are embedded in our language. Paul Costa and Robert McCrae labeled the five traits of the Big Five model. These five traits are as follows:
o Openness to Experience ("Openness") - Open people tend to be intellectually curious and unconventional;
o Conscientiousness - Conscientious people tend to be careful and responsible;
o Extraversion - Extraverted people tend to be social and lively;
o Agreeableness - Agreeable people tend to be sociable and easy to get along with; and
o Neuroticism - Neurotic people tend to be tense and moody.
Two well known acronyms for these five traits are OCEAN and/or CANOE, which is also known as a helpful mnemonic for remembering the Big Five model. Each person falls into one or more of these five traits, which is why the Big Five model is important; it helps us learn more about our neighbors, friends, and family and what kind of people we're surrounded by. This could be a useful tool when trying to figure out the right way to talk, or acknowledge, someone. Let's say you were to walk up to a complete stranger and just randomly start talking to them about something. If this stranger is a neurotic person, then you may want to be a bit more careful in how you express yourself to them, or around them. This is just one example, but there are trillions of people in the world and every single one of them is different. Not everyone fits neatly into each category, but this model is a good indicator as to the main 5 type of traits people posses.

Obedience

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Throughout the semester, the topic I have found most interesting is Social Psychology, more specifically the Milgram study of obedience. I remember hearing about this study when I was younger and always being fascinated by it. The fascination arises from the fact that truly good-hearted people have the power to do nasty, cruel things under the orders of an authority figure. In the study, people are subject to an experiment where one of them is the "learner" and the other is the "teacher". Unbeknownst to the participant, the "learner" is really a confederate. The teacher then must administer a word association task with the learner, and whenever they get an answer wrong, they receive an electrical shock. The shock increases with each wrong answer. This is a frightening thing to think about, especially in the context of obedience of soldiers during the Holocaust or other genocides. It is truly amazing and horrifying how willing people are to comply with certain tasks without asking for any evidence of validity of the authority figure. Although the Milgram study can help explain why people thoughtlessly murder others, like in genocide, it should by no means be an excuse for it. The reason that most people comply with requests that they normally would never fulfill could possibly be a selfish reason. People are afraid that if they don't agree to do a certain unethical task, something worse will happen to them.
Here is a video where a man asked people to help him catch a woman who is a "kidnapper". Some people go as far as to steal the baby from the woman in order to help the man.

Neuroplasticity

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The concept of a malleable, plastic brain that can overcome injury and change itself will endure in my mind for years to come. I think this it is not only the most important topic from psychology for me, but perhaps one of the more important areas of research today.

Neuroplacticity is the concept that our brain undergoes neuroanatomical changes due to behavior and learning. It has been been proven using animal studies and brain scans, and has proved to be a great therapy technique for many afflictions. The power of our plastic brain is prominent in childhood development, but continues throughout our lives. When we experience and learn new things, neurons fire (and wire together), reinforcing connections and building new ones.

I find this topic so interesting and memorable because it allows people who normally had almost no options for rehabilitation to undergo extreme changes. There is a plethora of research in many different areas relating to the improvement of learning and rehabilitation in the brain, and the concept of neuroplasticicity can help to explain many other different areas of psychology that are already known (Hubel and Wisel research on cats, drug addiction, shaping and chaining, human development, etc). Many neurologists, psychiatrists, and psychologists have recently been developing new therapies for people with many different disabilities. Stroke victims, OCD sufferers, amputees, learning disabled children, all of these people can and have benefited from this newly researched (but surprisingly well known throughout history) concept. Here are a few videos highlighting some of the pioneers in the field and the ways they have improved the lives of many with their work. I understand the videos are quite long, but I encourage you to watch them, as I hope you will find them as enlightening as I have. The idea that so many different people, who normally would receive almost no benefit of traditional therapy, can now reverse the effects of their illnesses, is truly fascinating and inspiring to me. This is the reason I will remember this concept for years to come.

The Dangerous Abilities of Man

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Although it is the one of the more recent studies we have been engaging, I feel that I will always remember the Milgram Experiments. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BcvSNg0HZwk, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IzTuz0mNlwU&feature=related I had heard of this study a couple of years ago in high school, and for some reason it always stuck with me. I found it so interesting that an average human being could be capable of such great torture without any moral conflict. This study comes up with the horrifying reason as to why genocides across the globe happen. Its kind of like a "if someone else is giving the orders, then it's not my fault" mentality; this severe obedience is the reason for mass killings in history. What surprises me even more is that most psychologists of the time predicted an extremely low percentage of subjects would actually go to the lethal 450 volts. It's very shocking (to use a bad pun from Dustin) to realize that over 75% of the subjects actually completed the study. Another interesting thing that grabs my attention is the fact that no one knows how they would actually do in this study, we would all like to think we'd stop, but would we? How dangerous can we as humans actually be?

Dreaming

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Throughout this semester I have learned many unique concepts. One concept that I will remember in years to come is the universal experience of dreaming. Nearly everyone who has been observed reported vivid dreaming when awakened during REM sleep. I find this fascinating because psychologists today are still trying to decipher the meaning of dreams. Scientists believe that dreams are involved in emotional memories, integration of new experiences with established memories, new learning strategies, and much more. Virtually everybody's dreams contain more aggression than friendliness, more negativity than positivity, and more misfortune than good fortune. There are also many different theories including: Freud's Dream Protection Theory, Activation-Synthesis Theory, and other neurocognitive perspectives. This is just a few reasons why I will remember what I learned about dreams.

Attraction and Love as a Mystery

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The concept from Psychology that I will remember the most is that attraction and love are some of the greatest mysteries in life. Going along with that, there are three major principles that guide attraction and the formation of a relationship: proximity, similarity, and reciprocity. Proximity often has a large part in falling in love because you usually are near by the person you are interested in. Usually "birds of a feather flock together" and that is usually the case in relationships as well; people who are similar have an easier time being in a relationship with one another. Reciprocity reminds us that love is something you have to work on at some points; you have to be willing to give and not just constantly take from your partner. Also, it is important to remember that love cannot always be explained, there are going to be emotions and thoughts that you may not understand. I really like Sternberg's Triangle because it shows some of the different "loves" there are and how you can tell which one your love may be. I like the idea that love and attraction are mysteries because that means that there is always something new and surprising around the corner. Sternberg.jpg

Social Conformity

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The one concept from psychology that I will remember in ten years is conformity. It is very interesting how people from society will conform to a specific thought, action or response because the majority of people share the same views or acts in a particular way. Some individuals believe it is wrong or inappropriate to act or think differently in certain situations and do not want to stand out in a crowd. They would rather blend in with the popular majority and put their uniqueness aside. However, in some circumstances, conformity can be a good thing. One should follow the crowd when it comes to safety measures. A person could be put into a lot of danger if they did not evacuate during a fire drill, go into a room without windows during a tornado drill or even put on an oxygen mask on a plane when problems arise. It's fascinating to see how far people will go to conform to society even when it goes against what they believe is right. People will change their beliefs and actions so that it matches everyone around them. The Asch study is a great example of conformity in society and shows the difference between someone voicing their thoughts from conformity versus writing their thoughts down on paper. Individuals are much more willing to go with their initial views when writing them down on paper rather than saying them out loud and going against the majority of the group. Also, when one person voices the correct response, the subject is more willing to voice the correct answer. Conformity in society affects every individual at one point or another, but it is their choice whether they want to conform to the majority of people or be a unique individual.

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This cartoon illustrates how conformity in the work place can lead to consequences and that individuality is essential when it comes to a successful career. Managers want to see what each person can bring to the table without being influenced by their other co-workers. As I look over what I have learned about social conformity, I am still wondering how conformity can be prevented? What does it take for an individual to go against popular thinking and voice their unique perspective about a subject or topic?

Psuedoscience. Blog #6

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http://www.sott.net/articles/show/234783-The-Truth-About-Hair-and-Why-Indians-Would-Keep-Their-Hair-Long
The text from the website (downloaded on 9/8/11) includes:
Pseudoscience is a claim that seems to be based on scientific evidence but it is not at all. An example is that Native American Men don't cut their hair is because it gives them a "sixth" sense to find threats. Native American men with long hair tracked enemies faster as opposed to short hair. The source is "United Truth Seekers", under the science and sprit section. The government tried hide it from public, but the reality is exposed (2011). The scientific claim is their "hair also emits energy, the electromagnetic energy emitted by the brain into the outer environment."

The claim is identified as a pseudoscience, because of the heavy reliance on anecdotes. The idea of hair being associated with supernatural powers originated from bible stories and urban legends, it described that hair gave humans precise tracking abilities for identifying threats. Urban legends are a weak source to rely on because it is based on second hand evidence and often are hard to falsify because it is not factual information. They are stories passed down from generations and it is likely that the speaker might add or delete some of the information. This inconsistently makes the claim unreliable. In terms of lack of replication, a scientific approach would have other independent labs redo the study to confirm the theory being proposed. If the findings are similar, then that strengthens the claim of the original theory. The test was carried out only once, this is not enough evidence to conclude that Native American men will long hair have superficial powers. It observed the behavior of only one Native American man with long hair, who went through several tests. They noticed that the when his hair was cut; it became harder for him to track the enemy down. However, since this is the only experiment carried out it is considered as a pseudoscience.

Knowing the difference between correlation and causation is crucial in an experiment, because prevent the experimenter from developing misleading conclusions. If A is associated with B does t necessarily mean A cause B, rather a third variable could cause both A and B. The false correlation in the article study was those Native American males' hair causes them develop a supernatural sense that aids them to track down potential threats. A possibility for the third variable can include those Native American men may have more military experience and better sense of locations in the land. The scientific approach considers various factors when coming to a final conclusion, which the study did not do.

When an experimenter makes an extraordinarily claim, there needs to be strong supporting evidence. It is important because if no evidence is shown people will believe everything they hear, even if it's strange. The claim that hair had its own ability to sense danger requires extraordinary evidence, and this experiment had no clear evidence. The only "test" done was one man and this could have been due to chance, the results of one person is not enough to claim that all Native Americans men have hair with supernatural powers. The other evidence was urban legends; these stories have no scientific evidence, and it's likely that these stories could have changed during the process of being passed down.

People may believe these to find an answer to a question. Since the answers might be limited, they might not agree with the other alternatives so they want to make up their own explanations to questions that cannot easily be answered. Learning the importance of replicating experiments has helped me differentiate between a pseudoscience and scientific claim. If not replicated by other scientist, then there's a doubt in the claim, a scientific approach would have consistent findings from various sources.

Interesting explanation of psuedoscience :)

Assignment 6: The Bystander Effect

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Something that I have learned about this semester that I know I will not forget is what I have learned this semester about the bystander effect. The bystander effect refers to the phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present, the less likely people are to help a person in distress. This stuck out to me especially, considering most people would assume that the more people, the better.

bystander-effect-image.jpg

For example, in the photo above, a citizen is collapsed on the ground and though there are many pedestrians surrounding, nobody offers to help and they continue about their daily actives. Some of the reasons for this are that bystanders want to help, but find themselves paralyzed and seemingly helpless. However, the real problem seems to be that the more people present at an emergency, the less each person feels responsible for the negative consequences of not helping. For example, one could say that if the citizen in the above picture died because nobody helped them, the bystanders could say that it wasn't really their fault because any of the people present could've felt. Therefore, making them feel better about themselves in the situation. Nevertheless, there is hope.

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The more people know about the bystander effect, the more likely they are to help in the future. This makes me feel optimistic that since I have now read about the bystander effect, if I ever come across a situation where there is someone in need in a crowded area, I will know that I should actually help them, and I should assume that nobody else has helped them yet. I can also pass this knowledge on to my friends and family who have not taken a psychology course! This will definitely stay with me for the rest of my life.


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Learning, Chunking, and Rehearsing

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Ways to Chunk Information
One psychology concept which I believe I will remember in 5 years is the concept of chunking, rehearsing, and learning in general. Chunking is organizing information into meaningful groups to help remember information. This concept was particularly interesting towards me because I was impressed by the human brain's ability to increase its capacity for memory. I will likely remember the chunking method in an array of situations because chunking is my personal favorite way to remember information. Currently, I am using chunking to remember psychology concepts as well as other things such as phone numbers.
Another way I will remember things in the short run is through rehearsal. Rehearsal is repeating information mentally to enhance short-term memory. I will also use this to remember things such as phone numbers. Through these two methods, I will be able to enhance my memory for a variety of situations. We run into memory situations daily. In almost every class, chunking is extremely useful to remember concepts. Rehearsal is also useful in situations such as a math midterm when I need to remember a specific formula for a test and have not studied it enough to retain it in my long-term memory. Although the magic number for memory is generally seven, my memory can be helped by chunking and rehearsing. Because I will use these methods almost daily for the rest of my life, this psychology concept will stick with me for the rest of my life. Overall, I still wonder if there are other ways to enhance memory. Although there are many different claims to improve memory, chunking and rehearsing seem to be the most effective method so far. Consequently, I wonder if there is another method in the near future which will help humans learn as a whole.


Memory.gif

Assignment #6-Violence Through Observation

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When I was really young, around four or five years of age, I was always the type of kid who would resort to violence to solve my problems. I was also the type of kid who would watch TV shows like the "Ninja Turtles" and "Batman" cartoons. Now that I am older and have calmed down a considerable amount I always looked back and wondered what made me so inclined to violence in comparison to other kids my age. Finally in psychology class I learned about an experiment done by Albert Bandura called the "Bobo Doll" experiment and how kids will learn to mimic behavior through observation. The Bandura study resulted in other studies on how other social media can influence children, like a video we watched in my psychology discussion about how children tend to be more aggressive after watching shows like "Power Rangers" in comparison to something like "Barney". Now that I have learned about concepts like this I am much more aware of how influential things like TV shows and older adults can be in the lives of children and also why I was so aggressive as a kid. Because this finding explained a lot of my behavior to me that I was never really quite sure of, the results of this finding will probably stick with me for a lifetime.

The Bystander Nonintervention

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bystander-effect.jpgOne of the concepts that will remain with me is the bystander effect, which is the tendency for a group of people to refrain from helping someone in need because of the presence of other people. It is a shocking truth, and it shows human's genuine nature. In large groups, people become increasingly more ignorant and feel less responsible for negative consequences of not intervening. An example of this was shown in an infamous video of a hit-and-run accident in China. A toddler was gruesomely run over and sustained critical injuries. For ten minutes, people walked past the child lying in the middle of the street (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n033SnyeAtM.) It seems as if the moral standards of today's society are almost virtually nonexistent. I was not aware of the magnitude of influence that people have over others. I could never predict how I would react in such a situation, but I believe that because I have been informed by psychological research and certain values, I might be aware of an emergency occurring or react differently. Still, I have hope that the precious few people with socially constructive behaviors will stand up for what is right, in spite of seemingly daunting odds. Perhaps, the act of a good samaritan will influence others to do the same.

Consciousness

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One topic that we studied this semester that I will remember is consciousness. I found the studies of people with severed corpus callosums fascinating. The Corpus callosum connects the two hemispheres of the brain and allows them to share information.

corpusc.gif

It's strange how people did not realize what they saw in their left visual field but their hands "knew". The right and left hemisphere of the brain are almost symmetrical. One difference is that the left hemisphere is responsible for understanding and formulating speech. Because the information sensed in the left visual field goes to the right hemisphere, a person with a cut corpus callosum can not say what they saw. It seems that they do not even realize that there was an image presented on their left. The most interesting part though is that when asked to grab what they saw (for example: a spoon) with their hand, the person's left hand will pick the correct object. The conclusion drawn from these studies is that our consciousness is connected to our Broca's area and Wernicke's area (the area's that control our speech).

This video explains this phenomena very well:

I will remember this concept because it was so interesting and amazing to me.

The Milgram Study

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The question is, what concept will you remember five years from now? My honest reply to that question has to be without a doubt the Milgram study. This reason being is that this study showed many things about how humans interact with authority and how good people can do bad things.

The study was done by taking individuals and informing them that they will be testing a theory that punishment helps learning. Two people and a person in a lab coat are in the main part of the study. One person is assigned the role of learner the other teacher. What participants do not know is that they are always the teacher, as the learner and the lab worker are actors. As the teacher you are told by the lab worker you will be giving questions to the learner and that if they get the question wrong you are to administer an electric shock. Every time that the learner gets a question wrong you are to administer a stronger shock for each successive incorrect answer. The shock values range from 15 volts for the first incorrect answer all the way to 450 volts.

The test was designed to see how people would react and obey to authority even though they knew what they were doing was wrong. It is truly astonishing what ended up happening in this experiment. The teachers who were administering the shocks could hear the learner being shocked. As the volts increased the learners cries for help and screams of pain became louder. At one point the cries stop all together. While this is happening people show their concern for the learner that is being shocked and ask the lab worker if they are ok or if they should keep going. The lab worker who is an s]actor explains to them they must go on and that it will not cause permanent harm. To the amazement of scientists after the study was concluded, 65% of participants went all the way up to 450 volts, simply because they were doing what they were told.

This experiment explains some phenomena like the nazi movement in germany during world war two, and how good people can do bad things. People did these things out of fear, and most individuals said they continued because, A: The lab worker told them too and said they would be fine, and B: they did not want to cause a stir or ruin the study.

This experiment will surely stick with me, and should stick with many if not all people so that we can see and stop things like another nazi movement from happening.
Below is the video we watched in discussion sections, I chose this video because I think it did a nice job of showing exactly what the experiment was attempting to find out.
I apologize the video stops a bit early, what this experiment found was over 50% went all the way to 450 volts.

The Milgram Study

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The question is, what concept will you remember five years from now? My honest reply to that question has to be without a doubt the Milgram study. This reason being is that this study showed many things about how humans interact with authority and how good people can do bad things.

The study was done by taking individuals and informing them that they will be testing a theory that punishment helps learning. Two people and a person in a lab coat are in the main part of the study. One person is assigned the role of learner the other teacher. What participants do not know is that they are always the teacher, as the learner and the lab worker are actors. As the teacher you are told by the lab worker you will be giving questions to the learner and that if they get the question wrong you are to administer an electric shock. Every time that the learner gets a question wrong you are to administer a stronger shock for each successive incorrect answer. The shock values range from 15 volts for the first incorrect answer all the way to 450 volts.

The test was designed to see how people would react and obey to authority even though they knew what they were doing was wrong. It is truly astonishing what ended up happening in this experiment. The teachers who were administering the shocks could hear the learner being shocked. As the volts increased the learners cries for help and screams of pain became louder. At one point the cries stop all together. While this is happening people show their concern for the learner that is being shocked and ask the lab worker if they are ok or if they should keep going. The lab worker who is an s]actor explains to them they must go on and that it will not cause permanent harm. To the amazement of scientists after the study was concluded, 65% of participants went all the way up to 450 volts, simply because they were doing what they were told.

This experiment explains some phenomena like the nazi movement in germany during world war two, and how good people can do bad things. People did these things out of fear, and most individuals said they continued because, A: The lab worker told them too and said they would be fine, and B: they did not want to cause a stir or ruin the study.

This experiment will surely stick with me, and should stick with many if not all people so that we can see and stop things like another nazi movement from happening.
Below is the video we watched in discussion sections, I chose this video because I think it did a nice job of showing exactly what the experiment was attempting to find out.
I apologize the video stops a bit early, what this experiment found was over 50% went all the way to 450 volts.

The Six Principles of Scientific Thinking

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Throughout the course of the year I have learned a lot about the field of Psychology. I remember learning in the first chapter the six principles of scientific thinking. I remember thinking that this concept was pretty straight forward and didn't really hold much importance or much thought to the field of psychology. I thought this idea was one of those that I learn once and memorize the concept for the test, and after that it will disappear from my brain forever. But to my surprise, these ideas reappeared again and again in almost every chapter, on almost every page, and in every theory or experiment presented to the class.
These principles have been drilled into my brain, and as a result I also have come to realize their great importance and brilliance in psychology. The principles help scientists to focus in on what an experiment is truly demonstrating and determine if the results are truly scientific or really useful. I have learned to be able to pick out the principles within an experiment and use them to help explain the purpose of the experiment, and the reliability and validity of the experiment. These principles, especially the principles of Ruling of rival hypothesis, extraordinary claim, and replicability, have been useful in my daily life as well. They have helped me better evaluate the information I receive throughout my day and I have learned to only share information that apply these principles. I will remember this aspect of Psychology because it is very useful in everyday life and helps contribute to a more accurate and relevant world.

Assignment 6: Bystander Effect

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The Bystander Effect
I will take with me many things from psychology, but I know I will never forget the myth of "safety in numbers." They bystander effect is the phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present, the less likely people are to help a person in distress. This occurrence is interesting to me because it does seem like the opposite would occur. The larger the group, the less obligated people feel to help. Many people may find the situation to be too dangerous or they just don't want to get involved. The presence of others makes each person feel less responsible for the outcome. This is something I will remember because it shocks me, and terrifies me. I would hope someone would help me in an emergency instead of just walk by, but at the same time, I hope I would help someone as well. I think I would, but you never really know how you are going to react until you're actually in the situation. I think learning about this phenomenon has made me more conscientious of this occurrence and five years from now, I feel like I will be more likely to take action.


Ali Behrens


What I will remember in five years

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I have learned a lot this semester in psychology but i think one of the most important concepts that I have learned and will most likely still be with me in five years is the scientific principles. The author of the book has stressed them through out the entire book and they have begun to make a lasting impression on me. They are important because they can be used a constant throughout nearly any field of work psychological or otherwise. the authors uses them to guard against pseudo-science but that is not their only purpose. Sometimes scientists can make mistakes that the scientific principle will not initially detect but over time and with an unbiased eye the principle will find what is considered to be untrue or inaccurate. That is the true value of them and why I hope I can continue to apply them in my own life, the fact that they are imperfect but eventually win out. The following is a link showing 10 blunders in science but were corrected over time by using the principles

http://science.discovery.com/top-ten/2009/science-mistakes/science-mistakes.html

Love and Compassion

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I think that the concept of love and compassion will be the thing I will remember the most out of psychology. The main reason why I will remember love and compassion is because in five years or so I will be looking for a potential partner and knowing the triangular theory of love and the definitions of passionate and companionate love will be very beneficial. It will even help me in looking for a partner and what I can see in her that I will like and want to spend the rest of my life with.

I have had a few relationships in my past and when we learned about the types of love in class, I could see the ways of the triangular theory of love in my different relationships. When looking back on my past relationships and seeing how the different types of love have been shown in those relationships can really help me in my future relationships so that I can find the right girl. Love and compassion is a big part of what I want to achieve in live, so remembering the concept of love will be very beneficial for me and my partner.


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