November 2011 Archives

Psychology and my life

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Five years from now, I hope to be just recently graduated from the University of Minnesota and starting my career as a journalist. When asked how I think psychology will affect me at that point, I had to stop and think for a moment. Even though I may not be majoring in psychology, I can see how it will shape the way I think about the world. First, I would be more conscientious on how to get people to do what I want them to. The first type of skill I could use would be the foot-in-the-door process, which would involve me starting at a lower demand and slowly increasing until I receive my desired sum. The second type would be door-in-the-face, which would involve me starting at a higher demand that seems completely unreasonable, and moving downward until I reach the desired sum. Also, I would be more conscientious on parenting styles. I would be aware on whether I wanted to be an authoritative parent (treats their child with equal scold and praise), an authoritarian parent (treats their child with only scold), or a permissive parent (treats their child with only praise). Hopefully, with the knowledge I gained in psychology this first semester of my freshmen year, I can make wise decisions on the way I live my life.

Psychology and my life

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Five years from now, I hope to be just recently graduated from the University of Minnesota and starting my career as a journalist. When asked how I think psychology will affect me at that point, I had to stop and think for a moment. Even though I may not be majoring in psychology, I can see how it will shape the way I think about the world. First, I would be more conscientious on how to get people to do what I want them to. The first type of skill I could use would be the foot-in-the-door process, which would involve me starting at a lower demand and slowly increasing until I receive my desired sum. The second type would be door-in-the-face, which would involve me starting at a higher demand that seems completely unreasonable, and moving downward until I reach the desired sum. Also, I would be more conscientious on parenting styles. I would be aware on whether I wanted to be an authoritative parent (treats their child with equal scold and praise), an authoritarian parent (treats their child with only scold), or a permissive parent (treats their child with only praise). Hopefully, with the knowledge I gained in psychology this first semester of my freshmen year, I can make wise decisions on the way I live my life.

009055-Speech-therapy-stroke.jpgIn five years, I predict that the psychology I've learned in this introductory course will be something I encounter daily. Currently, my major is speech language hearing sciences. My goal is to take the major into career that will allow me to work with both stroke patients and traumatic brain injury patients in an effort to reestablish their communication abilities. Most of the topics in the Psychology textbook will be useful at one time or another for this occupation, but the there are a couple of concepts that seem to be more relevant to speech pathology than others.
The most obvious concept studied in this course that will most likely be incorporated into my daily life is the concept of language and language acquisition. Similar to a child learning a new language, a majority of the patients I encounter will also be working to learn a language; the difference lies in the fact that both stroke patients and TBI patients are relearners of a language that they've known their whole life.
In addition to the language topic, the biological properties of the brain will also be resourceful in my future aspirations. The plasticity of the brain will be illustrated in the most miraculous ways throughout my career. As patients regain the ability to use language and communicate with loved ones in ways that were once possible only before the impairment, I will be witnessing the phenomenon of the brain's plasticity in a completely natural circumstance. I have a feeling it will be encouraging to see the exchanging of responsibilities among the brain regions in action.

Obedience

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Obedience
After a semester full of psychology concepts, I would consider myself luck if I remember half of them a year from now. The ones that will stick with me the most are the ones that were so crazy I could not believe them to be true. In chapter 13 of our textbooks, we read about the concept of obedience. It basically is when someone will go along with something simply because someone with authority is urging them to do so. An example we looked at in class was the Stanley Milgram Experiment. Participants were told to ask another participant a question. If the second participant answered the question incorrectly, they were shocked by the first participant. What was so crazy to me was the fact that the first participant went along with this, even when the one being shocked stopped responding. They could have been dead and that is terrifying to me. I will always remember this because I found it absolutely crazy that people would put that kind of pain on someone else just so they would not disobey authority. It also makes me think would I have gone along with that? It is scary what we will do in certain situations.

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In everyday life, people often make snap judgments about others. They say, "That girl is so dumb because she failed a test" or "that boy is so mean all of the time" without ever getting to know the true facts. Regardless of whether it is true, people automatically assume dispositional influences on others' behaviors: that their behavior is due to who they are as a person (their personality traits, their intelligence, etc.). This idea of the fundamental attribution error, overestimating the role of dispositional influences on others' behavior, will be a psychological concept that I will remember for years to come.

These judgments about dispositional influences are harmful as they cause us to think poorly of a person's character based solely on one instance in which external influences aren't taken into account. Situational influences also need to be considered before making an assumption about the person's traits. Perhaps the girl failed her test because she was awake all night working on her homework. Maybe the boy seems mean because he just went through a break-up and is having a hard time dealing with it emotionally. Sometimes, situations make people act in ways contrary to their character, making others assume negative characteristics about them that simply aren't true.

Consequently, this concept of the fundamental attribution error will stick with me for years due to its important yet practical applications to everyday life. Although it may be argued that dispositional influences aren't always bad, they can still lead to faulty conclusions. As the age old proverb goes, "don't judge a book by its cover." There may be more to a person than meets the eye, and there may be more influences behind a person's behavior that can't be understood by general assumptions.

The concept in psychology that I will recall five years from now are the three major parenting styles studied by Diana Baumrind. Permissive parents are those that don't seem to give a rat's hole about what a child does and rarely uses discipline. Authoritarian parents are those who believe in being strict with many rules and rarely allowing children to explore. Authoritative parents are those who have the best parenting styles; they support their children but also set rules.
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I found that these three parenting styles associate with how my parents have raised me. I feel as though they have been authoritarian; when I was young I was never able to do anything that allowed me to explore or meet new people, I was never in any outside of school activities, I was never able to go to sleepovers or invite friends over. My parents were very strict and I was always afraid of doing something wrong that would disappoint them.
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Then there became a point in which they were Authoritarian, and this happened as I got older and I was able to make good decisions and I wanted to explore and be able to experience new things. Being the only daughter my parents had the permissive style of parenting with my brothers and more authoritarian with me. I believe that these styles affect my life, being that my parents nurtured me to be who I am today.
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I believe that five years from the concept in psychology that I will remember was everything on child rearing. One thing in my life that I am very excited for is becoming a mother. In psychology we learned that there our certain ways to raise a child that work the best. However this environment does not need to be perfect. I know that if I try my best and give my child its essential needs my child will succeed. I simply just need to use my common sense. Also if I use a authoritative style of parenting which establishes rules but also includes listening to child I will be a good parent. I'll remember that it is important to use positive, attachment, unconditional, spiritual, and slow parenting. I also will remember that it is important for my children to develop on their own terms. I believe that I will remember everything I have learned abut child rearing in psychology because being a parent will be an important part of my life several years from now. Child-rearing.jpg

One of the most controversial TV characters on modern television has got to be Dexter Morgan from the TV show Dexter. The premise of the show is that Dexter is a blood spatter analyst who works for Miami Metro Homicide. He is a proud father and was even a great husband to a lovely wife for a while in the show. However, Dexter has a secret. When Dexter was three he was locked in a storage crate with his mother and a few other people who owed drug cartel money. They were made an example and he witnessed them all get brutally killed by a chainsaw. For the rest of his life Dexter could only feel things by killing them and so he became one of the longest running serial killers in America. At first glance the story makes perfect sense. Dexter witnesses trauma and suddenly his life becomes the product of a horrific incident. But regardless of how novel the story sounds it sounds almost identical to B.F. Skinner's theory of radical behaviorism. Radical behaviorists would love Dexter's story because it confirms what they believe, "...all of our actions are products of preexisting causal influences" as stated by the Lilienfeld text. They would whole-heartedly agree that Dexter has no free will when he kills people. He's simply been conditioned and that killing is all he can do. Especially since his horrific incident happened at such a young age and they believe the first few years of life are absolutely critical in adult development and that we can't change very much upon reaching adulthood. But with radical behaviorism and with Dexter, there are several challenges with them to critical thinking. Causal thinking does play a large role in how we act and behave. Nature wouldn't have endowed us with such huge cerebral cortexes if thinking and reasoning wasn't a large part of human existence.
Dexter

Big Five Traits

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http://pages.uoregon.edu/sanjay/bigfive.html#other

This website I found has all the information about the Big Five Personality Traits, Extraversion, Openness to experience, Contentiousness, Neuroticism, and Agreeableness. It explains what they are and how people get assigned to these traits. It also explains the difference between the terms Big Five, Five-Factor Model, and Five-Factor Theory. It explains many other ways on how to find more information about the big five, but i mostly focused on reading about the Big Five and what it was all about. It explains the big five as as ranging of more specific traits. "The Big Five structure was derived from statistical analyses of which traits tend to co-occur in people's descriptions of themselves or other people." It goes on to say how they correlate to everyones personality. It then goes on and gives a few examples. "Talkativeness and assertiveness are both traits associated with Extraversion, you could imagine somebody that is assertive but not talkative (the "strong, silent type")." This was a very useful website and helped me see what my big traits were. It should me where i fit in on the scale and i found many other information through this site.
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Bloody Mary

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(http://urbanlegends.about.com/od/horrors/a/bloody_mary.htm)
-Bloody Mary-
The legend states Mary Worth lived a long time ago, a very beautiful young girl. One day she had a terrific accident that left her face so disfigured that nobody would look at her. She had not been allowed to see her own reflection after the accident in fear that she would loose her mind. Before this, she had spent long hours admiring her beauty in her bedroom mirror and so on...
The claim is that if you go in front of a mirror and say the words "Bloody Mary" in consecutive time intervals. Scientific Thinking Principle #4 Replicability means that a study's findings can be duplicated consistently. If one were to see a ghost, face, and or image in the mirror after consecutively saying the words "Bloody Mary" it is possible that an image may come from it. It would be highly impossible to replicate the situation in which the first "Bloody Mary" folktale situation was originated back in the 1960's or before. Scientific Thinking principle #6 Occam's Razor means if two explanations account equally for well for a phenomenon, we should generally select the more parsimonious one. It is possible that one can consecutively say the words "Bloody Mary" into a mirror and have an image appear afterwards in the mirror but it is more possible and highly likely that the house in which the person is in is haunted (if you believe in ghosts). I believe the most useful principle for evaluating this particular claim would be Occam's Razor due to the fact that so many folktales are becoming apparent this day and age.


Nats plan personality tests for new teachers
By Claire Trevett
5:30 AM Tuesday Nov 22, 2011
"Aspiring teachers will have to undergo personality tests to make it into the profession under changes proposed by the National Party.

National leader John Key released the party's education policy yesterday, including several measures aimed at improving the quality of teachers and the performance of schools."
"Personality" can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions, motivations, and behaviors in various situations.renn99l.jpg
Personality may also refer to the patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors consistently exhibited by an individual over time that strongly influence our expectations, self-perceptions, values and attitudes, and predicts our reactions to people, problems and stress. In a phrase, personality is not just who we are, it is also how we are.
so it's important to know a new teacher's personality, which can lead to the understanding of his/her way and quality of teaching.

source: http://www.nzherald.co.nz/education/news/article.cfm?c_id=35&objectid=10767794

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Mouakoon Yang
Writing 5
11-20-11
An important concept or term that I have learned in our text book is the "lexical approach". Which in this approach it considers that a person who act a certain way is influence by his culture or the type of ethnicity one person is this include his way of living and languages he speaks. This concept or term I believe is important because it is also a certain truth to it. Because of ethnicity a white male compare to Asian male would be more likely to live on his own because generally a white male would be more likely to move out and leave his parents and the Asian male would more likely stay with his parents. This is due to the Asian culture where the male will stay and live with their parents and help them on the other hand the white male would leave and start a family of his own because in his culture it is more of a culture to be on your own to prove you are grown up and for the Asian culture it is to be able to support your parents that prove you have grown up. In a way the Asian culture is more of a respecting the parents and the white culture is more of making your parents proud you are on your own now. I thought this is a good term because I could apply it to my own way of life. I am an Asian an in my culture it is natural that the son stay living with their parents even when they are marry the wife and husband would stay living with the husband's parents or they move and move the parents with them. My father and we still live with his parents because he is a son and it is kind of a custom for the parents to stay living with the son so that he can support and help the parents when they grow old. But because we live here in America now our generation want to leave and live on our own now because we have grown a custom to the American culture. This is why I feel this term or concept is important it help me learn how people with different culture or race acts or do like living with their parents or moving out I found this out by seeing the diffidence in the cultures.

IQ vs Obesity

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Recent studies have shown that there is a link between scores on the intelligence quotient tests and obesity. This study reports that people that score low on the tests tend to have a higher chance of being obese. This raises the question of the link between the correlation and causation between the two.
Image: http://www.newsmania.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/obese_1.jpg
The link between obesity and intelligence is one that has been brought up throughout the years. The fact is that there is a positive correlation between the two, but they may not be the cause of one another. This connects back to the question in psychology of correlation vs. causation. Although there is a correlation between the two, it does not necessarily mean that scoring low on an intelligence quotient test will lead to obesity or vise versa. The argument against there being any causation involved is that there are many other factors involved that can make it seem as if there is this direct connection between the two. These factors include social environment as well as socioeconomic standing. More nutritious food tends to be more expensive in comparison to foods like McDonald's Dollar Menu. The only possible causation argument that I feel can be made is that people with lower scores on intelligence quotient tests are less aware of how to eat healthily and take care of their nutrition. Although this link may be legitimate, I find the first of the two to be more likely because socioeconomic standing and ability to buy nutritious food seems like a more likely connection.

Link: http://www.examiner.com/intrapersonal-self-awareness-in-national/obesity-linked-to-low-i-q-new-study-suggests

IQ vs Obesity

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Recent studies have shown that there is a link between scores on the intelligence quotient tests and obesity. This study reports that people that score low on the tests tend to have a higher chance of being obese. This raises the question of the link between the correlation and causation between the two.
Image: http://www.newsmania.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/obese_1.jpg
The link between obesity and intelligence is one that has been brought up throughout the years. The fact is that there is a positive correlation between the two, but they may not be the cause of one another. This connects back to the question in psychology of correlation vs. causation. Although there is a correlation between the two, it does not necessarily mean that scoring low on an intelligence quotient test will lead to obesity or vise versa. The argument against there being any causation involved is that there are many other factors involved that can make it seem as if there is this direct connection between the two. These factors include social environment as well as socioeconomic standing. More nutritious food tends to be more expensive in comparison to foods like McDonald's Dollar Menu. The only possible causation argument that I feel can be made is that people with lower scores on intelligence quotient tests are less aware of how to eat healthily and take care of their nutrition. Although this link may be legitimate, I find the first of the two to be more likely because socioeconomic standing and ability to buy nutritious food seems like a more likely connection.

Link: http://www.examiner.com/intrapersonal-self-awareness-in-national/obesity-linked-to-low-i-q-new-study-suggests

IQ vs Obesity

user-pic
Vote 0 Votes

Recent studies have shown that there is a link between scores on the intelligence quotient tests and obesity. This study reports that people that score low on the tests tend to have a higher chance of being obese. This raises the question of the link between the correlation and causation between the two.
Image: http://www.newsmania.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/obese_1.jpg
The link between obesity and intelligence is one that has been brought up throughout the years. The fact is that there is a positive correlation between the two, but they may not be the cause of one another. This connects back to the question in psychology of correlation vs. causation. Although there is a correlation between the two, it does not necessarily mean that scoring low on an intelligence quotient test will lead to obesity or vise versa. The argument against there being any causation involved is that there are many other factors involved that can make it seem as if there is this direct connection between the two. These factors include social environment as well as socioeconomic standing. More nutritious food tends to be more expensive in comparison to foods like McDonald's Dollar Menu. The only possible causation argument that I feel can be made is that people with lower scores on intelligence quotient tests are less aware of how to eat healthily and take care of their nutrition. Although this link may be legitimate, I find the first of the two to be more likely because socioeconomic standing and ability to buy nutritious food seems like a more likely connection.

Link: http://www.examiner.com/intrapersonal-self-awareness-in-national/obesity-linked-to-low-i-q-new-study-suggests

IQ vs Obesity

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Vote 0 Votes

Recent studies have shown that there is a link between scores on the intelligence quotient tests and obesity. This study reports that people that score low on the tests tend to have a higher chance of being obese. This raises the question of the link between the correlation and causation between the two.
Image: http://www.newsmania.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/obese_1.jpg
The link between obesity and intelligence is one that has been brought up throughout the years. The fact is that there is a positive correlation between the two, but they may not be the cause of one another. This connects back to the question in psychology of correlation vs. causation. Although there is a correlation between the two, it does not necessarily mean that scoring low on an intelligence quotient test will lead to obesity or vise versa. The argument against there being any causation involved is that there are many other factors involved that can make it seem as if there is this direct connection between the two. These factors include social environment as well as socioeconomic standing. More nutritious food tends to be more expensive in comparison to foods like McDonald's Dollar Menu. The only possible causation argument that I feel can be made is that people with lower scores on intelligence quotient tests are less aware of how to eat healthily and take care of their nutrition. Although this link may be legitimate, I find the first of the two to be more likely because socioeconomic standing and ability to buy nutritious food seems like a more likely connection.

http://www.examiner.com/intrapersonal-self-awareness-in-national/obesity-linked-to-low-i-q-new-study-suggests

Post Hoc Fallacy

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Post Hoc Fallacy

The concept of 'post Hoc Fallacy' is a false assumption in which because one event happened before another event, it must have caused the proceeding event. Though, this type of reasoning becomes tempting when the previous behavior seems logically related to the later one, we need to be to be careful because the scientist found a lack of evidence for whether earlier event actually causes the proceeding event (correlation vs. causation). The concepts of Post Hoc Fallacies are usually committed because people are simply not careful enough when they reason. Jumping to a causal conclusion is always easier and faster than actually investigating the phenomenon. When considering examples of Post Hoc fallacy some examples are very plausible to make senses whereas others are not so much reasonable. In most cases, the heauristical conclusion seems far from the reality.


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For example, I heard one of my friends who said, " after failing my first two test, I begun to use a pen my mother gave me and I started getting better grade". From this example, we cannot simply conclude that his grandmothers gift is the cause for his improvement because there could be a third factor, because he did really bad on his test he found a new way to study or spent more time studying.

http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/post-hoc.html



High IQ vs. Success

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http://www.iqtestexperts.com/iq-success.php

In class we debated about whether or not companies should hire people based on their IQ levels or not. This question is a real life example of how correlation does not always equal causation. One would figure that a person with a very high IQ, would end up being very successful in life. This assumption is false more times than not, one specific study had shown that there was only a 20% correlation between high IQ and success in the real world. The numbers do not lie, but they are very contradicting. In this same study, school work and getting a degree with top grades, directly correlated to having a high IQ, over 95%. So then what happens between graduating with a degree and top grades and actually achieving "success"? Where does this 75% change just occur? Once people get to the real business world other things factor into success, not just intelligence anymore. A person, depending on what profession they are going into, need to have a well balanced combination of intelligence, people skills, and creativity among other things. So then the answer to the question of should companies look at people's IQs when hiring, should be yes. All of the previous information may lead one to believe the opposite but that should not be the case. Not only should companies look at IQ test scores but also emotional intelligence (EQ), political intelligence (PQ), cultural intelligence (CQ), and contextual intelligence (XQ). Depending on what kind of person a company is looking for a specific job, the balance of all of these factors would change. To look at a person's IQ important, but then the rest of these other intelligence measurements must be brought into just as much consideration.

http://www.famouspeopleinfo.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Sigmund-Freud-9.jpg


Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, is one of the most influential figures in psychology to this day. In 1885, he studied in pairs with neurologist Jean Charcot. Jean treated people who had a condition known as grande hysteria. It was a mental disorder, mostly in women, that caused one to experience physical symptoms such as seizures and paralyses of the arms and legs. Studies done on people with this condition came up empty. This then lead Freud to the conclusion that some mental disorders are produced by psychological factors rather than physiological factors. This idea was then named Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality. This theory consists of 3 main claims. These include Psychic Determinism, symbolic meaning, and unconscious motivations. First, psychic determinism is the idea that everything happens for a reason so to speak. That we don't have control over our actions. Freud said this happens because, "we are at the mercy of powerful inner forces that lie outside our awareness". The second claim of this theory, Symbolic meaning, is a strange concept to me. It states that an object has special symbolic meaning. An example out of the Lilienfield Text is that in class, a male professor breaks a long piece of chalk in two. This would then have a symbolic connection to something sexual in nature. The third claim is Unconscious Motivation. This states that we rarely understand why we do what we do even though we seem to make up an explanation for it almost instantaneously. Freud believes that there is an unconscious part of our personality in which we are completely unaware of that plays a much larger role in our personality then the smaller portion of the conscious part of personality which is the part we are aware of.

Psychologist Sigmund Freud had developed many fascinating yet controversial ideas throughout his life and career. His theories ranged from the description of our inner psyche and how its components interact to form our personalities to the stages of psychosexual development. Many of his ideas have been criticized as pseudoscientific; they are often unable to be falsified and their effects on our individual personalities often have simpler explanations. However, his unique thinking has influenced many other psychologists in their theories of the role of our unconscious in our decision-making and personalities.

Freud was a believer in psychic determinism, the assumption that all psychological events have a cause. Freudian slips are one topic of psychic determinism. This occurs when something slips out of your mouth that you didn't mean to say. Have you ever had something slip out of your mouth in the middle of a sentence that might have been embarrassing? You probably had no intention of saying this, or weren't even thinking about the word but it still slipped out! According to Freud, this is part of your deep psychological unconsciousness coming up to the surface; the slips serve as a window into our inner conflicts.

Newscasters are known for having Freudian slips every once in awhile. Their slips are probably more noticeable because they are being broadcasted to thousands of people. See the attached link below for a slip by Gene Rayburn, the host from "The Match Game." Freud believed that our unconscious contained many suppressed ideas about sex and these are noticed in our slips. But isn't it possible that our slips in speech are not always about sex? If Gene Rayburn had said a more common word such as ripple instead of nipple, we may not have even noticed it, and wouldn't have classified it as a Freudian slip. So perhaps it only seems our slips are about sex because that is what we notice and remember. Freud's theory that our slips in speech have a cause is difficult to support with evidence, slips can be easily described as just a random mistake in speech. Overall, Freud's ideas are quite controversial and difficult to support with evidence; however, they offer intriguing insight to what may be happening in our minds.

The Match Game - Gene Rayburn slip

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The youtube video aptly entitled "Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us" by theRSAorg is cartoon narrating a speech by Dan Pink.

The speech address the age-old fable that "If you reward something, you get more of the behavior; if you punish something, you get less of it."
He concludes that there are "3 factors that lead to better performance and personal satisfaction: autonomy, mastery, and purpose."

He states that "money is a motivator", but only to the point of "taking the issue of money off the table"... After that point, it actually inhibits (according to his research) performance requiring tasks beyond rudimentary cognitive skill.

He comes to this casual conclusion from a study he found in Cambridge, MA; and Madurai, India.
This is anecdotal evidence, and even though he mentions that the results have been "repeated over and over and over by psychologists, sociologists, and economists" he fails to actually lead us to the replicated studies.
At this point, it is safe to say that perhaps his amassed amount of studies agreeing with him results from a confirmation bias study: one in which a person amasses their own hypothesis and destroys or ignores alternative explanations for the findings.
His confirmation bias is practically observable when he explains his idea for a business model. That is, he already believed what he is presenting to you before he made an objective conclusion.

The youtube video aptly entitled "Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us" by theRSAorg is cartoon narrating a speech by Dan Pink.

The speech address the age-old fable that "If you reward something, you get more of the behavior; if you punish something, you get less of it."
He concludes that there are "3 factors that lead to better performance and personal satisfaction: autonomy, mastery, and purpose."

He states that "money is a motivator", but only to the point of "taking the issue of money off the table"... After that point, it actually inhibits (according to his research) performance requiring tasks beyond rudimentary cognitive skill.

He comes to this casual conclusion from a study he found in Cambridge, MA; and Madurai, India.
This is anecdotal evidence, and even though he mentions that the results have been "repeated over and over and over by psychologists, sociologists, and economists" he fails to actually lead us to the replicated studies.
At this point, it is safe to say that perhaps his amassed amount of studies agreeing with him results from a confirmation bias study: one in which a person amasses their own hypothesis and destroys or ignores alternative explanations for the findings.
His confirmation bias is practically observable when he explains his idea for a business model. That is, he already believed what he is presenting to you before he made an objective conclusion.

Pseudopsychology is always proposing new theories that are supposedly supported through quality experiments. This most recent study, suggests that men who score lowly on their IQ examines also appear to have an unhealthy waist/hip ratio leading to obesity and heart risk disease when they reach middle age. I think that they really need to eliminate rival hypothesis and simplify their study by minimizing other possibilities. First off, one observational study cannot prove causation. Secondly, other reasons behind low IQ and obesity could be that there is a positive correlation between IQ and overall success in life. Which means that lower IQ would correlationally have lower success in life, and I did a research paper which showed a correlation between poverty and obesity. That could be just one of the many reasons. Finally the article shows no evidence of replicability nor any precise correlations, just stating that they are related.
http://www.examiner.com/intrapersonal-self-awareness-in-national/obesity-linked-to-low-i-q-new-study-suggests
http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504763_162-57326843-10391704/low-intelligence-causes-obesity-what-research-shows/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+cbsnews%2Ffeed+%28CBSNews.com%29&utm_content=Google+Reader

Freud

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sigmund_freud35082.jpg

Now, this blog is not intentionally meant to be a "roast" of Sigmund Freud; but, you know, it may just end up that way.

It baffles me that Freud believed and preached the claims that he made.
How did these claims even make it into any psychology book?
They are such extraordinary claims and he never any backs it up with
extraordinary evidence. Did he not understand the scientific thinking principles?
I mean, there are only six of them...

First, I would ask him, "What were the events that lead to causation of us meeting?"
He states in his theory of personality that 'psychic determinism' is the assumption that all events are caused and apparently we aren't free to choose our actions.
But in all reality, I chose freely to ask that question. Didn't I?
Falsify that one Sigmund.

Next, I would spend most of my time questioning his idea of
"The Stages of Psychosexual Development".
This 'concept', if you can call it that, is what puzzles me most.
I would ask him, "What kid, girl or boy, have you EVER met that wanted to kill his mother or father because they felt strong urges to have sex with their parent of the opposite sex?
What kid?
Name five?
Okay, no, name one?"
The only "evidence" that Freud had was that he attended a Greek play, where the son kills his father because he fantasizes about his own mother.
But, the key word there, was that he attended a play.
So, because he witnessed a fictional play he was somehow able to discover how the mind works.
Yeah, I don't think so.

Sorry Sig, but next time you want to come up with a theory, just follow the 6 simple scientific principles. We learned about them in chapter one, so it shouldn't be all that difficult.
Also, sorry for roasting you. I'm sure you were a nice guy.

EQ? IQ? Or Both?

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Continuing on with our debate from our discussion sections on IQ, this article talks about the great importance of Emotional Intelligence over standard intelligence which is measured by regular IQ tests. I says that in certain professions EQ testing was a better indicator than IQ testing because plenty of jobs have to do more with a person's emotional health, rather than simply there overall intelligence.

I find this to be very interesting because most companies take more stock in a person's standard intelligence than they do on their emotional intelligence. This is because in most jobs you must be able to deal with stressful situations and constructively deal with people on a daily basis. Therefore, if you have a strong emotional intelligence, then you should be better equipped to handle these types of situations.

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Overall, I feel that is important to consider people on more than just an IQ basis for a job. This is because not only does there emotional intelligence matter, but there are many other factors that matter correlate to good performance on the job, like motivation. Many businesses however take into account only one or two small factors when considering an applicant's likely performance on a job. This is unfortunate, because they are not giving everyone a fair chance to obtain a job, because while some people have a very high general intelligence and a very low emotional intelligence (or vice versa), they are not able to show a potential employer their greatest strengths this way.

Therefore, in order to way applicants for a job fairly, and accurately, it is important to look at more than just one factor, like their IQ.

Does my nose grow?

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According to the Lilienfeld text, the infamous "lie detector" relies on the assumption that the human body experiences a physiological or behavioral change when lying known as the Pinocchio response. If the test relies on this naturally occurring response, then what exactly is it measuring?post-23599-043113800 1299275862.jpg

In laments terms, the Pinocchio response is a concept where our body changes state while we engage in telling a lie. This generally has deals with things like blood pressure levels, respiration frequency, and an involuntary increase in the amount of sweat that we perspire.The test generally measures the amount that these processes fluctuate while answering questions, generally saying that these will fluctuate greatly when a lie is told.

To me, this idea can and has been utilized very well when it comes to the use within law enforcement in order to keep society running smoothly. Unfortunately, this response is not a fool proof way to detect lying due to differences in everybody's responses, and the fact that one can train to control these responses at their own will. Even so, I know that I for one do get a little short of breath when I lie, and I can feel my heartbeat rise out of being nervous.

I personally think that this is a fascinating natural phenomena, and I'm very curious how well the polygraph test actually does for detecting lies based off of this criteria. As the text states, this does yield a considerable amount of false-positives so I don't think that it should be used as a fool proof way to come up with a verdict on somebody being guilty, however I do believe that it can at least give an idea on how truthful somebody is.

Does my nose grow?

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Taking either an SAT or an ACT test is a standard procedure to apply for college. Because the scores are linked to the type of colleges a student is accepted into, it is no wonder that many students hope to study and improve their scores. So, many companies capitalize on this fact by charging students money to help them study for the exam.
However, it is not clear as to whether these programs really work or not. Although there is a positive correlation between taking these courses and student's scores, there are multiple ideas as to why that is. One such idea is that students who take the courses are better educated to begin with. Also, there is a hypothesis that the improvement seen after the classes is due to practice effects. Practice effects means that people improve because of practice alone and not necessarily because of the classes.
Why is this important to know? It is important because taking SAT and ACT's as well as other forms of IQ tests are a part of life that many people have to face. It is important to know what you should and should not do to achieve the scores that you are looking for. So, should you spend your money on one of these classes? Well, if you do, you should expect improvement but not miracles. It is unrealistic to expect more than a 200-point increase. So, I would avoid any articles that claim to boost your score by an unrealistic number of points such as this article. If there is something that I am still wondering about, it's what my SAT scores would have looked like if I had taken one of those classes. I suppose I will never know. However, I assume that it would not be hundreds of points different.

EQ? IQ? Or Both?

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Continuing on with our debate from our discussion sections on IQ, this article talks about the great importance of Emotional Intelligence over standard intelligence which is measured by regular IQ tests. I says that in certain professions EQ testing was a better indicator than IQ testing because plenty of jobs have to do more with a person's emotional health, rather than simply there overall intelligence.

I find this to be very interesting because most companies take more stock in a person's standard intelligence than they do on their emotional intelligence. This is because in most jobs you must be able to deal with stressful situations and constructively deal with people on a daily basis. Therefore, if you have a strong emotional intelligence, then you should be better equipped to handle these types of situations.

IQEQ.gif

Overall, I feel that is important to consider people on more than just an IQ basis for a job. This is because not only does there emotional intelligence matter, but there are many other factors that matter correlate to good performance on the job, like motivation. Many businesses however take into account only one or two small factors when considering an applicant's likely performance on a job. This is unfortunate, because they are not giving everyone a fair chance to obtain a job, because while some people have a very high general intelligence and a very low emotional intelligence (or vice versa), they are not able to show a potential employer their greatest strengths this way.

Therefore, in order to way applicants for a job fairly, and accurately, it is important to look at more than just one factor, like their IQ.

IQ vs. Obesity?

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http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504763_162-57326843-10391704/low-intelligence-causes-obesity-what-research-shows/

Extremely recently, CBS published an article that brought up the point that low scores on the Intelligent Quotient could be related to obesity. Even after just reading the title of the article, my couple months of studies in Psych 1001 led there to be many red flags appearing in my head. According to Freeman, "For the study - described at a recent meeting of the American Heart Association - researchers in Sweden compared the waist-hip ratios of more than 5,000 40-year-old men to their scores on IQ tests taken when they were around 18 years of age. The researchers found a strong inverse relationship between the ratios, which scientists use to gauge obesity and heart disease risk." First thing I thought of was that correlation does not equal causation. I am questioning whether there is an extra variable in there that is causing the obesity (overeating). It does not make any sense to me that having a low IQ would cause someone to be overweight. The author of the study argues that people with a low IQ have troubles receiving all the messages that are sent to them. Even so, I find this claim to be extremely ridiculous. What could be causing this relationship? It could be that these people make poorer or cheaper food choices. However, I firmly think that just because someone scores "lower" on the IQ test does not make them more likely to be overweight.

Repression

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Repression is the motivated defense mechanism to forget emotionally threatening memories and or impulses as they may cause anxiety. Freud theorized we repress unhappy memories to prevent future pain or suffering they may occur. There are two stages of repression. In the first stage, primal repression it consist of denial of psychical representation of the instinct to the conscious. The second stage, repression proper creation of an ego and by censorship. We believe this an important important because, it can explain why we don't remember events that occurred prior to age three, infantile amnesia, and embarrassing events we do not want to remember.
I am a victim of repression. Repression has made my life easier to deal with because I am fairly pessimistic. Usually I think things through but in the spur of the moment I don't. When I do not think things through, often I act on impulse and do embarrassing things many which I do not want to remember. For instance, during middle school I have done some really embarrassing freaky dance moves during a dance battle that I am not proud of. Thinking about it gives me the shivers.
Is there a way to permanently remove memories or induce amnesia? How do we distinguish repression from denial when some memories are caused by a mixture of internal and external experiences?

Psychology and Architecture

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I entered the U last year as a pre-graphic design major and took a class called Introduction to Design Thinking. It was an awesome class that really changed the way I think about much of the world around me. Now, I'm a public relations major but also pursuing a minor in design because I believe design these days is very thoroughly integrated and important in our lives.
One thing we discussed in class is how design can make you feel. I found this article on wired.com and was intrigued. It lists numerous studies that show that design of rooms can influence the way we think. I always think discoveries like this are pretty nuts. I mean, imagine if we could make people more productive or better at certain tasks just by putting them in different environments. I work for the U's School of Nursing as a Communications and New Media intern and they actually had published an article in last semester's newsletter about hospital architecture and its effects on patient healing. Unfortunately I couldn't find the article online but there are many very similar to it. The neat thing about the SON article though was that apparently there's a set of classes they have set up for students in the health field to take pertaining to this subject. I really love seeing so many subjects of my interest become intertwined- psychology, design and bettering the world.

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As Dr. Howard Gardner discovered, there are many different kinds of intelligence. This is a concept that is very important and should be taken into consideration when thinking about how "smart" someone is. Just because they're not so great at spelling does not mean they're also terrible at solving math problems. This is because those are two separate types of intelligence. So how do we decide if someone is an overall intelligent person? The IQ test is not a very reliable source for that because it does not measure all of the intelligences.

This article takes the 9 different kinds of intelligence -- linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, and existential--and explains them in an easy-to-understand way. It's important for people to realize that intelligence comes in many different forms and that if someone lacks in a certain area of intelligence, they make up for it in another. People that are very intelligent musically, but not linguistically (reading, writing, etc.) are still very smart and can still do something with their specific intelligence. They could be a genius in the musical area but not get linguistics at all, and that doesn't mean that they are not intelligent. Another thing that needs to be realized is that there are ways to strengthen the intelligence that you lack. For example, if you're lacking in bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, you can do yoga, crafts or dance to increase this ability. There are many ways that humans can branch out and be smart in different areas other than the standard IQ test definition of intelligence and this is seen in Howard Gardener's multiple intelligence theory.

Recently in class, we have talked about the Intelligence Quotient, a score that is used to assess the amount of knowledge that one has. 100 being the average, 140 being the approximate number for "geniuses," and about 80 and under being mental retardation.

If you would like to get your IQ assessed, I recommend going to a psychologist, who will administer an IQ test. IQ tests ask questions in the areas of logic, linguistics, and other abstract areas of thinking.

If you are like me and you don't have time to go see a psychologist (or know where to find one for that matter) to administer a test, you may have google searched "Online IQ testing." When I was younger, I used to believe these were accurate assessments of my IQ, but now I am aware that it is all pseudoscience.

Here you can find an online IQ test that I recently took (actually 5 minutes ago as a matter of fact) that you only need to enter your name and email address and answer 30 short questions. I received a score of 159. This would mean that I am, frankly, a genius.

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As much as I want to believe I am a genius, sadly I know I am not. These IQ tests are not accurate at all, they are not replicable (on a different online test I received a 120), because they do not go in depth. 30 questions in 10 minutes cannot even come close to evaluating anything, these tests are simply scams to try to make money and to advertise.

For more info on IQ, follow this link

Ferris Buellers Day Off castWhile watching "Ferris Bueller's Day Off" I noticed some very interesting personality characteristics in the cast. Ferris Bueller and his best friend Cameron Frye are almost complete opposites. Ferris is extremely extroverted whereas Cameron is very introverted. Ferris knows everyone in the school and has relationships to everyone. He is very secure with his attachments and has no worries that anyone likes him. He parents almost coddle him too much but they still leave him to take care of himself during the day why he is sick. This is most likely the reason he trusts that others will love and support his. Cameron is avoidant in his relationships. He withdraws his emotions from others because he does not feel that others will come to his needs being that his parents did not take care of him. In the beginning he is seen being sick in bed where his parents are not even in town.
Cameron is much more neurotic than Ferris also. He is shown as indecisive and having many different emotions through out the movie where as Ferris is mainly happy and excited. He is open to many new experiences like being in a parade and dining at an upper class restaurant. Cameron is opposed to everything. He worries about his fathers car and what Ferris is doing to it. Immediately after taking it out he wants to return it to his house so his father will not find out. This shows that he is also much more conscientious then Ferris. Ferris takes the moment as it comes but Cameron worries about everything. He takes his time and he wants to plan out all of his actions.
This also shows that he is not so agreeable. When Ferris leaves the car in a parking garage, Cameron refuses to get out of the car. Ferris had to call him several times in the beginning of the movie just to get him to come over. The movie directors did an excellent job of plotting out two completely different characters to star in the movie. Even though the movie is technically about Ferris, I think the movies true plot line shows the development of Cameron's personality throughout the movie. He becomes more confident and braver in the end of the movie.

On the bottom page 333 of the Lilienfeld text, the authors' support the idea of IQ scores predicting life outcomes by looking at past president's IQ scores and their quality of leadership. Dean Keith Simonton estimated the IQ scores for all U.S. presidents through George W. Bush. For each president, there is a 10-20 point IQ range that estimates their IQ score. He then compared the estimated IQ scores to the quality of leadership for each president, and found a moderate correlation between the two statistics. The authors of the book then used this correlation to show that IQ scores predict life outcomes, but circular reasoning shows that this may not be a correlation at all.
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Because the actual IQ scores for all of the presidents are not known, Dean Keith Simonton would have to look at historical data in order to estimate them. He would have to look at accomplishments, decisions, and documents about each of the presidents. By looking at the things that each president did and said during their presidency, an IQ score was then estimated. He then compared the IQ to each president's "quality of leadership" and then found a correlation. This is actually not a correlation at all, because the same data and judgement that was used to predict each president's IQ was more than likely the same data and judgement that was used to judge their "quality of leadership".

President's Popularity Rankings

When looking at past president's popularity rankings, the findings are eerily similar to Simonton's IQ estimates. Unpopular presidents such as Warren Harding, the president at the beginning of the great depression, are both extremely low in popularity and rated as one of the least intelligent president's on Simonton's list. Presidents high in popularity, such as Lincoln and FDR, also have some of the highest IQ's on the list. Although IQ could be a strong indicator on popularity because they are both positive attributs, we don't know that for sure. When historians are the one's assigning IQ scores to presidents, it seems silly to prove a correlation by comparing it to a different historian's presidential rankings. President's IQ could be a strong indicator of their quality of leadership, but when we don't know their actual IQ scores, we cannot prove a correlation by using estimates.

Eugenics: Good or a Bad?

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Is Eugenics a good or a bad thing?
The idea of eugenics was first founded by Francis Galton who believed that if talented partners were to have children, then their offspring would also be intelligent. This idea was transformed and adopted in the United States first by California. The eugenics movement in America was to improve the human race by sterilization, banning marriages, and segregating those who do not fit the Nordic, blue eyed blonde, type and also desire those who were tall, strong and talented.
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In the opinion of those who believe this is a good thing due to the elimination of those who are "untalented", is it certain that those who are talented produce offspring who will also be talented? This can relate back to the idea of nature vs. nurture. There are many who are very talented and came from a poor background and took advantage of their struggles to do better. Think about the Reign of Adolf Hitler who wanted blonde haired blue eye people. Millions were killed, unless you don't have a heart, then you would see that the loss of lives is not worth improving the human race.
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If we didn't have those who weren't talented or the ideal "perfect" type, then who would be doing some of the jobs out there? I do not want to list the types of jobs due to possibility of offending people as well as creating a stereotype. There is a place for everyone in this world and no one should be denied the opportunity to be a mother, marry, or be alive because they were born the way they were from their environment and genetics.

For more resources click here! or Here!

lust, like, and love.

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Attraction is often the first step to like, lust, or love. It may even cause one of those three. There are many influences on attraction, and eventually love. Proximity is the first factor that leads us to feelings. If someone is close and convenient, we are more likely to be interested. The psychology book says that people with similar last names tend to be friends, just because of their placement in lines and classrooms. The next factor in like is similarity. We like things and people that are similar to us. When we have things in common, it's easier to form a connection because of mutuality and similar opinions. Next is reciprocity, an important factor in relationships and feelings. We feel obligated to maintain equity and give and take an equal amount.

Along with factors of love and like, there's different types of love. Passionate love is when two people have a physical attraction and an overwhelming longing for each other. Another type is companionate ove, which is a deep sense of friendship and fondness of each other. Empty love is when the feelings are gone, and they stay together for other reasons.

http://www.livescience.com/7023-rules-attraction-game-love.html

The article talks about the rules of attractions, many of which we talked about in discussion section such as symmetry, hip to waist ratio, and the face. It's interesting to me to see how many people view attractiveness, and what is considered the most attractive and acceptable in society.

In class, we learned that IQ testing correlates positively with many desirable factors of life, but it certainly isn't the most important thing in life. Without the appropriate determination and social skills, which aren't evaluated by the test, a high IQ guarantees nothing. But how important is a high IQ? The book shows that IQ correlates positively to wealth, educational success, and health. A study published in the European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation shows that IQ might be a stronger predictor than previously thought. In fact, out of a large range of testable factors, IQ came in second only to smoking as an indicator of the likelihood of heart disease. The total mortality is also at a much greater level as IQ scores went down.
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The other factors tested were income, high blood pressure, physical fitness, and physical activity. Low IQ was more strongly correlated than any of these. I was surprised by these results, as I expected the only reason IQ would correlate to cardiovascular problems is through these other factors. However; this could be explained if IQ is more closely related to each of the factors individually than the factors are related to each other. A person with a low IQ would generally fit into more of the risk factors than someone with a high IQ. This is explained in the article as the IQ denoting a record of "environmental insults" that accumulate through life and are also factors of heart disease.

LINK

Positive Emotion

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There are a lot of emotions in this world. In my opinion, the most important kind emotions is that positive emotions, also it is called "other-praising family". According to the a study by Jonathan Haidt. There are 17 potentially basic emotions are called positive emotions. Such as excitement, interest, pride in achievement, relief, and sensory pleasure... Based on Haidt's study, negative emotions make people change, but positive emotions make people "stay here". Imagine if there were no positive emotions in this would, that would be a disaster. We always want to change because we don't want to get over difficulties. People don't feel good when finish good things. We can't keep our promises because we feel they are so hard to keep.
There are two definitions I have learned about emotions. The first one is that behaviors and decisions about behaviors that affect social outcomes (Gazzaniga & Heatherton, 2006). The second one is that shared norms that indicate how people should behave, especially in community situations (Haidt, 2007). Just like Haidt said, emotions are the reasons that make people behave.
In my opinion, there are in fact positive emotions that belong to moral emotions. It is more like Freud's superego. According to Haidt's paper, people do have positive emotions such as gratitude. To me, when someone do me a favor, I feel thankful and want to improve our relationship, I want to do something back. I can remember about 1 year ago, I just moved into centennial hall when I was a freshman. I needed to get new dorm to check in, but I had no idea where is it. So I asked a friend to picked me up at the airport and drove me there. I appreciated his favor and we are really close friends now and I think that ride started our friendship. It made us closer than before. That is what I think about moral emotions. On contrast, even though Haidt has a lot of fancy words for his theory but these hypotheses are still falsifiability. People don't think moral emotions are really scientific exist. Based on Haidt's words, people have moral emotions are always have some reasons. For example, people show respect because we feel fear, but on the other hand, people behave that most of time concern ourselves more.
http://forum-network.org/lecture/positive-psychology-praising-others-changing-self

The Big Five

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While psychologists have never been able to pin down one specific model of personality, Paul Costa and Robert McCrae's Big Five theory has been adopted as the most widely accepted. The Big Five Model of Personality was formed by factor analyses of trait terms in literature and dictionaries. The Big Five are as follows:
-Openness to Experience: People who are open to new events and are curious
-Conscientiousness: People who are careful and responsible
-Extraversion: Interpersonal people who are lively and social
-Agreeableness: Social people who are able to get along with many others
-Neuroticism- Usually tense and moody individuals
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An easy way to remember the Big Five is with the acronym OCEAN. The Big Five traits can be used to describe all humans, including those with psychological disorders. The Big Five traits have been used not only in psychological studies, but also websites and social networks like the dating website eHarmony.com. It has been hypothesized that there is also another trait, Dominance, when studying chimpanzees. However, chimpanzees and humans are quite different, so this trait may not be easy to bring over to homo-sapiens.
The Big Five are often good indicators of real-world behaviors, like job performance, grades in school, and health. While the Big Five is just a theory, it is still a widely used and respected test of personality around the globe.


IQ.jpgOne of the most interesting and controversial topics of psychology is the intelligence quotient and the influences that affects it. The intelligence quotient is a formula invented by Wilhem Stern that quantify difference among people and their intelligence. The formula consists in the mental age, that is the age corresponding to the average individual's performance of the test, divided by the chronological age, multiplied by 100.
A graphic of the results of these IQ tests form a bell curve almost a normal distribution with mean 100 and standard deviation of 15 points. Very few of the test takers with a result below 70 and above 130, defined as mental retardation to genius. These are the two extremes results. Now what influences these results? Only genetics? Environment?
Again the nature versus nurture is present here in the IQ topic. Investigations have found in twin studies that genetics influence IQ scores. Also in adoption studies found that adopted children's IQ score resemble their biological parent's IQ, both offering evidence that genetics influence IQ scores. On the other hand, it is known that education affects IQ. Children better educated will have a better IQ score. Also it is founded that children's IQ drops significantly on summer vacations.
Another factor that plays a key role in IQ, and in my opinion is very interesting, is the socioeconomic and nutritional deprivation. It's there that a reason to think that nutritional deprivation can adversely affect IQ. I am a track and field runner and found that African runners have a good group of distance runners. Studying about their training and environment I found that their nutrition consist mainly in corn and grains. That can be one of the major factors that cause their development in distance running. The same event can be occurring with IQ. Nutrition is very important. Some studies have found that children that were nutritionally deprived, increase their IQ when receiving a better nutrition.
In conclusion the factors that play the most important roles in IQ are genetics, nutrition and education among others.

Karma

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Everyone knows someone who believes in karma or even yourself, but is it real? The principle of karma is that every act done by a person will return to that person eventually: a good act will be returned with good; an evil act with evil. In Buddhist traditions, this cycle is treated as a natural law of cause and effect, whereas in theistic Hindu traditions, God is responsible for ensuring karmic rewards and punishments. Since bad things often happen to good people, and vice versa, it is important that the return on good and evil actions is not direct, but can happen much later. For this reason, belief in karma is linked to belief in reincarnation, when an apparently good person endures a life of misfortune, it is the deserved result of evils in a past life. Similarly, when a person apparently gets away with many evil actions throughout their life, karma ensures that this will return to cause them misery in a future life.
There is no plausible evidence for the existence of reincarnation, without which the principle that good deeds are always rewarded and evil always punished is obviously false because experience provides many counter examples. When combined with the theory of reincarnation, the principle of karma return becomes an entirely untestable supposition. Since we can never know the life history of the entire sequence of past and future selves of an individual, it is impossible to evaluate whether or not the good deeds they have done have been met with equally good consequences. Karma becomes an unfalsifiable principle as soon as it is admitted that the balance of good and evil need not be restored in a single lifetime. Within most interpretations of the concept of karma, it's untestability means it is impossible to refute or support through evidence. So although everyone at some point believes they have witnessed or had karma, there is no actual proof that it is real.

http://dharma.ncf.ca/introduction/truths/karma2.html

It is quite amazing that some of the smartest people in the world can believe some of the strangest things. The IQ of someone doesn't asses their ability to think scientifically. People with high IQ's are at least as prone as other people to beliefs in conspiracy theories. It goes to show you that just because someone believes in an outrageous theory doesn't mean that they are unintelligent. One of the main reasons that this is, is because people with higher intelligence are better at creating or proving that their theories are sounder then the ones they are arguing against. This means that once they believe in a certain theory then they are extremely likely to have confirmation bias and push the facts against their thought out of their minds. Also people with a high IQ are more likely to have a sense of omniscience or thinking that they know everything. Since they know a lot of things they feel that they know everything about everything, especially when they are comparing themselves to the amount that other know. A perfect example of this is Sir Arthur Conan Doyle who is famous for creating Sherlock Holmes, fell for a trick by a couple of girls and actually wrote a book defending the girls when they said they were with fairies. Later on the girls confessed that they were lying. This is just a preview of this book but it shows exactly what I am saying. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=smart-people-believe-weir This is showing that smart people do things without weighing out all of the pros and cons but rather by going by what they already know and because they are good at defending their beliefs.

It is quite amazing that some of the smartest people in the world can believe some of the strangest things. The IQ of someone doesn't asses their ability to think scientifically. People with high IQ's are at least as prone as other people to beliefs in conspiracy theories. It goes to show you that just because someone believes in an outrageous theory doesn't mean that they are unintelligent. One of the main reasons that this is, is because people with higher intelligence are better at creating or proving that their theories are sounder then the ones they are arguing against. This means that once they believe in a certain theory then they are extremely likely to have confirmation bias and push the facts against their thought out of their minds. Also people with a high IQ are more likely to have a sense of omniscience or thinking that they know everything. Since they know a lot of things they feel that they know everything about everything, especially when they are comparing themselves to the amount that other know. A perfect example of this is Sir Arthur Conan Doyle who is famous for creating Sherlock Holmes, fell for a trick by a couple of girls and actually wrote a book defending the girls when they said they were with fairies. Later on the girls confessed that they were lying. This is just a preview of this book but it shows exactly what I am saying. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=smart-people-believe-weir This is showing that smart people do things without weighing out all of the pros and cons but rather by going by what they already know and because they are good at defending their beliefs. http://www.michaelshermer.com/writing/wp-content/uploads/bc_why_people_believe_cover.jpg

It is quite amazing that some of the smartest people in the world can believe some of the strangest things. The IQ of someone doesn't asses their ability to think scientifically. People with high IQ's are at least as prone as other people to beliefs in conspiracy theories. It goes to show you that just because someone believes in an outrageous theory doesn't mean that they are unintelligent. One of the main reasons that this is, is because people with higher intelligence are better at creating or proving that their theories are sounder then the ones they are arguing against. This means that once they believe in a certain theory then they are extremely likely to have confirmation bias and push the facts against their thought out of their minds. Also people with a high IQ are more likely to have a sense of omniscience or thinking that they know everything. Since they know a lot of things they feel that they know everything about everything, especially when they are comparing themselves to the amount that other know. A perfect example of this is Sir Arthur Conan Doyle who is famous for creating Sherlock Holmes, fell for a trick by a couple of girls and actually wrote a book defending the girls when they said they were with fairies. Later on the girls confessed that they were lying. This is just a preview of this book but it shows exactly what I am saying. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=smart-people-believe-weir This is showing that smart people do things without weighing out all of the pros and cons but rather by going by what they already know and because they are good at defending their beliefs.http://www.michaelshermer.com/writing/wp-content/uploads/bc_why_people_believe_cover.jpg

It is quite amazing that some of the smartest people in the world can believe some of the strangest things. The IQ of someone doesn't asses their ability to think scientifically. People with high IQ's are at least as prone as other people to beliefs in conspiracy theories. It goes to show you that just because someone believes in an outrageous theory doesn't mean that they are unintelligent. One of the main reasons that this is, is because people with higher intelligence are better at creating or proving that their theories are sounder then the ones they are arguing against. This means that once they believe in a certain theory then they are extremely likely to have confirmation bias and push the facts against their thought out of their minds. Also people with a high IQ are more likely to have a sense of omniscience or thinking that they know everything. Since they know a lot of things they feel that they know everything about everything, especially when they are comparing themselves to the amount that other know. A perfect example of this is Sir Arthur Conan Doyle who is famous for creating Sherlock Holmes, fell for a trick by a couple of girls and actually wrote a book defending the girls when they said they were with fairies. Later on the girls confessed that they were lying. This is just a preview of this book but it shows exactly what I am saying. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=smart-people-believe-weir This is showing that smart people do things without weighing out all of the pros and cons but rather by going by what they already know and because they are good at defending their beliefs.http://www.michaelshermer.com/writing/wp-content/uploads/bc_why_people_believe_cover.jpg

It is quite amazing that some of the smartest people in the world can believe some of the strangest things. The IQ of someone doesn't asses their ability to think scientifically. People with high IQ's are at least as prone as other people to beliefs in conspiracy theories. It goes to show you that just because someone believes in an outrageous theory doesn't mean that they are unintelligent. One of the main reasons that this is, is because people with higher intelligence are better at creating or proving that their theories are sounder then the ones they are arguing against. This means that once they believe in a certain theory then they are extremely likely to have confirmation bias and push the facts against their thought out of their minds. Also people with a high IQ are more likely to have a sense of omniscience or thinking that they know everything. Since they know a lot of things they feel that they know everything about everything, especially when they are comparing themselves to the amount that other know. A perfect example of this is Sir Arthur Conan Doyle who is famous for creating Sherlock Holmes, fell for a trick by a couple of girls and actually wrote a book defending the girls when they said they were with fairies. Later on the girls confessed that they were lying. This is just a preview of this book but it shows exactly what I am saying. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=smart-people-believe-weir This is showing that smart people do things without weighing out all of the pros and cons but rather by going by what they already know and because they are good at defending their beliefs. http://www.michaelshermer.com/writing/wp-content/uploads/bc_why_people_believe_cover.jpg

It is quite amazing that some of the smartest people in the world can believe some of the strangest things. The IQ of someone doesn't asses their ability to think scientifically. People with high IQ's are at least as prone as other people to beliefs in conspiracy theories. It goes to show you that just because someone believes in an outrageous theory doesn't mean that they are unintelligent. One of the main reasons that this is, is because people with higher intelligence are better at creating or proving that their theories are sounder then the ones they are arguing against. This means that once they believe in a certain theory then they are extremely likely to have confirmation bias and push the facts against their thought out of their minds. Also people with a high IQ are more likely to have a sense of omniscience or thinking that they know everything. Since they know a lot of things they feel that they know everything about everything, especially when they are comparing themselves to the amount that other know. A perfect example of this is Sir Arthur Conan Doyle who is famous for creating Sherlock Holmes, fell for a trick by a couple of girls and actually wrote a book defending the girls when they said they were with fairies. Later on the girls confessed that they were lying. This is just a preview of this book but it shows exactly what I am saying. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=smart-people-believe-weir This is showing that smart people do things without weighing out all of the pros and cons but rather by going by what they already know and because they are good at defending their beliefs. http://www.michaelshermer.com/writing/wp-content/uploads/bc_why_people_believe_cover.jpg

It is quite amazing that some of the smartest people in the world can believe some of the strangest things. The IQ of someone doesn't asses their ability to think scientifically. People with high IQ's are at least as prone as other people to beliefs in conspiracy theories. It goes to show you that just because someone believes in an outrageous theory doesn't mean that they are unintelligent. One of the main reasons that this is, is because people with higher intelligence are better at creating or proving that their theories are sounder then the ones they are arguing against. This means that once they believe in a certain theory then they are extremely likely to have confirmation bias and push the facts against their thought out of their minds. Also people with a high IQ are more likely to have a sense of omniscience or thinking that they know everything. Since they know a lot of things they feel that they know everything about everything, especially when they are comparing themselves to the amount that other know. A perfect example of this is Sir Arthur Conan Doyle who is famous for creating Sherlock Holmes, fell for a trick by a couple of girls and actually wrote a book defending the girls when they said they were with fairies. Later on the girls confessed that they were lying. This is just a preview of this book but it shows exactly what I am saying. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=smart-people-believe-weir This is showing that smart people do things without weighing out all of the pros and cons but rather by going by what they already know and because they are good at defending their beliefs. http://www.michaelshermer.com/writing/wp-content/uploads/bc_why_people_believe_cover.jpg

It is quite amazing that some of the smartest people in the world can believe some of the strangest things. The IQ of someone doesn't asses their ability to think scientifically. People with high IQ's are at least as prone as other people to beliefs in conspiracy theories. It goes to show you that just because someone believes in an outrageous theory doesn't mean that they are unintelligent. One of the main reasons that this is, is because people with higher intelligence are better at creating or proving that their theories are sounder then the ones they are arguing against. This means that once they believe in a certain theory then they are extremely likely to have confirmation bias and push the facts against their thought out of their minds. Also people with a high IQ are more likely to have a sense of omniscience or thinking that they know everything. Since they know a lot of things they feel that they know everything about everything, especially when they are comparing themselves to the amount that other know. A perfect example of this is Sir Arthur Conan Doyle who is famous for creating Sherlock Holmes, fell for a trick by a couple of girls and actually wrote a book defending the girls when they said they were with fairies. Later on the girls confessed that they were lying. This is just a preview of this book but it shows exactly what I am saying. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=smart-people-believe-weir This is showing that smart people do things without weighing out all of the pros and cons but rather by going by what they already know and because they are good at defending their beliefs. http://www.michaelshermer.com/writing/wp-content/uploads/bc_why_people_believe_cover.jpg

Eugenics and IQ Testing

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During the early 1900's, the United States turned to eugenics, a term meaning "good genes", in an attempt to purge the population of "bad/inferior genes". Before 1935, when sterilization laws were repealed, over 66,000 North Americans were involuntarily sterilized. The Supreme Court upheld rulings for people who were considered "feeble minded", and in the case of Buck v. Bell, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote, "Three generations of imbeciles are enough". How far was Sir Francis Galton willing to go to rid the US of people with lower IQ's?
What bothers me most is that they justified sterilizing people based on IQ tests and their corresponding intelligence scores. Not only were the first IQ tests unreliable, but even today, we can't accurately quantify people's intelligence. Many immigrants were forced to take these tests upon their arrival to the United States during this time period. Those immigrants who were not fluent in English had difficulties with the test and caused them to underestimate their intelligence and were sometimes subjected to the involuntary sterilization.
Two different IQ tests given to a person during the early 1900's more than likely would not produce the same results for the individual. Since this violates the scientific principle of replicability, sterilization based on IQ test scores could not last. You could make the case that most IQ tests are testing different areas of intelligence, so replication of the results would be very difficult. From that perspective, there should be an opportunity to recreate results within each area of intelligence being tested. I see no real reason to get rid of IQ testing altogether, but if consequences of low IQ were to be reinstated, it would not be ethical.

Eugenics and IQ Testing

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During the early 1900's, the United States turned to eugenics, a term meaning "good genes", in an attempt to purge the population of "bad/inferior genes". Before 1935, when sterilization laws were repealed, over 66,000 North Americans were involuntarily sterilized. The Supreme Court upheld rulings for people who were considered "feeble minded", and in the case of Buck v. Bell, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote, "Three generations of imbeciles are enough". How far was Sir Francis Galton willing to go to rid the US of people with lower IQ's?
What bothers me most is that they justified sterilizing people based on IQ tests and their corresponding intelligence scores. Not only were the first IQ tests unreliable, but even today, we can't accurately quantify people's intelligence. Many immigrants were forced to take these tests upon their arrival to the United States during this time period. Those immigrants who were not fluent in English had difficulties with the test and caused them to underestimate their intelligence and were sometimes subjected to the involuntary sterilization.
Two different IQ tests given to a person during the early 1900's more than likely would not produce the same results for the individual. Since this violates the scientific principle of replicability, sterilization based on IQ test scores could not last. You could make the case that most IQ tests are testing different areas of intelligence, so replication of the results would be very difficult. From that perspective, there should be an opportunity to recreate results within each area of intelligence being tested. I see no real reason to get rid of IQ testing altogether, but if consequences of low IQ were to be reinstated, it would not be ethical.

PARENTING STYLES

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No set of parents raise their children the same. As we learned in our chapter in human development, there are three types of parenting styles that parents typically fall into. They include permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parenting styles. Parents raise their children according to their morals, values, and beliefs. There are however many factors that play into what type of style of parenting you fall into. Religion, relationship with child, and personal experience all play into what type of style parents use.

When parents fall under the permissive style, they give up most rules to their children which allows them a considerable amount of freedom in their life. They avoid disciplining their child at all cost which often means giving them the benefit of the doubt or simply turning a blind eye to what's really going on. Most importantly though, permissive parents shower their children with more affection than you can imagine.

Another type of parenting is the authoritarian parenting style. In this style, parents are extremely strict and punish children whenever they deem necessary. They set high standards for their children and are greatly upset when these standards are not met. In doing this they show very little emotional and are often distant.

The Final type of parenting style is authoritative which is a combination of permissive and authoritarian parenting styles. Most parents use this style to raise their children because it provides structure as well as affection. They help their children be responsible for themselves and own up to any consequences that come their way. They want them to succeed in life, and be the best that they can be. They set clear guidelines for their children to follow, and praise them when they do well.

Personally, my parents raised me in an authoritarian home. The pushed me to have good grades in school, yet rewarded me whenever I came home with A's. I always had chores around the house, and rules about going out at night too. However, with these rules, I became a well trusted daughter and was allowed to go places like Chicago without having my parents worry about me.

source: "Parenting Styles." About Pediatrics - Pediatric Parenting and Medical Advice . The New York Times Company, 2011. Web. 20 Nov. 2011.

The Big Five ultimately affect everything we do. This collection of personality traits shapes all of our choices and lifestyles so why not the size of our waistline? In an article recently published in the December issue of Psychology Today, the researchers at the National Institute on Aging have looked at data following "2000 people for over 50 years. We know personality traits are associated with other issues like smoking," so why not with the expanse of our middles.
These researchers discovered that individuals scoring in the top 10 percent on impulsiveness weigh almost 20 pounds more than those in the bottom 10 percent. These participants would start a weight watching program and because of their impulsiveness, they would be distracted and then start something else. The same peoved to be true regarding people scoring low on ageeableness. They were more antagonistic and caused them to be more distressed and therefore eat more and gain more weight. Angelina Sutin, the neuroscientist in charge of the study also found that it was personality that influences weight and not temperament.
Highly conscientious individuals sail through the waistline stressors the best. They are able to maintain there weight because of their even temperament and resist snacking and gaining pounds.Maybe we should design personality tests that could be taken at the beginning of any weight loss program so as to predict success and possible pitfalls.

Hate: A Neglected Topic

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Hate: A Neglected Topic
http://www.psychology.com/articles/?p=233

"In my heart, there are two wolves: a wolf of love and a wolf of hate. It all depends on which one I feed each day." This quote by a Native American woman is extremely interesting, because it delves into the character of human beings. Hate comes easy for human beings, because it is synonymous with aggression, a natural instinct that all humans possess. I have notice from my own personal actions and the actions of others worldwide that it is easier to experience Hate than Love. This is especially true in Western-Individualistic societies. Hate is bred when your own personal anxieties are brought about whether it's through envy, extreme dislike, unfamiliarity etc. These anxieties that we experience led to hatred towards the subject producing the anxiety. We then blame these anxieties on the subject leading to our actions of hatred. Now hatred can be executed in so many ways, ranging from a snide comment to something as horrible as genocide. Hatred is a difficult emotion to cover and hide away; it also seems to come easier than love. It feels good to release it too, so it's an emotion that leads to more hate, like in the picture hatred breeds hatred. You are natural going to dislike someone that hates you. This is where hatred gets scary. Hatred also breeds community. Like the old saying "The enemy of my enemy is my friend" people bond over mutual hatred, this can lead to more hatred. This has been shown perfectly in the Israeli-Palestine conflict, where there is just extreme hatred for each other, and it is being fueled by the mutual hatred and the bonding over a common hatred. So when you think which wolf shall I feed today, do the wolf of love. Even though hatred is contagious, so is love and the world would be a better place if people could overcome their hatred with love without having their love for something lead to the hatred of another competing subject.

Are you smart?

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Howard Garnder coined the term Multiple Intelligences to challenges the traditional definition of intelligent. He argues that I.Q. testing alone is far too limited and it does not account for boarder human potentials. The theory of Multiple Intelligences incorporates the following "smartness" to categorize intelligent.
1. Linguistic intelligence - word smart
2. Logical-mathematical intelligence - number/reasoning smart
3. Spatial intelligence - picture smart
4. Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence - body smart
5. Musical intelligence -music smart
6. Interpersonal intelligence -people smart
7. Intrapersonal intelligence -self smart
8. Naturalist intelligence -nature smart

He highlights the fact that people are not smart in the same way. Individual inhibit various degree of these types of intelligences. As a result this theory questions the traditional school culture. It argues that the traditional classroom comprises of lecture and textbooks undermine difference learning behavior. This method are bias toward students who are linguistic and logical- mathematical intelligent, while ignoring other type of smartness. Therefore, this lack of reinforcement actually leads to underachieving students. Hence, the failure in the public school system is due to the teacher and administrator rather than students. Through Gardner's assertion many teachers actually tailor their teaching around children's learning style. However, this may not be a wise decision seeing authority's expectation actually plays a key role in the measurement of intelligences. Rosenthal and Jacobson finding in the "self-fulfilling prophecy" where student's performances reflect the expectation their teacher's expectation. More importantly, this theory is hard to falsify since these intelligent may not be independent of other. Plus, it is hard to test since there is no formal test to measure these intelligences.

Band, Orchestra, or Choir?

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A study was conducted between two high schools involving their band, orchestra, and choir ensembles and their relationship to personality. The study also tried to indicate whether having a certain personality type would make you choose a certain instrument. To ensure validity, those being measured had be involved in only one ensemble and had to have participated in that ensemble for more than a year. It was predicted that those in choir would be more extraverted and those participating in band and orchestra would be more introverted. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), one of the most widely used personality tests worldwide, was administrated to test this theory. They found that for all ensembles more students preferred extroversion, but for all of the other categories that MBTI tested there was no difference. As predicted, choir students had higher extroversion scores than did the students in band and orchestra. Although our textbook states that the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is not a reliable test of personality, most the results have been replicated by other studies.

After taking the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator for my job in high school, I believe that the results were accurate and described my personality well. One of my friends who also took the test seemed to feel the same way. However, this could be due to the P.T. Barnum effect. I would be interested in taking the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator again to see what my results would be like now that I am in college and living a new lifestyle. It would be interesting to see how consistent personality is through your lifetime.


TEXT TO LINK TO

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Your baby..... can't read

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From our readings in the book, there has been a general trend of increased IQ every generation also know as the Flynn effect. This increase may also stem from the fact that there is also an increase in the amount of technology present in our every day lives that might have helped us become smarter. Today more students are taking more rigorous course and standardize test to get into elite schools than before. Some parents might do what-ever they can to give their child an edge; but how young is too young? You may have seen some infomercials about products that claims that your baby can learn to read or become smarter by purchasing there DVD and flashcard sets. However, before you do, you might want to do some research on the claims presented.

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One very important principle from the six scientific principle of scientific thinking that should be considered in this case is "extraordinary claim." Although the company show testimonials of parents claiming that their baby can read, research show no evidence to back this up. One study show that "each hour per day of viewing baby DVDs/videos was associated with a 16.99-point decrement in CDI (Communicative Development Inventory) score" (Zimmerman, 2007). Consumers should also consider other explanations as well- ruling out rival hypothesis. The system eposes the child to the DVD's and drills them on flashcards which could actually cause the child to memorize the "images" of the word instead of reading the words themselves.
Further more, most IQ test for young children assess sensory abilities, thus has very little association with intelligence (Lilienfield, pg. 332). Additionally the reliability of an IQ is not reliable prior to age two. Genetics plays a role in "smartness" but environmental influences also affect these babies. I feel that if you really want your child to be smart you just can't take the easy way out and depend on a set of DVD's and flash cards to do that. Actively engaging, interacting and encouraging the baby might be a better solution.

Zimmerman F.J., Christakis D.A., Meltzoff A.N. Associations between Media Viewing and Language Development in Children Under Age 2 Years (2007) Journal of Pediatrics, 151 (4), pp. 364-368

Fortune tellers have always been known for being sufficiently vague and arbitrary about everything they predict for an individual. Their predictions could in fact apply to anyone else who is even slightly similar to the given person. (An interesting incident that illustrates this is seen in the short story The Fortuneteller by Karel Capek).
ptbarnum1.png
It is a proven fact that people find it exceedingly difficult to pick out a prediction which was made for them from other predictions as they are all so similar. Regardless of this, when they are told only their own prediction they are more than eager to say that it applies to them and that it's "spot-on". This phenomenon is known as the P.T. Barnum effect and it is also seen in things like tarot card readings and horoscopes.
When reading one's horoscope, if one took the time to also read other horoscopes the similarity between them all would be inescapable. The P.T. Barnum effect explains the reason for ignoring the principle of extraordinary claims by using the principle of confirmation bias.
People tend to believe what they're told and what they read in the case of horoscopes- they do not consider the fact that it is nigh impossible to tell a person's fortune by any means that are scientifically verifiable. They refuse to look for the extraordinary evidence that is required as proof for horoscopes, tarot card readings etc.
More information about the effect can be found here.

According to the book, birth order tends to be associated with out personality. They claim that firstborns tend toward achievement, middle-borns toward diplomacy, and later-borns toward risk taking. Sulloway's findings raised the possibility that birth order is an important non-shared environmental influence. He found that later-borns were 3.1 times more likely than firstborns to favor revolutionary ideas for extremely radical ideas, this ratio increased to 4.7. In contrast, firstborns usually supported the status quo. If we look at an example from the show "Even Stevens" it is easy to see that these kids actually do support the birth order idea. Donnie is the athlete that is always accomplishing achievements in sports. Ren is the smart one who is always trying to do well. Louis though, he is the slacker/trouble maker of the kids.
If we take a look at my family though, it is almost the complete opposite of this idea. My older brothers are all slackers, and just tend to not care about anything. They are the trouble makers. They always had some place to go, and never really cared all that much about school or anything. I on the other hand, the youngest, always strive to succeed at what I do. I never went out much in high school unless all my work was done. I'm the one who had to get all "A's" in high school. I always was trying to achieve something unlike my brothers. So, birth order can't really be generalized. It varies it different types of families.

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In chapter nine of the Lilienfeld text, titled "Intelligence and IQ Testing," it discusses racial differences in IQ scores. For starters, IQ stands for intelligence quotient and is defined as a systematic mean of quantifying differences among people in their intelligence. Studies have proven that the average IQ score does indeed differ among races, for an example, Asians score higher than Caucasians and Caucasians score higher than African Americans and Hispanics. However, it is emphasized that this does not necessarily imply genetic differences in intelligence or learning potential. There are many factors that go into somebody's intelligence level, including environmental and cultural influences.

I think that this particular topic caught my attention because I am half Asian and I have been stereotyped under these circumstances. During high school, many of my peers assumed that I had a higher intelligence level because of my ethnicity and thought that the pure Asians obtained an even higher level of intelligence. Although this could remain true in some cases, it is very wrong and inaccurate to make the assumption about every Asian. I believe that all ethnicities have the opportunity to flourish and develop high intelligence, but that some may have greater success because of their culture or environment. For an example, the Asian culture has always highly valued education and emphasizes it at a young age, and this could be why some may believe that all Asians are born smart. I think that this concept is important because many believe that Asians have some sort of advantage over other races, when that is not necessarily true.

I know some families where all the children are intelligent so I am still wondering if intelligence is genetically influenced at all? Are certain people born with more potential to develop a higher intelligence than others? When you're younger, what can be done to help obtain a higher intelligence? Are IQ tests ever looked at when someone is getting hired for a job?


Click here to take an IQ test online!

Intelligence

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Dawit Wage
Psychology writing assignment # 5
Date - 11/18/11
Intelligence is the ability to understand and learn and make judgment or have opinions that are based on reason. As we have seen in our text book the ideas of psychologists are divided toward the concept of intelligence. There are many controversies among psychologists to get the real concepts of intelligence. For instance psychologist Charles Spears described intelligence as - g or general intelligence. He tried to define intelligence as overall individual mental capacity without the specific ability of individual on a certain area of field. Actually some people are smarter than others no doubt about it, the problem is we do not know on which area he or she smarter than others. He himself aware the general intelligence didn't produce individual difference and tells the whole story of intelligence among individuals. Spears also came up with the idea of s factor or specific ability that sounds nice to me; because every individual is good at certain area of field and bad at others field. For example some people are good at mathematics and bad at linguistics area.
On the other hand psychologist Howard Gardener dissatisfied with the idea of general intelligence that Spears proposed. Gardener states intelligence as multiple domain which means, each individual has around eight components of independent intelligences which enable individual to perform mental task. Gardner believed each person is good at many areas of field rather than a certain area of field but his idea was not supported by many psychologists. Extra ordinary claims need extra ordinary evidences. Another psychologist, Robert Sternberg who supports Gardner idea also proposed three fundamental aspects of intelligence: analytical, practical, and creative. Sternberg and Gardner they both criticize Spears for the idea of general intelligence. In my opinion the idea of factor s or specific ability that Spears came up with was very sounds to me, because some people are good at mathematics and physics and bad at linguistic area. Imagine if everybody had the same level of understanding to ward something the world would be in a very boring and uninteresting place to live. This would make the diversities of knowledge nonsense that we all enjoy today. Therefore, in my opinion the factor of s or specific ability of Spears idea would be better supported the individual differences ideas and the diversities of knowledge that are exist in our world. Let us rejoice and appreciate the diversity of knowledge that each individual is good at it. For instance, Albert Einstein mathematics and physics are his second nature that no one can deny about it. Alber.jpg
Source Scott Lilienfeld

A Focus on Extraversion

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In lecture last week, we learned about the Big 5 Personality Traits, which include Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism. These Big Five Traits are said to have emerged from factor analyses, which is a statistical way of looking at the correlations between different responses on personality assessments. In an article I found on Science Daily, researchers present a view on one trait in particular; extraversion. In this article, Ronald E. Riggio talks about how extraversion and leadership correlate. Although a lot of people may assume that those who are extraverts are automatically good leaders, Riggio uses the critical thinking principle of ruling out rival hypotheses to present an alternate viewpoint. He says that social skills could be a better predictor of leadership. In his longitudinal study (one in which he studied the same group of individuals at different points in time), Riggio used a sample of everyday adults, not leaders, to assess social skills. Even though previous, replicable research has found that extraversion was correlated with both attainment of leadership and measures of effectiveness, Riggio also found that social skills are a predictor of leadership. So, when social skills were put into the mix, only extraverts with high levels of social skills were considered to be good leaders. I feel that this study is a very effective way of showing not only ruling of rival hypotheses, replicability and falsifiability, but it also includes a lot of important psychology terms and ways to look deeper and be more analytical in the psychology world. Personality is an important factor, but this article helps show that other complex matters, such as social skills, may matter more when it comes to social behaviors such as leadership.

The Big Five

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Something we discussed in lecture last week is The Big Five. The Big Five is five traits that make up a personality. The five traits are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.

Open people are often curious, such as Curious George.
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Conscientious people are careful like Hermione Granger.
hermione.jpg

Extraverted people are very sociable like Will Smith.
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Agreeable people are easy to get along with like Ellen DeGeneres.
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Neurotic people are said to be tense and quite moody like Monica Gellar.
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These traits are often influenced my many aspects of culture such as individualism-collectivism and personality. People in individualism cultures determine their own behaviors because they work towards individual goals. People in collectivism cultures behaviors are determined by social norm because they work towards the goals of the group.
These traits can also determine what kind of job a person might be good at. For example, a person of high extraversion might be a good salesman or business person. They are social enough to get their point across. Shyer people would not be as good at confronting customers because they are strangers. Another example is agreeable people make good talk show hosts. Oprah is a good example of this. People tend to like her because she has the happiness and health of others in mind. She has good intentions. People like her and get along with her for these reasons.
One flaw in this system is there is no Big Five trait that deals with morality. Morality plays a big role in many peoples life and shapes who they are. Researchers admit the system is not perfect but is a pretty good idea of how personality traits affect us.

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The Questions Never End

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In lecture, Professor Jeff Simpson covered attachment theory. Ainsworth and her fellow scientists discovered three attachment patterns in children. The three patterns were secure, avoidant, and anxious-ambivalent. Parents of secure children were attentive and caring toward their children. Parents of avoidant children were inattentive and detached in regards to their children. Finally, parents of anxious-ambivalent children had good intentions, but they didn't know how to act as a parent or were distracted.
Attachment theory is important because it helps explain the dynamics of the parent-child relationship and how that affects the behavior of the child in that relationship. This theory can help account for flaws in parental behavior and possibly steer that behavior in a better direction. Attachment theory can also help explain the behaviors of people later in life as they undergo growth from child to adult. This particular theory may also be useful for predicting or identifying criminal behavior in teens and adults. In essence, attachment theory can be used to help explain human behavior in many contexts.
There are still many questions on my mind as I ponder different aspects of attachment theory. Is attachment theory applied differently based on the number of children parents have? Is this same theory applicable based on the number of boys and/or girls parents have? How does culture affect parenting style? Is there a point where parents give too much attention to their children? The list goes on and many variables may need to be considered. That is the beauty of science. The questions never end.

Fine with Freud?

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Sigmund Freud was one of the most influential psychologists when it came to the topic of personality. Freud was not originally a psychologist or psychiatrist but a neurologist. After studying a woman in Paris with a mental disorder, Freud directed his attention on the unconscious mind.
For Freud, he came up with the Freud Model of Personality Structure. It is based off of the three ideas that personality is shaped by a person's id, ego, and superego. The Id represents primitive impulses which drives our behavior. This would be the home of the sexual drive otherwise known as the libido that Freud believed to be a main source for a persons unconscious decisions. The Id operated off of the pleasure principle, which would strive for immediate gratification. The ego would be the decision maker of the personality. The ego interacts with the real world and uses the reality principle. The reality principle strove to delay gratification until it could find an appropriate outlet. The superego is known as the sense of morality. This would be the equivalent to voices in our head telling us what is right and what is wrong. According to Freud, this is where our guilt lies.
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Freud believed that the three components of personality worked together when creating dreams. He believed that dreams were symbolic. He also believed that dreams were wish fulfillments. He felt that many items such as umbrellas, ties, and tunnels were all sexual innuendos. How ever, I disagree. I do not believe that everything is aimed at being sexual in dreams. Also, I do not agree that if you dream of an object it only means one thing. According to http://www.dreammoods.com/dreamthemes/bodyparts.htm#Teeth, when you have a loose tooth it means that it is a sign of failure where as source http://www.meaning-of-dreams.net/dreams/tooth.html says that if you loose a tooth it signifies the loose of innocence.
As you can see, Freud's theory of dreams is not very accurate when it comes to symbolism due to the fact that everyone interprets dreams different.


It seems as though some people have a difficult time understanding the terms gender and sex. Sex refers the biological status of an individual as having a male or female reproductive system, whereas gender is the wide set of characteristics that help distinguish males from females. Society has had a major influence on the way people view male and female individuals and the roles they should take on based upon their sex.

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Starting from infancy, people treat male and female babies differently. Examples could be toys given, colors that they are dressed in, or how they are talked to. Males toys tend to be tools or sports equipment whereas females are more likely to be given dolls or toy kitchen supplies. Sexes are also often shown through clothing. If a baby is wearing pink or purple, it is likely that the baby is female. As for boys, blue and green are often worn to show their sex. When communicating, people use words such as strong and handsome when talking to a baby boy. In contrast, girls are often called pretty and adorable instead.

These differences in treatment do not go unnoticed. Children pick up on these differences and begin to form their own ideas of gender roles. As you will see in the following video, children have a distinct idea of which sex should do specific tasks and what characteristics are appropriate for each.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pWc1e3Nbc2g&feature=related

According to the video, children have set ideas in their head of characteristics and actions that are appropriate for a certain sex. From the video, some children have the perspective that child care and cleaning are done and even liked by females. In contrast, males work. The way in which people act and treat others impacts the way society grows to view the sex of individuals and the way they perceive gender roles.

What determines if a person is gay or straight? Is it his upbringing? Could it be his group of friends that he hangs out with? Or could it be something that occurs much earlier than one's childhood? Recent findings have indicated that sexual orientation is determined mostly by genetics. According to the authors of our Psych 1001 text book, "it's plausible that biological differences are sometimes present even before birth" (Lilienfeld, pg. 441). The textbook also states that Michael Bailey and Richard conducted a study and found that there was a 52 percent likelihood that a set of identical twins shared the characteristic of homosexuality, compared to only 22 percent between fraternal twins. The higher percentage between identical twins demonstrates that genetics are a higher indication of sexual orientation because identical twins share 100 percent genetics.
CBS covered a story of two sets of twins and the differences between these twins. The first set of 9 year old twins is Adam and Jared. Adam and Jared are completely different in their interests. The movie below describes how Adam's room is pastel colors, with stuffed animals and white horses covering the majority of the room. Adam's behavior is known as childhood gender nonconformity, meaning that his behavior is similar to that of the opposite sex. Juxtaposed to Adam, Jared's room is filled with a G.I. Joe collection and several military toys. Untitled.png

The other set of identical twins is Steve and Greg. Greg is gay while his brother Steve is straight. The mother mentions how there were early indications in the difference between the two sons. Even during high school, Steve admits that he knew that Greg was gay.

http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=1391768n

Michael Bailey, a psychology professor at Northwestern University, believes that nurture is not a plausible explanation for sexual orientation. These two sets of twins show how even though they are raised in the same environment, their sexual orientation and behavior differs.

Freudian Slip

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The idea of a "Freudian slip" has become a punch line for many jokes with people accidentally saying something they think without meaning to say it. However, it is also a psychological term created by Sigmund Freud to support his model of psychoanalytic theory of personality.

In Freud's theory, he emphasizes the point of psychic determinism (meaning that all psychological events have some sort of cause). This includes even "slip of the tongue" experiences. Freud claims that all people have both unconscious and conscious minds: unconscious being the part of personality in which we're unaware, conscious being what we are aware of. So, a Freudian slip occurs when a person makes an unintentional error when speaking which ends up revealing their unconscious thoughts or feelings. This slip occurs due to particular circumstances that allow someone to reveal their true beliefs while they are having their own internal struggle between some unconscious wish along with a desire they have to keep it hidden.

However, the Freudian slip is also given much criticism for being inaccurate. There are instances in which speech is merely a mistake/accidental rather than having some underlying meaning. This is likely to happen in cases in which someone is merely inattentive, has insufficient knowledge, or they have a routine response pattern due to emotions or situations. Clearly, these cases have nothing to do with unconscious desires, rather they are simply mistakes. Yet, this doesn't mean that all wording accidents are a result of these causes. Psychologists agree that some of our slips are due to unconscious desires that are brought to the surface.

Thus, whether a verbal mix-up is a Freudian slip may depend upon the situation. Further questions to pursue include: is there any meaning behind our slips? And, if so, when are these slips a revelation of our unconscious and when are they simple cases of misspeaking? Regardless of the validity of the Freudian slip, Sigmund Freud's ideas were revolutionary, influencing others and generating novel discoveries in the field of psychology.

Beauty in the eye of the beholder elaborates on the idea of different people possessing diverse principles of beauty and that not everyone approves on who is attractive and who is not. Yet beauty is universally defined by a combination of qualities, such as shape, color, or form that pleases aesthetic senses, especially sight as well as the intellect or moral sense. The evolutionary models of psychology have overturned this idea by explicating that the same standards of beauty are the similar across individuals and cultures. For instance, within the United States, the ethnicities of Eastern Asians, Caucasians and African Americans agree on which faces are more or less beautiful. Cross culturally, there is substantial agreement in the judgment of beauty among Latins, Russians, Brazilians, Hispanics, Cruzans, Indians, and the Chinese. The evolutionary theory also states that we are born with the knowledge of who is beautiful and who is not. Two studies conducted in the mid-1980's independently validated that infants as young as two to three month olds stare longer at the face that adults judge to be more attractive than at a face that adults judge to be less attractive. This study explained that babies tend to stare at objects that they consider to be pleasing, thus, babies favor to look longer at a person they view more attractive.
I think the idea of beauty in the eye of the beholder plays an important role in society of demonstrating that there is more to life than physical attractiveness. I think personality can make or break someone's beauty and that although there is a universal way of defining beauty, not everybody is forced to conform to it and feel the same way as everybody else. Ultimately, "The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched. They must be felt with the heart"(Helen Keller).

Genes or Environment?

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nicoleandjaqueline.jpgAccording to the Lilienfeld text, results from a University of Minnesota study show that genes play a big role in personality. Researchers at the U of M collected a sample of 130 identical and fraternal twins that grew up apart. It was found that identical twins reared apart tend to be very similar in their personality traits. They're also a lot more similar than fraternal twins reared apart. When compared with twins that grew up together, it's shown that identical twins grown up apart are about as similar as identical twins grown up together- suggesting that shared environment plays little or no role in adult personality. Although shared environment plays some role in childhood personality, this role generally subsides as we grow older. This is important to understand, because although there may be some studies showing that shared environment has a big impact- you should check to see whether they were studying children or adults, since as we grow older the connection between environment and personality is generally lost. Something I wonder about is how big of an impact genes have on personality when looking at siblings, not just twins? Would there be any correlation between genes and personality with siblings that grew up separately? Would the environment play a bigger role, since unlike twins, siblings do not share all the same genetic material? Would HOW siblings are being raised have a bigger impact?

The Big Five

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In the Lilienfeld text in Chapter 14, we are introduced to the Big Five. The Big Five, according to the Lilienfeld text is, five traits that have surfaced repeatedly in factor analyses of personality measures. The Big Five were uncovered using a lexical approach to personality, which proposes that the most crucial features of human personality are embedded in our language. According to Paul Costa, Robert McCrae, and their collaborators there are five dimensions to the Big Five. Openness to Experience- people tend to be intellectually curious and unconventional. Conscientiousness- people tend to be careful and responsible. Extraversion- people tend to be social and lively. Agreeableness- people tend to be sociable and easy to get along with. Neuroticism- people tend to be tense and moody. I feel that the Big Five is important because you can use it to describe a lot of different factors about a person and not just one single trait. For me, I scored really high as an extrovert and with conscientiousness. I am a super organized person and make sure to be very careful and take my time until everything is perfect. I am in a sorority so being an extrovert is a great trait to have because you are constantly meeting other people and having to be social at events. I wonder how accurate these tests are and if people "cheat" on the test, so that their results come out to something that they wish they could be. How do we monitor that and make sure that the information is correct?
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Everyone has taken a standardized test at some point in their life. I think it'd be safe to say standardized tests.jpgthat 100% of students in college have taken one; more commonly the ACT or the SAT. But are these standardized tests as effective in telling how "smart" or not a person is?

I believe that there are multiple levels of intelligence; most of which cannot be measured by a test. Yes some people are 'test-smart'- they understand the curriculum to a certain point, but are extremely good at taking the tests. These sort of people have advantages in the standardized testing world. It doesn't matter if there are others who are significantly smarter than them; if you don't do as well on the standardized test, it doesn't matter, you're not as smart, right?

Wrong. There may be some students who are extremely talented in a certain subject, take science for example, but not so good in English; because the standardized tests take the average of all the testing categories, this student could appear to colleges as unintelligent. For example, on the ACT this student got a 34 of 36 on his science and a 32 for math; but low scores in writing, English and reading caused his overall to be 26. Who is this test to tell this student that he is dumb? These tests are weighted so heavily in the college communities that it makes a drastic impact on the student's future. That is extremely unfair. It is understood that colleges look for well-rounded students, but say this student is looking to pursue a career in the maths and/or sciences, but is denied from colleges due to his overall score. This puts the student in an uncomfortable position; they feel as if they're not good enough. This student had the potential to do wonders in the math and science worlds, but due to standardized testing, he may never get the chance.

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These tests consume so much of a high school student's time and money. As high-schoolers,you spend lots of money to take the test in the first place, then spend money on study groups, books, and tutors. The studying for the tests takes hours upon hours out of your day when you could be doing homework from your classes, or being social- both HUGE parts of high school. In the end only to be told whether we're "adequate enough for college".

Standardized testing may work for some situations, but there should be other ways when determining the outcome of someone's future- an extremely delicate topic to simply toy around with. Your life and your future shouldn't depend on a test.

Stereotype Threat

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One may define a stereotype threat as the fear that we may confirm a negative group stereotype. These can be directed at anyone who falls into a minority group. This article refers to the many different things that apparently women can not do. When a women reads this list, if they believe it, their performance will be affected by it. People tend to perform less well because they believe that they can not perform as well. A stereotype threat can affect someone's individual performance on an IQ test. Although, stereotype threats are not the main reason for the differences in IQ scores between African Americans and Caucasians. The main difference between IQ scores between these groups are the social differences in resources, opportunities, attitudes, and experiences. One woman who has overcome a stereotype threat and particularly number 13 on the list is Chelsea Handler. According to the list, women can not "tell a joke." But Chelsea Handler has not let these accusations affect her in her career and is one of the most well-known comedians ever. Stereotype threats affect people in many different ways, but if one is not affected by these false accusations, they can excel in whatever they wish to.

How birth order and IQ

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According to recent information, there is a small but reliable negative correlation between IQ and birth order. This is that the more older siblings one has, the lower the person's IQ is. This result came after many speculations of the finding; before, there was little evidence that birth rate and personality coincided. There is a major flaw in research because the size of the family plays a large role. According to Joshua Hartshorne, "A child from a two-kid family has a 50 percent chance of being a firstborn, whereas a child from a five-kid family has only a 20 percent chance of being a firstborn." Therefore, if you are part of a smaller family, it is much more likely that you will be a first born than if you were part of a larger family.
The first born tending to be more intelligent could be linked to many factors. The major reason is that larger families have to distribute their resources more thinly (time, money, etc). Also, well educated and wealthy parents tend to have fewer children, while less educated and economically unstable families tend to have more children.
Even though new evidence supports these claims, there is still not a strong correlation between intelligence and birth order, so the evidence, to me, seems unreliable.
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According to recent information, there is a small but reliable negative correlation between IQ and birth order. This is that the more older siblings one has, the lower the person's IQ is. This result came after many speculations of the finding; before, there was little evidence that birth rate and personality coincided. Before, research was flawed primarily because the size of the family played a large role. According to Joshua Hartshorne, "A child from a two-kid family has a 50 percent chance of being a firstborn, whereas a child from a five-kid family has only a 20 percent chance of being a firstborn." Therefore, if you are part of a smaller family, it is much more likely that you will be a first born than if you were part of a larger family.
The first born tending to be more intelligent could be linked to many factors. The major reason is that larger families have to distribute their resources more thinly (time, money, etc). Also, well educated and wealthy parents tend to have fewer children, while less educated and economically unstable families tend to have more children.
Even though new evidence supports these claims, there is still not a strong correlation between intelligence and birth order, so the evidence, to me, seems unreliable.
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BIG FIVE

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After learning about the Big Five during Psychology, I decided I wanted to further investigate the factors and how they affect personality.

The Big Five factors are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Openness to experience measures whether one is curious or cautious. Conscientiousness measures whether one is organized or careless. Extroversion measures whether one is outgoing or reserved. Agreeableness measures whether one is friendly or unkind. Finally, neuroticism measures whether a person is nervous or confident. The Big Five traits measure a wide variety of personality and produce comprehensive results.

The study goes on to show that the Big Five factors are influenced by both hereditary and environmental impacts. Studies which use longitudinal data and correlate people's test scores over time show a high stability with their Big Five percentages. On average levels of extroversion, neuroticism, and openness tend to decrease with time, whereas agreeableness and conscientiousness typically increase. In addition to these group effects, there are individual differences: different people demonstrate unique patterns of change at all stages of life.

Currently testing is being done on non-human beings in order to see if we can use the Big Five factors to separate others by personality. The prime animal they are testing is the chimpanzee.

The biggest concern with the Big Five personality test is that it does not gauge several other categories that describe personality. Will we ever be able to create a test that accurately examines all personality traits and produces labels for the test-takers?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Five_personality_traits

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In the article here by Times Magazine, it discusses a study done by Princeton University that claims if you make an income lower that $75,000 a year you are less happy. The study says that there are two types of happiness, mood/day and satisfaction about your life. The group of people that were studied fell under the satisfaction about their life category. Our book claims that money is a secondary reward but is not a factor that makes us happier. This article provides a replicable study that claims different then this.
I also agree with the article. When a family has stresses about their financial living, they definitely are less happy. My mom without the support of my dad does not bring in a big income. She lives check by check to pay her bills and finds herself less happy because she is constantly stressed about paying the next bill. "At $75,000, that effect disappears. For people who earn that much or more, individual temperament and life circumstances have much more sway over their lightness of heart than money. The study doesn't say why $75,000 is the benchmark, but "it does seem to me a plausible number at which people would think money is not an issue" (Money). To have a livable amount such as $75,000 proves to bring happiness from this article, and I believe the study to prove true. Happiness is an emotion of satisfaction and positivity that money can provide. It is not a healthy thing to rely on money to bring you happiness but it will give you it.

Screen shot 2011-11-18 at 8.47.28 PM.pngIt is obvious that some people are more successful in different intellectual domains than others. Gardner's Multiple Intelligences suggests eight different domains of intellectual skill people can identify with. The domains consist of the following, in which people can score any level in all categories: linguistic, logico-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalistic. Although his model is impossible to falsify, this idea is important because it serves as a good starting point in which scientists can begin distinguishing what qualifies as an "intelligence" versus a talent. However, it is possible that talents and intelligence are actually the same, when intelligence is defined among Gardner's approach. It is impossible to say Einstein had a talent in math yet didn't identify with that intelligence. A causation approach seems to be inapplicable because research points towards intelligence being considerably stable, while talents can be improved... yet those talents remain in the same realm as its partnering intelligence. This article talks about how there is a controversy on the misuse of his idea into new teaching methods. However, who said that just because someone is intelligent in music means that they will all of a sudden learn geography classes significantly better based on singing the information? They would simply just excel in the musical part of tasks, further concluding their continued talent/intelligence. As suggested in the text, I prefer to conclude I have an intelligence in humor, but one could beg to differ. Overall, I now wonder if someones IQ could actually be the degree in which every arguable intelligence is taken into consideration, then somehow calculated. The WAIS test seems to imply there are different areas of intelligence, so why not add them all...? Oh, how psychology is incredibly ambiguous.

In lecture, Professor Simpson gave us two examples for determining the personality of patients. These two tests were the Thematic Apperception Test and the Rorschach test. But, these two tests aren't the only ones that determine the personality of a person. Another test that determines someone's personality is a test called Draw-A-Person Test (Draw-A-Person Test, History of Projective Testing). Created by Karen Machover in 1949 this test is usually tested on children to examine the range of their personality traits, whether it be aggressiveness to relationships with family.

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The child is first instructed to draw a picture of woman, man, and a picture of themselves. Once the child has finished drawing, the child is then asked to explain what they have drawn and why they have drawn it. Apart from the explanation the child gives, the administrator also analyzes the aspects of the drawing like the size of the head, arms, placement of body parts, and whether things are included or not included. Observing these aspects are believed to tell what is going on cognitively inside the child's mind and determine aspects of his/her personality.

There are a various versions of the Draw-A-Person test, including one that is on the iPad/itouch. The app is called Dr. Touch and it asks you, like an administrator asks a child, to draw something. Once you have finished your drawing, the app analyzes the drawing and gives you feedback on the analysis of your personality or gives you advice based upon your drawing.

You can see this app in the works here.

Isolated

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Genie.jpgAs college students, we complain about deprivation of many things during finals week. Sleep is generally the biggest concern, but social interaction, healthy meals, and personal hygiene are all details of our daily lives that seem to be put on the backburner when that dreaded week of each semester occurs. However, after the week is finished, we go home to home-cooked meals, time for sleeping and social events, and moms to take care of laundry and make sure we are washing our hair.

What if that week of deprivation, however, was more extreme and lasted for a total of 13 years? It sounds unbelievable, yes...but for the case of "Genie," a psychological research study that gave researchers an inside look at human development, the disastrous effects of deprivation are a reality. The information that follows comes from a program aired on PBS.

The story of Genie begins when Genie (a pseudo name given to the child of the study) was just an infant. Raised in isolation, Genie was kept in the confines of a bathroom for 13 years of her life. She was left alone and punished for making noise, depriving her of any sort of stimulation. When authorities found her in 1970 (at 13 years of age), she was extremely malnourished and unable to talk. Even her physical movements seemed off. Her walk was described as that of a bunny and she was still in diapers.

As one can see, the effects of deprivation are extremely detrimental to an individual, especially a developing child. Because the plasticity of the brain is a key component of proper development, it is critical that a child receives adequate stimulation while the brain is still malleable. Unfortunately for Genie, this lack of stimulation affected her lifelong success. Although she was put through countless hours of therapy, Genie was unable to communicate effectively even into her old age. She was eventually placed in a group home after the psychological experiments were called off. Controversy still remains as to whether or not the studies on Genie were ethical.

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Enneagram is a model of human personality which is principally used as a typology.It definite nine types temperament:
1. The Reformer
2. The Helper
3. The Achiever
4. The Individualist
5. The Investigator
6. The Loyalist
7. The Enthuiast
8. The Challenger
9. The Peacemaker
Sometimes we use the "wing" to make the definition more incorrect.Just like the picture-- 116742785_f9995f9ed8_o.gif116742804_d359f6d950_o.gif
And it also be classified Instinctual subtypes which usually called "self-preservation", "sexual" and "social".
No one know who created it,most of people think that it is a old knowledge which can find in history of Pythagoras. But Enneagram is one of the most popular theory on personality.Many company like HP and Coke Cola apply it on HR and it is a hot course in university too.
If you want know which one is your type,It is the test
http://similarminds.com/advtest.html

Logotherapy

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So this might be kind of off topic for this writing assignment, but a book titled Man's Search for Meaning, by Viktor Frankl, an austrian Psychiatrist and Philosopher, has a different theory behind happiness than our text book. A holocaust survivor, Frankl saw the worst possible parts of human personality, but also some of the most resilient. What Frankl concluded from his experiences was that meaning was the driving force behind human life. "A man with a why to live, can bear through any how." After his experiences in the concentration camp, Frankl devolped his own type of Psychology, called Logotherapy. Logotherapy--logos means "meaning" in Greek--has three basic premises: Life has meaning under all circumstances, people crave meaning, and people always have the power, under any circumstances, to find meaning. While Frankl's theory may not be the most scientific according to our text book, I think it makes a lot of sense. finding meaning in life probably isn't the only key to happiness, but I think it definitely helps.
"Happiness cannot be pursued; it must ensue." --Frankl, Man's Search for Meaning

Dissociative Identity Disorder

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iStock_000004356705Small-300x222.jpgI recently read an article about dissociative identity disorder or DID for short. In the article it discussed how DID according to the media and even some mental health doctors is not a real disorder. However, it is a real and debilitating disorder that people suffer from everyday.
When looking at the belief that DID does not exist it is easy to see why people believe this. In the article it says that when someone has dissociative identity disorder that it is very obvious. This myth is because in movies and on television characters who have DID have an over exaggerated form of the disorder. This over exaggeration is just like the pseudoscience concept of extraordinary claims. In reality people who suffer from DID spend seven years in the mental health system before they are diagnosed.
Another myth in relation to dissociative identity disorder is that treatment of DID may make the disorder worse. However, the treatment of DID does make help the person suffering from DID get better. People who are treated and do not improve may have been given outdated or ineffective approaches. This claim of outdated or ineffective approaches is the pseudoscience concept of Occam's razor. People not over exaggerating why treatment isn't effective makes the claim very simple and not to far fetch.
To read more about DID and the other myths that are about this disorder check out,

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What if someone told you that they would know everything about your personality by just looking at your handwriting or your signature? Would you believe them?

Graphologists claim that they can uncover characteristics of one's personality by looking at one's handwriting. They use the study of graphology or the psychological interpretation of handwriting. They have whole glossaries that tell what characteristics of handwriting demonstrate which traits. For example, forgetting to cross one's T demonstrates that the person is forgetful or absentminded. A full glossary of these handwriting characteristics and their traits can be found here.

This method of determining personality should be evaluated using the Six Principles of Scientific Thinking before we consider the claim to be fact. The principle we should use is the principle of Extraordinary Claims. This principle states that extraordinary claims must be supported by a lot of evidence before we believe them.

Graphologists say that they can tell one's personality traits by looking at his/her handwriting, and they say they can predict job performance. However, when comparing the results of graphologists to other personality tests, their findings didn't match up. And there is almost no evidence that supports the claim that graphology can predict job performance. (The article that demonstrates this research can be found here)

In order to further evaluate the method of graphology, we must also look at two important criteria used for evaluating all tests. The first is reliability. It refers to the consistency of measurement or if a test will produce the same results when taken a second time. The second criterion is validity or the extent to which a test measures what is says it is going to measure.animated.gif

Researchers have found that graphology has low reliability. They discovered this by giving professional graphologists the same handwriting to evaluate multiple times. However, they told the graphologists that is was a different person every time, and the graphologists produced different results each time. Researchers have also found that its validity is close to zero.

So from evaluating graphology scientifically, we have come to realize that there is not enough evidence to support the claim that graphologists can decipher personality traits from handwriting. We have also come to realize that graphology is low in reliability and validity, therefore graphology is not a good test for determining personality traits.


Sources:
- http://www.ere.net/2004/10/21/using-graphology-to-predict-performance/
- http://www.handwritingpro.com/index.html
- "Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding" Textbook

Pictures Taken From:
- http://www.handwritingpro.com/index.html
- http://putroperdana.wordpress.com/

Effect of Divorce on Children

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Over the past half a century, the rate of divorce has been increasing, but what effects does divorce have on children? Some claim that it is traumatic to their development and can hamper their ideas of a functional family, while others hypothesize that it really has minimal effect on children but their ability to cope can make them stronger if the parents still do an adequate job raising them.
Many researchers propose that the effect of divorce on children's development really depends on the father. If the father was originally a figure of authority in the family and is no longer present, children can often run wild per-say. People often say that people with security issues and other social problems have "daddy issues." This claim isn't far from the proof provided by some psychologists. These psychologists claim that the father role model provides a emotionally secure environment which in turn helps make kids into emotionally secure adults.
http://www.mediate.com/articles/psych.cfm
http://www.marriage-success-secrets.com/psychological-effects-of-divorce-on-children.html
i dont know how to make the links followable

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One of some of the interesting topics in chapter 10 Human Development it's the Social and Moral Development in terms of parenting. Parents (tutors) play a key role in developing personality of their child. That's why parents need to be aware of what is right and what is wrong in parenting styles. I think it's a very interesting topic, almost all of us want to be parents one day and we need to be aware of the style of parenting and its consequences to our child behavior.
The book talks about 4 parenting styles identified by Baumrind: Permissive; lenient with their children, giving freedom inside and outside the house, using discipline sparingly and often show affection to the child. Authoritarian: strict parents giving little opportunity for free play or exploration, punishing when the child doesn't respond and showing little affection to children. Authoritative: combine the best features of both permissive and authoritarian. Giving support to the child but setting limits. The forth one the uninvolved that tend to ignore the child, paying little attention to them.
According to the resulting correlation of Baumrind study in children from middle-class Caucasian American families the best parental style for developing best social and emotional adjustments and lower behavior problems was the authoritative. Children with permissive parents and authoritarian parents far between authoritative and uninvolved, with children with uninvolved parents tend to fare the worst. This study was with only middle-class Caucasian American families but with the study we have an idea of the resulting consequences according to the different parental styles. The balance between permissive and authoritarian styles will be the best option for better emotional and social adjustments.
It's a great topic because beside the importance for psychology students and researchers in development psychology, it is very important and interesting to anyone else who is related to a child and wants to enhance a good behavior.

In honor of the new Call of Duty game coming out on November 8th, I am going to have that be the topic of my blog for this week. This game series has turned into the biggest gaming franchise in the history of video games. This is one of the most anticipated, as well as most pre-ordered video game of all time. This game is very prominent especially in the age group of young teenagers. Needless to say, Call of Duty is a very violent video game. Last game they came out with, had a warning before you play the game that said something to the effect of "This game has some very offensive and graphic material, do you wish to see this content?" They were referring to a level in the game where you are in an airport in Russia and you are told to unleash on innocent civilians. Like I mentioned earlier, young teenagers and children are a very popular audience for this game. Their brains are not fully developed at this age, and they are constantly learning things like a sponge. The question is, does this extreme violence affect what their behaviors are going to be? In my opinion, if young children are exposed to this violence, they begin to develop a resistance to the horrific effects of violence. They see it as something "normal," and tend to not think much of it. I think this may cause children and teenagers to be more likely to act aggressively in certain situations. I am not saying that just by playing violent video games, children will go out and kill people. I am just saying that it will increase the chance that if a child is put in a certain situation, he or she will act more aggressively without thinking anything of it.

In our Lilienfeld text, a topic that was covered was the development of g or general intelligence. This concept was first introduced by Charles Spearman, who believer that the positive correlations among intelligence test items must be related by a single factor. The basic concept that tho book gives of g, is that is has to do with an individuals "mental energy". This brings up a lot of controversy among intelligence researches, because it implies that some people are smarter than others. I agree with this completely, I think everyone has varying levels of intelligence, because if everyone had the same level of intelligence and understanding, then every concept ever thought up by humankind would be universally understood. This is, however, not the case at all. Imagine if everyone had the same amount of ability as everyone else. The world would be a very boring, melancholy place to live, because everyone could do everything that anyone could. I think that Spearman was very on track with his concept of g. He also goes on to discuss the s factor. This is our specific ability to excel in a certain area. For example, some people are very good at math and manipulation of equations, but could be bad at understanding various psychological or philosophical concepts. This entire model that Spearman came up with is a very sound one, in my opinion. It explains how everyone is good at something and lets us celebrate the diversity of abilities that make up humankind. imageseveryone-is-a-genius_small.jpg

source: Lilienfeld text

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In the article here: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16099971/ns/technology_and_science-games/t/does-game-violence-make-teens-aggressive/#.TrdoaXZQqtQ it discusses a recent study done at Kansas State University that finds violent video games to cause less control in adolescents. The article claims that after doing an MRI 30 minutes after a teen was playing "Medal of Honor" (A vicious killing game) that showed a decrease in activity in the brain where the self control and attention part of the brain functions, the cerebrum. The psychology textbook discusses this topic as well and suggests that there are studies that prove both that video games do cause some kids to be more violent but there are some studies that prove it does not play a factor. I lean towards the side believing that violent video games do in fact play a role in a child's behavior. During the ages up until adolescents Piaget theorized that our cognitive development does not think abstractly. Therefore, if kids cannot think beyond the facts of what is violently happening in the video game, who says they won't be stuck in a mind set, and develop thoughts that are like what they are doing. I do not believe that adults 18+ are affected by violent video games because they are not developing still in the cognitive stage, whereas adolescents and younger are. Violent games bring out a defensive, lack of control emotion to the player. The players don't necessarily do the exact same thing as what they are doing in the game, but I myself after playing a shooting game have felt an aggressive superior emotion (Also like what we found after watching aggressive shows in psych discussion class). From the credible article with a replicable study, it provides evidence that in fact violent video games can play a role in behavior of young adults.

The Mozart Effect is a psychological phenomenon that I found especially intriguing. My question is can listening to Mozart really make you smarter? It was found in a study in 1993 that participants who listened to Mozart would have a higher IQ than those who did not. However these increases in intelligence were of short duration. This study has created much controversy about the effect of classical on learning.
Mozart's music helps with spatial-temporal reasoning, so participants in studies would be better at doing things such as mazes with paper and pen. The participants would make fewer errors and would finish them more quickly.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1281386/
This article talks a lot about how Mozart's music works in the brain and in what way it makes people "smarter". It's not as much in terms of IQ, but has more to do with logical reasoning and problem solving. There are also not many long-term effects that were found. I think that the music makes people more attentive and more able to focus and that's why, when paired with something that requires reasoning, people tend to excel more. The classical music opens the brain and the listener isn't distracted by lyrics so it's easier for them to focus, therefore making them "smarter". However, in terms of IQ, I do not think that listening to Mozart, in the long run, will have a great effect.

Role of a Father

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The head of the household and arguably the most influential member of the family is, in most cases the father. The relationship between a child and their mother is vital, but in reality, studies have shown that fathers play a unique and crucial role in nurturing and guiding children's development.

First, the role of father's with babies. When fathers spend more time with their babies, they get to know exactly what each of their baby's signals mean. This familiarity allows fathers to respond sensitively, meaning that they know when their baby is hungry rather than when he just wants a change of scenery. Also, fathers tend to provide more verbal and physical stimulation, by patting their babies gently and communicating to them with sharp bursts of sound. As babies grow older, many come to prefer playing with their fathers who provide unpredictable, stimulating, and exciting interaction. In later years, young children look to their parents to learn how to interact with people. This not only means it is crucial for a father to interact appropriately with his child, when interacting with his wife, the mother, he acts as he would like his child to. A child looks to its mother for emotional support, but in many cases a father is more looked to for guidance in life skills and future planning from their father's.

All of these things are thrown off when a father is not relevant in the growing process of a child. Studies have shown that things such as educational achievement, self-esteem, responsible social behavior, and adjustment as adults have all been negatively affected by the lack of a father or father figure in the nurturing and development process of a child. There is no question that the relationship between a mother and a child is crucial to the quality of life of a given child, but, as recent studies have shown, the relationship between a father and a child is equally as important to the development of a given child.

The Strange Situation

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Remember getting lost from your parents when you were little in a enormous store and panicking like hell? well, I do. Now I laugh at it. But back then it was pretty scary. When children are growing up they develop a great bond with their attachment figures, usually our mothers. Where when we get separation anxiety so to speak when we get separated from our mothers. There is a name for this. The Strange Situation is a major procedure in social development in infancy and childhood. The Strange Situation was established by a psychologist named Mary Ainsworth and her colleagues in 1978. They conducted an experiment involving an infant and her mother in a room filled with toys. The child plays with the toys for a certain amount of time until a stranger comes in. This is when the mother leaves and the separation anxiety kicks in. The child becomes uncomfortable and acts in 1 of 4 ways:

Secure attachment: the child becomes upset when it's mother leaves but then greets her with joy upon return.

Insecure-avoidant attachment: The child acts indifferent when it's mother leaves and shows little reaction on her return.

insecure-anxious attachment: The child acts in a panic when its mother leaves but then shows mixed-emotions upon return. Reaching for her yet squirming to get away at the same time.

disorganized attachment: The child acts with inconsistent and confused responses upon her mothers departure and return.

The following is a video showing the Strange Situation procedure in action. The baby portrays a secure attachment reaction when reunited with her mother.

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Are our personalities the result of parental influence or peer influence? In 1995, Judith Rich Harris published papers claiming a child's peers are an even greater influence on a developing personality than his or her parents. Her theory, called the group socialization theory of development, has raised many questions as to its validity.

I'm not sure I agree with Harris. Our personalities are the result of a number of factors, that's true, but I would have to say a child's parents play a greater role. Children learn all sorts of behaviors from their peers when they are away from their caretakers, whether at a daycare, school or just out with friends, but if those behaviors were to carry over to the child's home life, they would either be encouraged or discouraged by his or her parents.

Furthermore, studies have shown that parents are the biggest role models in children's lives; they take their cues from the people they look up to most: their parents. Parents are the first people to teach a child right from wrong.

There is also evidence that many behaviors and personality traits are genetically inherited, which goes a long way for the argument that a child's parents, not his or her peers, play the biggest role in the development of personality. As stated in the Lilienfeld text, studies have found that "twins who share many of the same peers are only slightly more similar in personality than are twins who share only a few of the same peers."

Overall, it seems unlikely that a child would develop his or her personality without some influenc e from peers, but to me it seems clear that parents would be the greater influence.

Kids Need to Drink Cow's Milk

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Myth: Kids Need to Drink Cow's Milk.
Parents often insist that there children drink milk, but why? Kids who don't drink cow's milk are just as healthy as those children that do, studies show. In fact research suggests hat milk-free kids may be at less likely to develop colic, ear infections, and asthma. That was the article that CBS news had in its 15th Deadliest Food Myths. I believe milk is a substance that can help nutrient the bones in our bodies, but I don't believe it's the only nutrient that can replenish our bones. Scientific Principle #2: Correlation isn't Causation. Correlation designs don't permit casual inferences. A being milk could lead to an increase in bone health. B being bone health could possibly be influenced by drinking milk. But possibly C equals B meaning beans, green leafy vegetables (except spinach), fortified juices, soy milk and many other foods can also increase bone health. Another scientific principle I find to be useful under these circumstances is scientific principle #5 Extraordinary Claims Require Extraordinary Evidence. Meaning is the Evidence as extraordinary as the claim itself. Stating that milk is an essential substance needed to influence bone health means without milk you will not have strong bones. There is no evidence other than the fact that milk provides calcium. Stating that milk is the only substance that can provide calcium is extraordinarily outrageous but not extraordinary within it self. Many other nutrients provide calcium to the body which in turn provides bone health/strength (some nutrients/ substances stated earlier in this blog). Being that the only evidence milk has is that is it provides calcium is not enough to be given the title extraordinary evidence. I feel the scientific thinking principle #2 Correlation isn't Causation is the most useful for evaluating this particular claim.

Claim: http://www.cbsnews.com/2300-204_162-10004624-2.html?tag=page;next


The Right Way to teach kids

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The way in which people parent is a very controversial in this day and age. The trick is not to be permissive or authoritarian but to be authoritative. I believe that my mom was a little more permissive and my dad was a little more authoritarian but with the combination of the two I think that they were the perfect mixture. Then again I am part of an Caucasian American family where as there is some evidence that suggests that in certain collectivist cultures such as China it is better for the parents to be more Authoritarian. The best way to parent seems to be just to give the children an environment that provides the basic needs for affection and appropriate discipline, and usually this will be enough for their children to turn out fine. Although the role of the father and mother are important research shows that children that are part of nontraditional families will usually fare just fine. It is also shown that the majority of children survive their parents divorce without long-term emotional damage. Here is an article that shows how to be a more assertive parent and how to say no to your child. http://www.empoweringparents.com/saying-no-to-your-child-how-to-be-a-more-assertive-parent.php?&key=Effective-Parenting This is an interesting article because it shows how to set limits for your kids and to make sure that your kids don't get whatever they want but at the same time it makes sure those parents are not over authoritative on their children.

The Right Way to teach kids

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The way in which people parent is a very controversial in this day and age. The trick is not to be permissive or authoritarian but to be authoritative. I believe that my mom was a little more permissive and my dad was a little more authoritarian but with the combination of the two I think that they were the perfect mixture. Then again I am part of an Caucasian American family where as there is some evidence that suggests that in certain collectivist cultures such as China it is better for the parents to be more Authoritarian. The best way to parent seems to be just to give the children an environment that provides the basic needs for affection and appropriate discipline, and usually this will be enough for their children to turn out fine. Although the role of the father and mother are important research shows that children that are part of nontraditional families will usually fare just fine. It is also shown that the majority of children survive their parents divorce without long-term emotional damage. Here is an article that shows how to be a more assertive parent and how to say no to your child. http://www.empoweringparents.com/saying-no-to-your-child-how-to-be-a-more-assertive-parent.php?&key=Effective-Parenting This is an interesting article because it shows how to set limits for your kids and to make sure that your kids don't get whatever they want but at the same time it makes sure those parents are not over authoritative on their children.

Ban Dihydrogen Monoxide

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Hoax/Claim: Dihydrogen monoxide is dangerous and should be banned.
Dihydrogen monoxide also known as water, H2O is "colorless, odorless, and tasteless" chemical compound that is essential to all organisms in our ecosystem. The human body is composed of 60% water and the human brain is composed of 70% water.
This article claims that dihydrogen monoxide killed thousands of people each year. Majority of those accidental deaths are cause by inhalation of the water in liquid state. In the solid state, water is also known as "ice" which can cause tissue damage. Dihydrogen monoxide is a major component of acid rain, contributes to global warming, greenhouse effect, can cause severe burns in its gaseous state, and much more.
All these statements are true and scientifically proven. All the claims against dihydrogen monoxide are true. Every year there are thousands of accidents where water is the main perpetrator, water cause many death by inhalation or drowning, it is a major component in not just acid rain but rain, and so much more. Hence, this claim is replicatable and there were extraordinary evidence proving this statement.
This hoax may have such a high impact on the readers due to the somatic marker theory. The somatic marker theory proposes that we use our "gut reactions" to help us determine how we should react. Dihydrogen monoxide sounds like very complicated word which sounds similar to the word carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is also a colorless, odorless, and tasteless compound if ingested, can cause death. Hence these characteristics should not be correlated and labeled as harmful compounds because dihydrogen monoxide is the key component of our biological composition and our survival.

Link to Hoax Article:
http://www.snopes.com/science/dhmo.asp


Death is a common event for all of mankind. It strikes us at all times and is the eventual end for us all. But for some, death strikes in such a way that it causes severe damage and pain for those around them. No one knows this concept better than soldiers. Take for instance an American soldier named Joe (Last Name Not Disclosed) who suffered from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder after returning from duty in 2005. Joe witnessed his friend Gary die a horrific death at the hand of a land mine. When he came home from duty he was changed. He recalled grisly memories when he smelled gasoline. When he heard loud sudden noises he was instantly ready for combat. He remembered scenes of battle during work and he had trouble remembering things. (source) PTSD has so many harmful symptoms it sounds nearly hopeless to try and recover from. But there is hope. Exposure Therapy is the answer to the problem. According the Lilienfeld text exposure therapy works by using systematic desensitization which lets clients confront what they fear to eliminate the fear. It utilizes countercondtioning to which means to pair relaxation with an original anxiety stimulus. The two can't mix so the fear is dropped. A technique that falls user this category is something known as "flooding". Flooding involves a large sudden exposure to the fear inducing stimuli. Both of these methods are used to treat horrible conditions like PTSD which can be very debilitating. This is very relieving to me personally as I have family serving in the military and in active combat zones. I don't want any of them to have to deal with PTSD but if they have to, they can at least be helped.

Detecting Lies

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People lie everyday. Lying has become part of our daily lives, whether we lie to make up an excuse for why we are late to class, or if we are omitting the truth in order to keep a secret. Even the most honest people lie, or choose not to tell the truth, in order to protect others feelings. Obviously, there are more serious lies as well such as claiming innocence to a crime that one actually did commit. We begin to lie at a very young age (4 to 5 years old), and continue to do so throughout our entire lives. As some of use learn how to become better at the fine art of lying, we can also become better at detecting lies from others. Oftentimes we state that we can "just tell" when someone is lying, but aren't able to exactly pinpoint the reason why we think that way. Our detection of lies usually results from evaluating the liar's behavior. This behavior includes the words that they are saying, what kind of words they are using (descriptive, generic, etc.), and their body language and other nonverbal cues that they use when delivering a lie.

There are many website and articles that offer "the key" to identifying lying behaviors and they claim that focusing on body language and eye movements can help us detect lies. These keys to lie detection often do not account for the whole situation and are often very unreliable. Nonetheless, some individuals, including law enforcement and judges, are slightly better than average at detecting these lying cues and catching liars. This could be due to the fact these professionals encounter people who frequently lie in their daily work. The television shows "Lie to Me" and "The Mentalist" feature special detectives that use their extraordinary sense of lie detection to bust the criminals. This extraordinary sense of lie detection is not quite realistic. Scientific research has shown that even professionals such as detectives have very high error rates in detecting lies (Ekman & O'Sullivan 1991).

It seems that if detectives and law enforcement officers have difficulty detecting lies, then others will too. The linked Psychology Today article explains a case where a young man lied on his application and scholarship reports all the way to Harvard. It shows that many people can be fooled by lies. Although becoming an expert at lie detection may help you solve crimes and cases of fraud, would we always want to know when someone is lying to us? Would we want others to know when we are lying to them?

Psychology Today Article

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In a recent study from North Western University, researchers found that people who feel powerless may feel the need to eat larger portion sizes in an attempt to boost their social status. Researchers also discovered that those who were told that they were supposed to eat less at a high-end restaurant actually ate less. This shows how important social status is to many individuals. It also shows how heavily food effects our lives and the way we think people perceive us. People who suffer from bulimia nervosa, mainly young women, binge on food, and than vomit in after in order to maintain weight. This is usually accompanied with the fear of gaining weight, and the regret of having eaten so much. Likewise, people with anorexia nervosa feel are afraid to gain weight, so much that they starve themselves. This also mainly effects young women. These diseases, along with the portion control, are all ways in which people can make themselves feel better, whether it's too boost their image, or to make them feel less guilty and more beautiful.

Here is the link to the article

Skinner's Box

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Link: http://www.snopes.com/science/skinner.asp

The famous psychologist, B.F. Skinner was once accused of raising his daughter, Deborah, in one of his famous Skinner boxes. This issue arose when an article was published about Skinner's baby tender, and people who did not read the article fully or those who did not understand it accused Skinner of raising his daughter in a Skinner box. The truth of the matter is that Skinner had built a special crib (baby tender) for his daughter to keep her in a climate controlled environment so that she could avoid being wrapped in layers of blankets and also avoid the rashes that accompany the cold Minnesota winters. Skinner, in reality, was trying to protect his daughter and keep her safe. He was not trying to operant condition her. Deborah did not receive rewards or punishments in crib, but was able to remain a clean healthy baby, who was free to move about as she pleased without the restrictions of blankets. Skinner did want to study the effects of operant conditioning on humans, but he did not study it on his own daughter. He stuck to animals (mostly rats and pigeons).
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It is a very controversial study in the present day regarding the effects of violent video games on a person's aggression level in the real world. However, Dr. Brock Bastian decided to investigate a new area in how violent video games effect lifestyles: human qualities and intelligence levels.

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According to the article reported by "Byron Shire News", Dr. Bastian (of the University of Queensland) carried out a study where people's levels of "humanity" were measured after playing a popular violent video game; Mortal Kombat. According to the results found, players started to see themselves and opponents to be lacking in human qualities such as intelligence, open-mindedness and warmth towards others. As quoted "... given the findings, concerns about the effects of playing violent video games were not surprising, especially when they appeared to reflect changes in behavior, emotions, and cognitions in ways consistent with a loss of humanity."

When looking at the information from this study, it makes me consider a few things. Even though this isn't directly measuring aggression/violence levels in participants, the qualities that it is measuring are generally associated with how violent somebody tends to be (the less "human" somebody is, the more violent the generally are.)

Another idea that really came to my attention was the debate of "Correlation vs. Causation"; do the violent video games cause the inhumane qualities, or are people with inhumane qualities drawn to playing violent video games?

Finally, I also am curious what exactly the basis for humanity is in the experiment. It's not as if there is an actual definition for what humanity is down to a period, so are these just normal varioations in personality, or is there truly something "inhuman" being observed from people who play violent video games?

Luckily, the idea of video games effects on the human psyche is a very popular topic. I'm sure that with on going research on whether or not violent video games should be regulated for the greater good some of my questions regarding the topic will eventually be answered... It's just a matter of time.

Click Here for the Article

lie.jpgI am confident that the majority of us have seen a polygraph test at some point, whether it be in a movie, a talk show episode or in person. In chapter 11 of the Lilienfield text it discusses the polygraph test, or more commonly referred to as the lie detector test. It explains how the test relies on bodily reactions, such as blood pressure, respiration, palm sweating, and overall anxiety, to tell if the victim is lying or not.

Although the largest organization of polygraph examiners in the United States claims the test is 98 percent accurate, it still presents a high rate of false positives. In simpler terms, the test labels innocent people as guilty and therefore cannot be administered in most of the U.S. courts for obvious reasons.

Along with the polygraph test, there are other lie detecting tests that agencies administer, including the guilty knowledge test and the integrity test. These two types of testing are more widely used compared to the polygraph test because they cover for some of the polygraph's short comings, such as its reliance on the pinochhio response. I think that the idea of these lie detector tests are important because they have always seemed to hold a notable amount of power in proving innocence. I also believe that society in general should become more familiar with the tests and how they work to hopefully become further educated about a somewhat critical aspect of the justice system.

In conclusion, I am still wondering about how many innocent people were pronounced guilty because of incorrect conclusions drawn by the polygraph test, or how many guilty people got off unscathed? Are any of the lie detector tests undoubtedly reliable? Should the court systems be allowed to utilize these questionable methods?

Click here to watch a video on the polygraph test.

A survey in 2009 suggested that kids who watch television shows such as Power Rangers, Ben 10, and Hannah Montana are forced to grow up too quickly. The survey questioned 3,000 parents about their children's behavior and the television shows that they regularly watch. The claims made from the results of the survey violate the scientific thinking method of causation versus correlation. Television shows such as Hannah Montana and Power Rangers do not necessarily force children to grow up quicker, but instead children who naturally grow up quicker may have more a more mature taste in television shows, so they choose to watch these programs. The children who seemed to grow up quicker could have been the effect of a third factor, and not the television shows that they watch.
The same survey also stated that shows such as Power Rangers and Ben 10 cause children to have nightmares. The survey observed that parents reported their children to have nightmares after watching such shows. Researcher Kathryn Crawford uses Occam's razor to prove this claim false. Children under the age of 7 experience elevated rates of nightmares, and that "all children suffer from nightmares at some point". This claim shows that children naturally experience nightmares when they are young, so the television shows do not necessarily cause them. Again using causation versus correlation you can see that a third factor, such as nature, may be the cause.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1180830/Ben-10-Power-Rangers-cause-sevens-nightmares-survey-finds.html

Daddy's Little Girl

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My dad: girls scouts leader, soccer coach, teacher and friend. He has taught me how to act, how to overcome obstacles and how to handle accomplishment and defeat. When reading the psychology book, it states, "Children benefit from warm, close relationships with their fathers regardless of how much time they spend with him."

I would agree with this statement 100%.

My dad has always been there for me, through the good times and the bad. He had helped me shape my personality and helped improve and determine my self image.

According to Joan Burke, "A father's relationship with his daughter has an amazingly powerful influence in shaping her self-image, competence, and femininity, as well as her perception of all the men in her life."

Where again, I would agree with this statement. Whereas my dad has helped with my self-image, competence and femininity he has also helped shaped my perception of men, because I understand that men and women are different and you need to be detailed with your perceptions and emotions of things.

To my daddy: thanks for being there and for falling under the majority of awesome dads. :)
You're the coolest.

The Mozart Effect

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All parents hope and dream for their children to some day grow up to be smart and successful adults. Most of these parents try to ensure their children's future intelligence by enrolling them in good schools and making sure they do their homework. However, many new parents try to get a head start on the process of learning, starting before their child is even out of infancy.
In 1993, a publication reported that college students who listened to 10 minutes of a Mozart sonata showed a large improvement on spatial reasoning tasks compared to students who listened to a different tape for ten minutes. This discovery started the fad of 'The Mozart Effect', wherein there is an increased amount of intelligence after listening to classical music.
Despite the study being only done on college students, and saying nothing about long-term effects of spatial intelligence, toy companies and parents ate The Mozart Effect right up. CDs and cassettes filled with classical music suddenly started being marketed more to babies than their adult counterparts, in parent's hopes that these classical tunes would increase their baby's intelligence.
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A few years later, studies unearthed the discovery that these tapes didn't actually do that much to improve intelligence or spatial reasoning. However, it was hypothesized that this effect could be due to emotional arousal that may simply increase alertness, making performance on the spatial reasoning tasks better. In the end, while having your children listen to Mozart at a young age is a great way to introduce them to music, which has been shown to help children in areas of math, it is not likely that it will make them baby geniuses.

A few primary schools in Merseyside, England have been using the widely popular, and highly controversial video game Grand Theft Auto, and other violent cartoon television shows, to teach children about violence. The theory that has been presented by the Merseyside Police Department, who are the main backers of the program, believe that images from both the cartoons and video game can be used to teach children the difference between right and wrong, and what is real and what is not. This idea is an interesting form of teaching for the obvious reason that the television shows and video game being presented to the students, have been widely criticized as being extremely too violent for a child in primary school.

http://xboxmedia.ign.com/xbox/image/article/622/622290/grand-theft-auto-san-andreas-20050607044127591_640w.jpg

The reason that I believe this scheme can possibly work is that the video game and television shows are so popular that as the children get older they will most likely see them anyway. When a child is young, and in this situation they are young, they are still absorbing a lot of new information and have highly shapeable minds. Using such popular examples makes the material extremely relevant, and reinforces to children what they should and should not see as right and wrong. Using these examples of media with excessive violence for children lends an alternative to the largely debated issue of whether the television shows and video game should be legally regulated. With this teaching mechanisms children will already know that the game and television shows depict and know what is real and what is fake. Under this theory children will not react to violent television and games because they understand that they present images that are both false and not the correct manor of behavior. This would eliminate a lot of argument about violence in television and video games if the theory were to work effectively because children would have prior knowledge when playing video games and watching television that include excessive violence. This will hinder children from violent imitations like the ones depicted in the video shown in class of children watching Power Rangers.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/education/8611536.stm

Does money bring us happiness? There's that cliche phrase, "money can't buy happiness," but I still think a majority of people would say that yes, money can correlate to being happy and can make you happy. When people have enough money, they are able to live easier and don't have to stress about their next meal, buying school supplies, keeping up with bills and the mortgage, etc.

The psychology book says that money can't buy long term happiness. Someone who wins the lottery will be temporarily very happy, but after a few weeks, they will return to their usual state of happiness. People with more than 50,000 dollars do not really have a correlation between money and happiness, because they have enough money to survive and live their live. People tend to forget that more money can bring complications such as working harder and being busier and working longer hours, and the stress that comes along with working too much definitely will not make you happy.

http://www.wealthinformatics.com/2011/09/19/can-money-buy-happiness/

The article I read about takes a stab at the opposing side, disagreeing with most people and lots of research that money does not buy happiness. She states that happiness is many emotions, rather than just one. Feeling financially secure, being prideful and proud of the children you sponsor in a different country, and the joy from an expensive vacation, are all parts of being happy, and all cost money. The article was very interesting to read and I enjoyed reading about someone who told the truth about money and how it affects their life.

I don't know how to make the link show, I will ask you in class on Tuesday.. Sorry!!

Does money bring us happiness? There's that cliche phrase, "money can't buy happiness," but I still think a majority of people would say that yes, money can correlate to being happy and can make you happy. When people have enough money, they are able to live easier and don't have to stress about their next meal, buying school supplies, keeping up with bills and the mortgage, etc.

The psychology book says that money can't buy long term happiness. Someone who wins the lottery will be temporarily very happy, but after a few weeks, they will return to their usual state of happiness. People with more than 50,000 dollars do not really have a correlation between money and happiness, because they have enough money to survive and live their live. People tend to forget that more money can bring complications such as working harder and being busier and working longer hours, and the stress that comes along with working too much definitely will not make you happy.

http://www.wealthinformatics.com/2011/09/19/can-money-buy-happiness/

The article I read about takes a stab at the opposing side, disagreeing with most people and lots of research that money does not buy happiness. She states that happiness is many emotions, rather than just one. Feeling financially secure, being prideful and proud of the children you sponsor in a different country, and the joy from an expensive vacation, are all parts of being happy, and all cost money. The article was very interesting to read and I enjoyed reading about someone who told the truth about money and how it affects their life.

I don't know how to make the link show, I will ask you in class on Tuesday.. Sorry!!

Reed Kotz
http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/booster_shots/2009/08/psychologists-sexual-orientation-cant-be-changed-through-therapy.html

Can sexual orientation be changed? This has been an interesting question for many decades now. Over the past few decades much research has been done according to the article above to figure out if sexual orientation can be changed and it turns out that it is most likely a genetic factor that plays into ones sexual orientation. According to this article and our psychology textbook there is extremely strong evidence of one's sexual orientation being determine before even birth. These findings are pretty remarkable and should help the movement against the oppression of gay people. The popular misconception that gay people choose to have relations with people of the same sex has been eradicated with the findings by Simon LeVay and the research reported by the LA Times article. These findings are extremely helpful to those who deal with problems associated with homosexuality. Now they can have clearer thoughts about how to cope with the confusion that is brought about by homosexuality. This will also help to bring more light to those who oppose homosexuality, showing that it is not a choice, but a genetic factor like hair color. Hopefully these findings can offer some insight to people who aren't sure whether homosexuality is a choice or not. This is something people are born with and should not be persecuted for their sexual orientation just because it happens to differ from societal and religious norms. Society has always seemed to persecute those who are different, and why is that?

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We might characterize adolescence in the words of Charles Dickens:" it was the best of times, it was the worst of times."
In the movie, Bruce Wayne's parents were killed when he's young. He blame himself for their deaths. He feared bats when he fell into a carve, bats have become his worst nightmare.
we've all asked ourselves " who am i ?" at some point. indeed, one of the central challenges of adolescence is to get a firm handle on our identity, our sense of who we are, as well as our life goals and priorities.Bruce Wayne realize what he wants to do is to become a man who protects innocent people and fight the evils.
there's good reason to believe that we can trace the roots of our moral understanding to fear. in infancy and childhood, we associate right with reward and wrong with punishment, so we learn not to do bad things to avoid punishment. over time, our fears become internalized. Indeed, one of the best predictors of the strength of children's sense of morality is their level of fear years earlier. Bruce Wayne overcame his fear and turn them into his strength against his enemy.
Bruce Wayne has became and gone beyond the Bat man he wanted to become, but he has not realize it. His morality leads him to carry the frame and be hunted by the police. The Dark Knight, what more do I have to say.

The bonding between primary caregivers and their children is one of the most important aspects of healthy human development. If these bonds are weakened or nonexistent, a child could seek a connection or relationship with some other source. This source could be an unhealthy obsession with body image or a fixation on food and diet, and could ultimately lead to an eating disorder. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two major eating disorders affecting people today. Anorexia nervosa is a disease that is characterized as extremely limited eating with a relentless desire to be thin. Bulimia nervosa is characterized by frequent episodes of eating unusually large amounts of food and then vomiting to compensate for it.

Research is currently being done to find the genetic, biological, psychological, and social causes of eating disorders. Recently neuroimaging studies have been conducted to examine the differences of brain activity in women with bulimia nervosa and healthy women. Using fMRI, researchers could see the differences in brain activity while the women were asked to perform a task that involved self-regulation. Women with bulimia nervosa did worse on the test because they were more impulsive and inaccurate with the task. The brain scans also showed that bulimic women had less brain activity in the brains areas involved with self-regulation. Although conclusions cannot be drawn from this test alone, these findings could help to development more successful treatments for both bulimia and anorexia.
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http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/when-food-is-family/201111/linking-early-attachments-eating-disorders-later

http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/news/20090105/bulimia-tied-to-brain-differences

Assimilation and accommodation.

In the child developmental process assimilation and accommodation play a vital role. These stages of developments confirm a state of harmony between the worldly experience and mind of the child, also called equilibration; maintaining a balance between our experience and of the world and our thoughts. In Piaget's process of development assimilation is refers to the captivation of new experiences into our current schemas or knowledge. For example, when a child learns the word fox for the time, they will start to call all four-legged (or similar) animal foxes. In this case, assimilation took place. Consequently, according to Piaget, accommodation takes place through modification of the belief to make it more compatible with previous knowledge or experience of the world. Going back to our fox example, when people start to tell the poor little child, no, that's not fox, its lion. The schema for fox then gets altered to restrict it to only certain (fox) four-legged animals. . In this case, the process of accommodation took place.

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When I was young, because I was always around people who Muslims, I thought everybody in the world were Muslims before moving to Kenya to find out that was a bewildering childhood knowledge (assimilation). When I asked why people do things that were forbidden by Islam. My uncle told me not everybody beliefs in Islam. Essentially, I learned that roughly one-fifth of the world's population is Muslims compared to my previous that of the entire mankind (accommodation).


http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/assimacc.htm

Mouakoon Yang
Writing 4
11-06-11

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In Psy 1001 we learn about the somatic marker theory. This theory states that we people decide how we act or should act from the use of our reactions or "gut reactions" as they have said in the text books. This would be kind of an animal instant that we have, like an animal who strikes out of instant to defend itself from danger. An example is a snake who strikes at an object in which it feel threatens from, a skunk who release a liquid with strong foul odor to when it feels threaten. These are good example of the somatic marker theory because like the animals who strikes we to also strikes, having a faster heart rate and sweating in a situation leads us to instantly take an action and just go with that action or decision.

I believe in the somatic marker theory because it is kind of true in a way. Where I can use this theory to illustrate decision making in sport, when a player feels the pressure they make just make a fast decision or a gamble like and animal just taking a strike at something that you have no idea what it is and how that decision can affect you. I want to use sport as life aspect of myself to support this theory, I have played flag football before and was lucking enough to earn a spot as an quarter back which is one of the biggest and toughest job on a football team. It is really easy to feel the pressure of the other team when you don't have a good offence line to help protect you. So as stated by the theory I took an "gut reaction" decision to run out of the pocket trying my best to get a first down but I ended up losing yards. As stated from the theory is that my gut reaction helped to determine what I thought I should do which was to run. From learning about this theory makes me wonder if this theory applies to all human behavior decision making skill or just to those who are gut reactions.

Right and Left Brain

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The above youtube video does not describe exactly what each half does, but rather what each hemisphere specialize: a generalization.

The video does an excellent job in pointing out the linearly popular approach to problem solving and thinking.
In America, the linear way of thinking and problem solving (or the "faithful servant" model) is praised, while the non-linear way (the "intuitive mind") is ignored or discarded.

The advantages of the clip lie in the credentials of the man presenting the ideas: a psychiatrist.
However, the weaknesses lie in the lack of evidence or empirical data.
Although his claims may be true, it seems that much of what he is saying is based on philosophical claims: going into the world of "what the world should be" rather than a purely scientific "what the world is."
Of course, ironically, this approach is linear in itself.
He even addresses said point:
"Pascal - 'The endpoints of rationality is to demonstrate the limits of rationality.'"

In other words, although his claims involve logic and reasoning (thus making them valid), they are not presented with evidence, making the credibility of the video lose some of that value.

Another logical fallacy examined here is the confirmation bias. Obviously, this presentation is a personal voice of the speaker ("I", "me", etc.), so we can safely say that what he discusses is a personal opinion, and not necessarily a scientific claim. He does not rule out rival hypothesis, either, so we can say that this clip is an instance of where someone is interested in saying what they wanted to say: not actually search for truth.


On a side note (just for fun), here are a few lines that I enjoyed:
"For imagination, you need both hemispheres; for reason, you need both hemispheres."
Left - denotative language; abstraction yields clarification; general in nature; lifeless (fixed, isolated, static)
Right - by contrast, offers changing, individual, implicit, incarnate, living, etc. (within the context of the real world)
Pascal - "The endpoints of rationality is to demonstrate the limits of rationality"
Left brain model - "This model is entirely self consistent partly b/c it's made itself so."
Einstein - "The intuitive mind is a sacred gift, and the rational mind is a faithful servant"

Recently in class we have discussed the impact of violent television shows and violent video games on young developing minds.

This link will bring you to an article discussing the topic of violent video games and their effect on adolescents. The article says that repeated violent actions on the game acts as a reinforcer, causing the adolescent to be more prone to be aggressive. The article also discusses that by playing "first-person" games, the adolescent begins to think like the character they are controlling and therefore they become more aggressive.
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The article makes valid points. A child playing a first person shooter gets to feel like they are character. Whatever decisions they make cause the player either harm or reward. Because of this, if in the game the child causes harm to someone, but is rewarded because of it, if he/she is faced with a similar situation in real life, they may decide to cause harm again because they believe it will bring reward.

Although there are many studies showing that aggression and time spent playing video games go hand in hand, these results are merely correlational. The correlation vs causation scientific principle tells us that although these two things are correlated, it does not mean that video games cause aggression.

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In class, we discussed whether violence in the media caused children to misbehave. The general consensus was that it did in fact have an affect on children, but what about music?
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If music has suggestive lyrics, then will it cause an increase in violence. The article points out that in a survey, only 30% of the teens actually knew the lyrics and they all interpreted them differently. It also states that people function normally outside of music and that they only start to notice a difference with music videos. Depending on my mood at times I will listen to music that talks about violence, but it never really affects my life and the way I function. Sometimes if I listen to a song that is full of energy, it will get me excited like before hockey games, but rarely do I take the meaning of the lyrics into account. I agree that people do not really take lyrics too seriously, but why is it that videos and movies have a greater affect on society?

http://www.rense.com/general59/teens.htm

Attachment Styles

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As a nanny, I have seen every type of kid imaginable. Every child is attached to their parent in a different way, and you need to know this before the parent actually leaves (this could cause some serious problems if you don't). Psychologists have come up with this classifying as "The Strange Situation." These procedure studies how the child is actually attached to their parents and they came up with four different types of classifications. The first one is secure attachment, this is when once the parent leaves the child is upset but when the parent returns they are joyus and happy again. The second is insecure-avoidant attachment. This is when the child shows indifference to the parent leaving and coming back (the type of kids I love to babysit!). Insecure-anxious attachment is another where the child starts to panic when the mother leaves and then showing mixed emotions when she returns(reaching for the parent yet squirming to get away after they are picked up). And finally disorganized attachment, they react inconsistently to their mothers departure and return and may seem confused. I think these stages are important to know as a parent, babysitter, sibling, family member and even friend. Knowing these will help with the process of the parent leaving and returning and could possibly help out a lot of people. These classifications really help me when I am babysitting because then I am prepared for what I need to do to make sure that child is very comfortable with the process. I wonder how children can possibly break these habits? I'm sure that most just grow out of it and get used to their parents leaving and they realize eventually they will return. But, what should you do if your child never grows out of this phase?
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Food. Friend or Foe?

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When someone says the word bulimia, it brings about a sort of taboo that most people are afraid to talk about. In reality, bulimia is the most common eating disorder affecting one to three percent of our population. It is described as a pattern of bingeing and purging. Someone with this eating disorder may eat up to 10,000 calories in one sitting and then use a variety of means to exit the food from their body including vomiting or abusing laxatives. This disease appears most often in adolescent girls faced with society's pressure to feel thin. The media plays a large role in this pressure by showing the glamorous lifestyles that characters on T.V. shows like Gossip Girl, One Tree Hill, and The O.C. portray. Every character looks more beautiful and thinner than the last giving yourself next to impossible standards to compare yourselves too. The media isn't the only factor that may lead to bulimia though. Genetics, trauma, family among others are all factors that contribute to the disease.
Bulimia is far more common than we think. American Idol runner up, Katherine McPhee, told the world that she suffers from the eating disorder bulimia. McPhee became obsessed with her weight at age thirteen, and it has been an uphill battle for her ever since. Through auditioning for American Idol, she has had to learn to cope with multiple triggers including stress. She continued to lose weight throughout the season, and it became evident that McPhee wasn't healthy. She's now open about her condition and is advocating towards healthier lifestyles. It was really brave of McPhee to be so open about her personal life on such an open televised show. It opens the door for parents to talk to their children about eating disorders and the pressures that can cause them.

The link below tells about Katherine McPhee's bulimia struggles.

http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/bulimia-nervosa/features/american-idol-runner-up-admits-bulimia?page=2

Eating Disorders are the extreme attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors in which an individual looks at food. The most common forms of eating disorders are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating. Anorexia nervosa, or anorexia for short, is where an individual will starve him or herself or eat very little. Bulimia nervosa, or bulimia, is where an individual will binge eat and then purge it up so they do not feel guilty about eating so many calories in one sitting. Binge eating, is when an individual cannot control their urge to eat and can gain excessive amounts. An eating disorder does not only affect women, but men as well. However, it is more commonly seen in women with the percentage being 95 percent. A battle with any of these can be life threatening. For some, it is a life long battle. In a lot of situations, an individual will go through treatment and seemingly do not get better. See
http://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/information-resources/general-information.php - seeking-treatment
for more information regards to eating disorders.

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As research suggests, when you stimulate the ventromedial part of a rats' brain, the brain looses its appetite to eat. The ventromedial part is the lower middle brain. If you lesion the same area, the rat becomes large. The ventromedial part of a rat's brain plays an important part of eating and appetite. My question is, is that the same for humans? If so, wouldn't one solution to eating disorders be a procedure on the ventromedial part of the brain? For those suffering from anorexia or bulimia they could make a lesion where as those suffering cases of binge eating they could stimulate the area. Of course this isn't a cure but merely a possible solution.

Eating Disorders:

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http://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/nedaDir/files/documents/handouts/MalesRes.pdf

This article describes what eating disorders do and how they affect the body. It compares males to females and is full of statistics. Some which include: 226 college students (98 males and 128 females) concerning weight, body shape, dieting, and exercise history, the authors found that 26% of the men and 48% of the women described themselves as overweight. Women dieted to lose weight whereas men usually exercised. 1,373 high school students revealed that girls (63%) were four times more likely than boys (16%) to be attempting to reduce weight through exercise and caloric intake reduction. Boys were three times more likely than girls to be trying to gain weight (28% versus 9%).

This article relates to me because I am a full time college student and i realize what would happen if i decided to make these certain choices and obtained an eating disorder. I do my best to eat healthy and this helps me see the affects it has on people who have them. This is a very helpful article to see how dangerous an eating disorder can become.
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This theory shows that babies form attachments to their parents not because of the nourishment they provide but the physical contact which they have with their babies-leading them to feel positive emotions. Contact comfort is the substitute for imprinting in some mammals, the young will form attachments to whoever (or whatever, in the case of rhesus monkeys) provides them with the most comfortable physical touch.
They will be more inclined to seek the person (or thing) that provided them with this comfort when faced with a scary stimulus. In rhesus monkeys, Harlow showed that this need was greater than the need for nourishment.
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In addition to this, it is also essential for good physical and emotional health and development. Children who grow up in orphanages are sometimes seen to have poor weight gain, infants tend to sicken and die if they don't have any physical contact. More information can be found on this hypothesis here.
It has also been found that premature babies can be helped by gentle massaging and other physical contact with their parents. This is a way of ensuring their survival and also making sure that they grow up healthy.

Have you ever ran into people who will never see two sides to a story, or believe that their beliefs apply to everybody, and most of all people who can't see the world from another perspective. This perspective shows us that even though the preoperational stage emulates clear thinking, Jean Piaget believed children in this stage were prone to egocentric views. Although this is evident in children, this eventually diminishes, and as adults, most children learn to accept the world through their views along with others. Although this may the case for most people as they age, there are others in the world who seem to hold on to their egocentric ways of living. The Taliban in Afghanistan are a perfect example of this. They feel as if modernized ways of living should be banished, and people should live how they did when Islam started to rise. I've witnessed this, because I'm from Afghanistan as well as my family. Women were oppressed, became widowed, and 10 million children became orphaned. If they learned to adopt other ways of thinking, they would open their minds, and possible their hearts to the people they've hurt throughout these years. It's a very important concept in Psychology, and LIFE. In this video, we see a child who has a brother and a sister. He is then asked if his sister's have only one brother, he says yeah because he doesn't think about himself being their brother as well, therefore exemplifying egocentrism.

Egocentrism also relates to belief conservation. They are 2 different ideas, but both relate to ignorance, and lack of information from other sides of the story.
Here are pictures that elucidate the meaning of egocentrism, and that also show one of Jean Piaget's test of egocentrism within children.
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We need to understand why some adults til this day are still egocentric, and the effects it will have on all of mankind in order to create a better society, and have a better understanding of the psychological effects it has to the cognitive development of all people.

Online Dating

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A New York Time Article written by Natasha Singer helps explain why online dating site are fast trends in helping user find their compatible mate. According to "Better Loving through Chemistry" , many website actually implement a scientific structure in matching their clients with potential suitor. One of the most outrageous is calls ScientificMatch.com. This site actually uses DNA testing to determine romantic chemistry base on the individual genetic make -up. The ideas for this web site actually result from research which suggested women are more attracted to smell of men who are different from their own. Unfortunately, the sites charges user $1,995.95 for a lifetime membership, granted they actually provide cheek swabbing kit, DNA processing, background check and verification of age and marital status. The Today Show elaborates how the processes work. First DNA is collect and the Major Histocompatibilty Complex immune system genes are compared. If all 3 pair of the alleles are different a couple is consider a perfect match. This is an expensive solution, but don't worry. Sites such as Chemistry.com and it founder Match.com provide a reasonably price range that try to get to the heart of attraction. Instead of using DNA testing they base on traits of temperament. Here, the ideas similarity such as values, family background and social styles strongly accounted for a match. This upheld the Lilienfeld's claims that similarity paves the way for mutual understanding in the long run.


On October 31st, Kim Kardashian filed for divorce from husband Kris Humphries just after 72 days of being married. Was Kim and Kris meant for each other? Popular psychology about love and compatibility would say otherwise. Similarity is a big factor in attraction. Kim and Kris came from totally different worlds. Kim enjoyed shopping and living the high life, where Kris enjoyed outdoor activities and living a practical life. Kim was used to spending lots of money on herself and buying the highest quality of everything, Kris was not so used to this. Since these two are complete opposites, there marriage was not meant to last. Proximity is also an important factor. Kris first lived in Minnesota and currently lives in New York, where Kim has lived in California her whole life. They were never close to each other, which in the end put a strain on their relationship. Reciprocity is one of the most important factors in making a relationship last. Kim did not want to move and neither did Kris. Kim also did not want to give up her last name and take his. She also did not like dogs, where Kris did not want to give up anything to accommodate to his new wife. Since the two of them were not willing to give or take, their relationship would not last. Looks is obviously not the only thing that makes a relationship. Kim is one of the most beautiful women in the world, so Kris was automatically attracted to her. Since Kris is a little bit more old-school, he believes that the men should have the jobs and be financially secured. Kim makes more than he does and was not willing to give up her job. Due to popular psychology, the two were never meant to last for a very long time. If they would have considered these statements before, they would have lasted longer.

In class we have talked about the effects of different types of media on children. We saw that after watching violent programming the children mimicked the moved they saw. Most were able to take this evidence and conclude that violence should be taken out of media available to children.
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This is not an easy task when trying to make laws. In the United States a law involving the infringement of any amendment in the bill of rights must undergo what is known as the "strict scrutiny" test, in which the state must show compelling interest in removing a right. This topic came before the US Supreme Court in June, and it was decided that a law that had been put in place that made attaining violent video games the same as attaining pornography was unconstitutional.
Supreme Court Ruling
The vote was 7-2, with the majority saying there was not enough proof that these games lead to violence later on in life. The Justices reviewed material which showed that the games clearly caused a raised aggression level in the children. The link between causation and correlation is undeniable, but the majority opinion states that this correlation only lasts for a few minutes. There is no way to tell if these few minutes of increased aggression, with no real violence shown, could lead to committing crimes or an aggressive adulthood.
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The majority also stated that violence in children's media has always existed; just look at the endings of most fairytales. This goes to show that even if we as psychologists can see evidence, vast amounts of research are needed before laws can be changed to best put that research to use in society.

In our text book, 4 different styles of parenting are brought up. They are: permissive, authoritarian, authoritative, and uninvolved. Permissive parents us discipline sparingly and often shower their children with attention. Authoritarian parents are super strict and show little affection for their children. Authoritative parents are the best of both worlds; they give their children freedom but set firm limits and rules. Uninvolved parents as you guessed it are just not involved in their child's life and just ignore them. Because these styles of parenting only show correlation and not causation Heinz Hartmann came up with the term average expectable environment. Average expectable environment is an environment that provides children with basic needs for affections and discipline. That basically means that as long as a parent's parenting style falls within this their children will turn out just fine. But what if it falls outside of that area? An example we can use to show what happens is with Regina George from the movie Mean Girls. Her mom is permissive. She gives Regina permission to do whatever she wants, and does not discipline her for any of her actions. By her doing this Regina, is a bully at school. She bosses people around, thinks she can get whatever she wants, and has to be the center of attention. By not having discipline more than likely led to Regina being this way. She never got the right balance of love and discipline. Now, I'm not saying that this caused her to be this way, because some kids have moms like Regina's and they are just fine. Regina is just an example of what can sometimes happen when children do not experience the average expectable environment.

Placebo Buttons

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This article addresses the effectiveness of buttons we use in our everyday lives. Many of the buttons we use every day are nothing more than placebos. The three main culprits are walk buttons at crosswalks, thermostats, and the "close door" buttons on elevators. Most of the time, these types of buttons only positively reinforce the behavior of pressing the button. The elevator will eventually close and the stoplight will eventually turn whether we press these buttons or not. In fact, most elevators installed since the early 1990's have non-functioning "close door" buttons.
According to this video, the main reason behind the non-functioning crosswalks is the expense to remove them. The former Traffic Commissioner, Sam Schwartz, said, "90 percent of them do nothing, except the psychological benefit of pressing the button". As for thermostats, larger companies with office buildings don't want their employees messing with the temperature constantly. To prevent complaints and to give the employees the impression that they are in control, the companies install fake thermostats, and sometimes even white noise generators to trick the employees.
I can understand why it makes sense for the crosswalk and thermostats to be placebos, but I can't think of a good reason that the "close door" button shouldn't work. It makes sense that pedestrians should not be able to alter traffic flow and that companies want to save money by controlling the temperature in their building, but what harm could the "close door" button have? Isn't the worst case scenario that the elevators become slightly more efficient? Either the person doesn't press a functioning "close door" button and there is no difference, or the person does press it and they save an average of 2 seconds (according to the video). The only explanation I can think of is that the companies want to save the money it takes to make the button functional because almost no one can tell the difference.

Fathers and Children

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From the Lilienfield text, the role of the father is discussed on page 389-390. The text presents differences in parental involvement with children between fathers and mothers. Fathers do not appear to pay as much attention to nor do they seem as loving of their babies as mothers. Fathers do not spend as much time with their babies as mothers (Golombok, 2000). Also, fathers engage with their children in physical play more often than mothers (Parke, 1996). Finally, boys and girls have a tendency to choose their fathers as playmates rather than their mothers (Clarke-Stewart, 1980).
Of particular importance, is how attentive and affectionate fathers are in comparison to mothers as well as how much time fathers spend time with their children. Overall, society says that mothers spend more time with their children than fathers. This societal belief is even more strongly imbedded in certain cultures. It was found that sons with poor relationships with their fathers were more likely to have poor relationships and parenting for their own sons (Doherty, 1991). Thus, strained relationships between fathers and sons may carry onto future generations through father-son interactions. It is important for fathers to be involved in their children's lives despite what societal and cultural norms dictate. Such endeavors are beneficial to the development of the children as well for society and culture.

Source: Doherty, W. J. (1991). Beyond reactivity and the deficit model of manhood: A commentary on articles by Napier, Pittman, and Gottman. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 17, 29-32.

Daddy's Little Girl

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Does the Nose Know Best?

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Most women have had the mysterious experience of being turned on by a partner's smell. Though personality and looks definitely play a part in initial attraction, smell may play a larger role than we suspect. Studies have found that how a person smells gives us clues to their genetic make-up, and thus, their potential to be a compatible mate. The first study to indicate this was conducted by Claus Wedekind. 44 men wore the same t-shirt for three days. They refrained from deodorants and scented soaps to keep their natural smell. Women then smelled the shirts and recorded which ones smelled the best. By comparing the DNA of the women and men, it was found that women didn't just choose randomly. They preferred the scent of man whose major histocompatibility complex (MHC), series of genes involved in our immune system, was most different from their own. From an evolutionary perspective, choosing a mate with a different immune system makes survival sense. Kids of parents with different immune genes are more likely to be disease-resistant and are therefore more likely to survive. An interesting exception to the MHC attraction is for women taking the pill, who responded the opposite than would be expected. Because the pill tricks your body into thinking it is pregnant, it chemically alters your sense of attraction. Instead of finding the scent of genetically dissimilar men attractive, women on the pill found the scent of men with MHC's similar to their own to be attractive. This may be because when a woman is pregnant, she isn't looking for a new mate, and may benefit from being around those with a similar genetic make-up. Though certainly the scent of a man can be a powerful indicator of genetic compatibility, it certainly doesn't dictate everything. If a woman falls in love with a man, and then begins the pill, she's not likely to lose interest. And there are certainly other factors at play than just scent. Our noses may help us find the mate most suited to us, but it's ultimately up to our minds to decide whether or not we like what we've sniffed out. So in my opinion, use your nose, but make sure you don't only depend on scent.

http://johnoconnor.suite101.com/sex-and-smell-a59309

Staying Young

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How much money are you willing to spend to stay young? Americans spend billions of dollars every year on anti-aging products that guarantee these extraordinary results. In general, aging is inevitable. Yet people go to extreme measures in order to avoid excess wrinkles and gray hairs as well as to fit in with society and the glamorous celebrities. Some simple tips that have been scientifically proven to help people age better are: getting more sleep, staying fit, lathering on face lotion, staying out of the sun, limiting alcohol and cigarette use, and relaxing.
For instance, sleep allows your immune system time to repair the damage instigated by day-to-day activities. Our body needs approximately seven to eight hours of sleep a night. As a result, your face will suffer the most damage if you do not receive enough sleep. Many lotions contain vitamins that can do wonders for your skin. Some examples of these are: reduced fine lines, improved textures, tightened pores, a natural radiance, restored firmness and hydrated skin.
I think this is an important concept because people waste so much money on anti-aging creams every year when there are simple things they can do everyday to prevent wrinkles and aging. As I am witnessing my mother continue to worry about aging, she refuses to focus on what she could have done in helping her skin. Instead she concentrates on the new products that will help her in the moment. Although being young is considered "the best times of our lives", we are older much longer than we are young. So, while we are young, it is extremely important that we take care of our body. I want to feel and look good as I age. Although getting older is unavoidable, through these tips, I believe I can make a difference in my health.
http://www.fitnessmagazine.com/health/body/head-to-toe/10-all-natural-ways-to-stay-young/?page=1
http://www.slu.edu/readstory/more/3242
http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/4593580/ns/today-books/t/want-stay-young-looking-save-your-skin/#.TrSEtWCLEXw
http://abcnews.go.com/Health/Wellness/wrinkle-creams-revealed-trust-hype/story?id=10575028#.TrSJYmCLEXx
http://www.allure.com/beauty-products/best-of-beauty/2010/best_new_antiaging_products#slide=1

Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder that consists of a cycle of bingeing and purging. A bulimic person may eat excessive amounts of food containing many calories, followed by a form of purging. Purging is a means of eliminating the mass amount of calories consumed by means of vomiting or taking laxatives. Guilt, anxiety, and loss of control are common feelings associated with bulimia because it often feels like one cannot stop eating. Purging acts as a negative reinforcement by taking away the negative feelings that revolve around eating and gaining weight.

Less common, anorexia nervosa, is a very serious eating disorder that often begins in adolescence. Those who suffer from this disease often become extremely emaciated and are repulsed by the thought of becoming obese. Anorexia has been named one of the most life-threatening psychological conditions, with a death rate of about ten percent.

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The photograph above shows that those who suffer from eating disorders often perceive their body differently than others. She see's herself as having more body fat than desirable; though, realistically, she image in the mirror is probably of a healthy body mass index (BMI) and her body looks like that of a skeleton. If an individual denies their body from the nutrition it needs to be healthy, it has several consequences.

As a portrayal of these consequences, Isabelle Caro, gives the public and honest image of anorexia nervosa. She took a stand against her disorder through an Italian ad campaign against anorexia and the negative influence of the fashion industry. She posed as a model, showing off her boney physique and explaining how the lack of nutrition has damaged her hair and caused her to lose several teeth.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VS2mfWDryPE

Eating disorders are very serious psychological conditions that greatly impact the body. The damage done to the body is life threatening to those that fall victim to the condition. With the media portraying skinny models as a social norm, it is important that individuals, like Isabelle Caro, share their stories to show how serious eating disorders are.

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Like many of my peers, I enjoy tuning into the Public Radio International program, This American Life hosted by Ira Glass. Last week's episode was focused on the Middle School Experience, largely reflected on as one of the most brutal parts of a person's life. Middle school is prime time for much of the learning and development we've been discussing in lecture and recitation so it was a bit shocking (and yet hysterical) when the first person interviewed, actually a producer on the show who had taught previously taught in a middle school, says, "I don't know that they actually learn anything..." His stance is that so much mentally (Erikson's "identity crisis" for example), physically and socially is going on that facts and figures simply don't stick. Another interviewee, a middle school principal disagrees and believes that middle school is a very important environment because it's largely where kids are learning how to properly socialize and become adults. She seems to take an approach I believe in, that it's how the parents, teachers and other adults in middle schoolers' lives react to the kids' thoughts and feelings and changes their going through, because "We can't help what's biologically going on with them." Nurture, rather than nature. Each act depicts trials and triumphs of middle school life with the final act containing an unexpected twist- the power of peer pressure for good; a teacher using her students' newly developing empathy to assist a classmate with anger issues by talking through his problems and finding solutions rather than bickering back and forth.
The episode was awesome because of how easy it is to relate to it. I don't know that I know of anyone who claims that middle school was an enjoyable experience; however, looking back and especially with further knowledge on adolescent development, I find it hard to not appreciate middle school for the experience.
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Blame Your Parents

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baby-headphones.jpgDon't you wish you were a little smarter? Who doesn't? You can only blame your parents for your lack of intelligence. If only they would have had you listen to Mozart as a baby, then you would be getting an "A" in psychology and finding cures to cancer.

An article that was published in the journal Nature declared that college students who listened to Mozart improved their scores on spatial reasoning tasks. This became known as the Mozart Effect, and companies went wild. They made CD's for babies and claimed that listening to classical music would boost their intelligence. One website that advertises such products is HowToLearn.com.

However, more recent research has revealed that there is no such "Mozart Effect". The original finding in 1993 was used on college students and did not imply that the effects could be generalized to babies. It also did not say that it would result in the long-term enhancement of intelligence. This can be further explained here.

The Mozart Effect can be evaluated using the Six Principles of Scientific Thinking. First, the principle of Replicability can be used. Researchers had a difficult time replicating the original findings of the study in 1993. Many couldn't find the effect, and others found that its effects were trivial or were of short duration. So because the results of the original experiment could not be duplicated, its findings cannot be considered reliable.

The second Principle of Scientific Thinking that can be used to evaluate the Mozart Effect is Occam's Razor. This principle looks for a simpler explanation of the data. Researchers have suggested that the Mozart Effect may be due to a greater state of arousal found after listening to the music. Anything that boosts one's arousal or alertness, will likely increase his/her performance on a mentally demanding task.

Because the original findings of the Mozart Effect cannot be replicated, and because a simpler explanation fits the data, we can declare the claims of the Mozart Effect to be unreliable. We can no longer look to blame our parents for failing to play Mozart for us; they knew all along that listening to classical music wouldn't help us in the long run.

Picture taken from:
http://www.unboundedlife.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/baby-headphones.jpg

Sources:
"Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding" Textbook
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100510075415.htm

People who knew John Wayne Gacy would describe him as a loving, hardworking, and giving man. In his spare time, he posed as a clown for sick children, and helped out in the community. Even after convicted of 33 murders in addition to several accounts of rape and torture, those who knew John Wayne Gacy stood by him. But how do you stand by a man convicted of all of these crimes?
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Gacy was born in 1942 in Chicago, Illinois. As a child, he was beat and taunted by his alcoholic father. Many reports believe that his father's role in his life led to Gacy's violent behavior. Because his father robbed him of his childhood, it could be said that Gacy's obsession with clowns later in life was his way of redoing his childhood. When Gacy was on death row, it was reported that he would only draw clowns in his jail cell.

The first report against Gacy appeared in 1968 when he was arrested for raping an employee, and paid that employee to keep silent about the incident. Unfortunately, this incident was the first of many to appear. In just three years, John Wayne Gacy killed over 30 adolescent boys from the ages of 9 to 27 years old. Although few were let go after being tortured and sexually assaulted, most were buried in the crawl space of Gacy's small Chicago home. According to an article of Clark Prosecutor, Gacy told detectives "'There are four Johns.' He later explained that there was John the contractor, John the clown, and John the politician. The fourth person went by the name of Jack Hanley. Jack was the killer and did all the evil things."

Even though at the time of the arrest Gacy admitted to the murders and drew up a plan of where the bodies were buried in the crawl space of his house, Gacy refused to admit to the murders 13 years after being sentenced. In an interview with Walter Jacobson, Gacy changes his story and believes he did not commit any crimes.

John Wayne Gacy was put to death by lethal injection in 1994. Before his injection, he was allowed a private picnic with loved ones who still stood by him and believed he was innocent.


Violent? Or no?

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This article, published by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, talks about how TV violence can make children be more violent themselves. It states that television violence can make children immune to violence, help them accept it as a form of problem solving, and cause them to imitate the violence that they see on TV.

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In discussion sections, we have also gone over these same findings, and have generally concluded them to be true. However, we were also given articles to read that maintained that violent television and games had positive attributes as well; one even claimed that this violence helps to decrease violent behaviors in adolescents.

Overall, I feel like this is an issue where the correlation doesn't equal causation principal applies well. We are not sure whether aggressive children, are more likely to watch violent shows, and therefore are simply more violent because they already had the tendency to be more aggressive. It could also be that children who grow up in more violent environments have parents who do not care what they watch, so they are able to watch more violent television. These children may grow up to be more violent, even though the television they watched may not be to blame.

Therefore, before judgments are made, more controlled experiments are needed to determine the cause effect relationship. That can be seen in the video we watched in class, because they compared children's reactions to Barney and the Power Rangers. The video showed that the two shows brought about completely opposite behaviors, suggesting that the Power Rangers did in fact invoke violent behaviors.

In the end, however, we cannot conclude from these studies if these behaviors correlate into long term effects on the children or not. So, more information is definitely needed to report the cause effect relationship to be confirmed.

Human Attraction in Animals

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So I read carl4266's blog , wich explained research that claimed that there is a deep biological need for human attraction. As our textbook has pounded into our heads, research needs to be replicated if were are to accept its claims. In my opinion, a good way to support an evolutionary/biological view is through animal research, because animals are more inclined to only follow their basic reproductive instincts than humans, almost creating a control on variables involving human personal preference. A study conducted by the University of Minnesota, on lion manes, provided very similar results as the one on human attraction. Female lions clearly prefer males with darker manes, opposed to those with lighter ones. A darker mane indicates more testosterone in a male lion--much like a more masculine face in a male human--than a lighter mane. These findings demonstrated that certain, more attractive, physical features conveyed the presence of good genes and fertility--much like a symmetrical face to humans--giving more support to the claim that much of attraction is biologically rooted in the need to pass on the most desirable genes to a lions, or humans, offspring.

I recently found an article from Psychology News titled "Perception of Facial Expressions Differs Across Cultures." In this article, a group of researchers from University of Glasgow are using falsifiability to refute what has been presented to us in our Lilienfeld textbooks of Psychology 1001. According to them, East Asians and Western Caucasians differ in how they interpret angry, happy and sad faces. Prior evidence has been presented that all humans entail the 7 primary emotions of fear, anger, disgust, happiness, sadness, contempt and surprise. According to our textbook, these primary emotions are cross-culturally universal. These emotions are the biologically based emotions from which other emotions arise, even though the negative emotions may be harder to interpret. However, the Glasgow researchers used statistical image processing techniques to examine how 15 chinese and 15 caucasian participants viewed the facial representations. Neutral based images were altered and shown to the participants and they were instructed to categorize the facial expressions. This study found that the chinese tend to rely on the eyes and caucasians tend to rely on the mouth and eyebrows when classifying facial expressions. These distinctions could lead to misinterpretations across cultures, which is different from what has previously been thought. This study does not go against the Discrete Emotional Theory, which states that humans experience a small amount of emotions that are biologically rooted. This is because this study only researched a total of 30 participants which can not be enough to conclude much. Overall, it is important to take into account this study, and others, when understanding the cultural differences in communication.

The process of lie detection is pretty self explanatory; it is the act of determining whether a person is lying or not. Polygraph tests are what are used to detect lies. But are they really effective?

The polygraph test measures blood pressure, respiration, pulse, and skin conductivity. During the time when the person being tested is hooked up to the polygraph machine, the examiner is asking questions to the person being examined. The more of the four previously stated symptoms that are shown while the accused is answering a question, the more likely it is that he/she is lying in their response to that certain question. When humans lie, we have a tendency to breath faster, have higher blood pressure, faster heart beat, and we tend to perspire; especially in the hands. Click this link to see a video on how a polygraph machine works.

The polygraph machine consists of a computer(or a machine recording the data), a blood pressure cuff(to measure blood pressure), galvanometers(to record skin conductivity), and pneumographs(to measure rate of breaths taken).
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Sure, these tests do provide us with some information as to whether the person is lying or not; but we can't be sure that this information is credible. Most scientists consider lie detection to be a pseudoscience. It is said that the polygraph tests are entirely correct only about 5-10% of the time. This is a prime example of replicability and falsifiability; replicability because after the first test with the suspect, they may learn how to fool the test, as there are many ways that are thought to deceive the polygraph machine. And falsifiability because the tests have been proven to be false representations of the truth, but also have been proven to work as well. Here are a few ways that people claim to beat a lie detector. Try as they might to deceive the test, a skilled polygrapher can detect these attempts. Check out this video to get a better idea of how polygraph tests are administered and how lies are detected on them.

Although these articles and videos prove that lie detector tests do work, I would like to know a few things about them. First off, why, if they work so well, don't we use them more often? Are there other reasons for why some people truly believing in the tests, while others are on a drastically opposite side? Do the tips on beating the test actually help, or do they fail, like in the video?

IQ scores

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What exactly is an IQ score? An IQ score is derived from how well a person does on an exam measuring their "intelligence quotient." This exam consists of several different standardized tests and is justified as a scholarly way to gauge intelligence.

Over someone's adulthood, no matter how many times they take the IQ test, their scores are always consistent. This shows that the IQ test is extremely reliable in the sense of test-retest reliability.

IQ scores are associated with many important real-world behaviors outside the classroom and workplace too. They are associated with health-related outcomes including sickness and car accidents. IQ scores are also associated with crime, the lower the IQ score, the higher chance of criminal tendencies. The politics behind IQ scores hold true. There is barely any difference in the IQ scores of men and women. On the other hand, there is a huge difference in IQ scores in the sense of race. White people on average score 15 points more than black people do on IQ tests, but they do show substantial overlap.

The correlation between IQ scores and life achievements remains essentially identical even at extremely high levels of IQ, which doesn't make much sense to me because I feel as though Stephen W. Hawking and Albert Einstein have achieved so much more in their lifetime than a standard employee at a company.

Genetic and environmental influences on IQ are very consistent. Through family studies, IQ scores run fairly consistent, but we don't know whether it's for genetic reasons, environmental reasons, or both. Twin studies on the other hand have strongly suggested genetic influence.

In my opinion, IQ scores can be used to gauge intelligence to an extent. Test taking ability plays a huge role in IQ scores and just because someone gets a lower IQ score than me, I do not consider them any less intelligent than me.

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The mystery of how video games truly effect children remains varied, however research all points to fairly immediate aggression directly after encounters with repeated, elongated amounts of violence. After viewing the video recording of children's behavior after watching Power Rangers vs. Barney, it should be obvious that there is some effect violence has on people. This study done by Gentile & Anderson (2003) states how their study indicates that repetition of violence in video games where children are repeating violent behaviors as they play has strong effects on a child's aggression. Repetition of the game is key, because repetition increases learning. However, all research cannot apply to each individual as they are. As conjured up from the articles provided in class as well as the textbook and additional research, it is all correlational at best. That being said, it could be very well possible that a third variable would be a child's genes, or maybe the environment they grew up in (or both...?). From personal experience, I have many friends who grew up watching and playing violent video games, however they are all varied across the horizon on their aggression levels. I wonder how a longitudinal study done on children from different backgrounds aligned with studies on possible aggression genes (as this article states) would reveal more information? Could the gene-environment interaction illustrate the idea behind the correlation between aggression and violence in the media? More studies will have to bring us closer to a conclusion.

Sex Appeal in Humans

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Often times we find ourselves attracted to people at first sight, but have you ever thought of why this really is? Yes, it's obvious they're attractive to us, but what truly drives attraction? Researchers are finding evidence that attraction is a biological concept rooted deep in our mind that we subconsciously perceive. The Discovery Channel did a television series called the Science of Sex Appeal, which analyzed many different ways in which we perceive beauty, one of them being the Golden Ratio. In the video below there is an excerpt from this series talking about the Golden Ratio and talking about the software that can be used to calculate the beauty of someone's face using this ratio. A perfect score being a 10, about a 5 is average when rating a person's face and anything over a 6 is usually considered attractive. Our mind subconsciously computes this with every person we meet, rating their general attractiveness. Another way we calculate beauty without thinking (also shown in this video) is by the masculinity or femininity of the face. A face a female perceives is usually considered more attractive when it's masculine and has a wider and longer jaw, and thicker eyebrows. For men it's the opposite when they're attracted to women.
So why are these rules of attractiveness important? Our brain calculates beauty because the more beautiful a face is, the more likely it is that their genetics will also be good, so this is an Evolutionary trait that's been forming so that the human species can benefit from reproduction. If every person in the world was found attractive, some bad genetics would be passed down, causing negative consequences for the species over time.
So now next time you see a person who you find attractive, you can now know exactly why this happens. Maybe think to yourself about the masculinity of femininity of their face, or how symmetrical they were. Things like this are very important in person to person attraction, and there is a deep biological need for them.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HA6nBS-KHEc&feature=related

Binded, Tortured, and Killed

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In the beginning, Dennis Rader's neighbors referred to him as an "ordinary, unassuming man." To his family, the wThe BTK Killer Speaks (2005)1.jpgords "soft spoken" and "family man" were all words perfect in description. After a shocking investigation, however, both family and friends of Dennis Rader would come to realize that this ordinary member of society was also classified as a notorious psychopath, often referred to as the "BTK" because he binded, tortured, and killed his victims. Seemingly identical to the majority of the population, Dennis Rader and other serial killers like him, differ substantially in certain physiological functions. In an interviewwith the infamous BTK killer, the killer refers to the drive inside of him to murder as the "Factor X." He describes it as a feeling of a loss of control; he thinks he might have been dropped on his head as a child because the feelings inside of him are unnatural. Unintentionally, the BTK killer is suggesting that there is indeed a biological difference between the psychopathic brain and a typical brain. This idea is supported in an article written in Crime Times. The article suggests that most psychopaths differ in their reactions to fear-provoking stimuli. In addition, the fear-potentiated startle reflexes of psychopathic individuals is minor in comparison to non-psychopathic. Personality traits such as self-confidence, impulsiveness, and aggressiveness also play a crucial role in the make-up of a psychopath. So while Dennis Rader, may seem like a calm and collected individual, the "Factor X" inside of him may actually exist.

video-game-kid.jpgIn my opinion, playing violent video game can't contribute to aggression. Looking across all the articles I read, I think I am most convinced by the third article which is called "Violent Games Not To Blame For Youth Aggression, Study Suggest" (ScienceDaily Dec. 14, 2010). 302 mainly Hispanic youth between the ages of 10 and 14 years were in the experiment. After 12 months from the beginning of the experiment, they were interviewed the second time for collecting the data. The experimenter found out that depressive symptoms were a really important reason for aggression. At the end of the experiment, the experimenter Christopher Ferguson concludes:" current levels of depression may be a key variable of interest in the prevention of serious aggression in youth". The second article convinced me the least, because it did consider other reason for people aggression but only find the information they were interested in. In my opinion, current depression is not only a big reason for aggression, but also there are some other important variables. For instance, violent movies or music also may cause people's aggression. We can see violence news all the time on TV. People even can watch real crime around them. For those things I mentioned, they are more realistic than those fake pictures violent video game. So they might are important reasons for people being aggressive. On the other hand, according to one of the six scientific thinking principles: extraordinary claims, we need some scientific design experiments to approve those views. If I were a experimenter, I would design the experiment for approving more crime rate around individuals can cause more aggression. First, I will find as more participants as I can. And randomly select them from both high crime rate area and low crime rate area as the control group. Second, I will find participants from each different areas as experiment groups. Using the longitudinal design to follow each individual for years and compare them with other people for other grounds at the end of the experiment. Then, I will give a reasonable conclusion about my research.

The Mozart Effect

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In the Lilienfeld textbook, the Mozart Effect is discussed. The Mozart Effect is the idea that listening to classical music increases intelligence.

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(image taken from google images)

The above image is of the cover of a CD sold for babies. The CD contains classical music. Notice the caption "From Playtime to Sleepytime." This suggests that the babies can listen to the music while playing or sleeping and the music will have the same effect to improve intelligence. According to the textbook, the Mozart Effect did not last long term. In tests, it was shown that it had short term effects but no long term. Without the long term effects, it does not help intelligence.
Also, parents tend to buy "Baby Einstein Toys." These toys are said to improve intelligence in babies but have no evidence to back them up. It is scientifically proven that children that participate in physically active activities have higher intelligence then those who watch videos such as "Baby Einstein." The reason for this is the children that are active experience the lessons first hand rather than watching someone else experiences them through a video. When someone experiences something on their own they are more likely to remember the lesson learned from it. For example, I read countless children books about kids falling and scraping their knees from tripping over their shoelaces. Until I experienced falling a scraping my knee after being too lazy to tie my shoelaces, I had learned no lesson. After my firsthand experience, I was always certain to tie my shoes.

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Parents are a huge part of a child's life. However they act, whatever they say, anything that they do largely impacts a child's development from the moment they are born. According to psychologist Diana Baumrind's research, she found that there are four types of parenting styles (Parenting Styles in Psychology, Brittany Olivarez). Through naturalistic observation, parenting interviews, and other research methods, Baumrind identified the following four parenting styles:

  • Authoritative: democratic style of parenting, parents are attentive, forgiving, teach their offspring proper behavior, have a set of rules, and if child fails to follow their is punishment, if followed their is reward/reinforcement

  • Authoritarian: strict parenting style, involves high expectations from parents but have little communication between child and parents. Parents don't provide logical reasoning for rules and limits, and are prone to harsh punishments
  • Permissive: parents take on the role of "friends" rather than parents, do not have any expectations of child, they allow the child to make their own decisions
  • Uninvolved: parents neglect their child by putting their own life before the child's. They do provide for the child's basic needs but they show little interaction with the child

Each of these different parenting styles impacts and influences the development of child. Through Baumrind's observations she found that the most ideal and balanced style that leads to the child being mature, independent, and socially responsible is the Authoritative style (Parenting Styles in Psychology,Olivarez) Baumrind also found that the style commonly leads to children becoming delinquents is the Uninvolved style because of the lack of parenting, affection, and care from the parent leads the child to act out badly for attention (Parenting Styles in Psychology, Olivarez).

Parenting is a large impact in a child's life and development. Most families have a blend of two or more of these parenting types because the mother and father tend to differ when it comes to parenting a child. What we know is that a healthy development leads a child to succeed not only in developing as a person but building a stronger bond to their parents.

v_tough_love_miami_3_09_11_394-1315323902.jpgMore likely than not, you have experienced attraction to someone. It is a part of human nature. So what causes attraction? Scientists have narrowed the major principles to proximity, similarity, and reciprocity. Proximity is how physically close you are to that person. For instance, having a locker next to someone puts them in close proximity to you and makes it more likely that they a relationship will develop. Similarity is how much you have in common. People are much more likely to find someone attractive who is similar to themselves. Lastly, reciprocity is how one person responds to another. For instance, if one person shows that they like a person, it is more likely that the second individual will begin the like the other person back. It is all about give and take.

I find the principles of attractiveness to be very useful because it is so common in our everyday lives. Attractiveness especially plays an important role in the lives of matchmakers. One such matchmaker has come out with a show called Tough Love Miami. In this show, several women are chosen to endure a "boot camp" where they go through challenges to find out what they are doing wrong or right when looking for a man. In psychology, it is said that people judge others by what they look like. Well, in this clip, Leilini is very open about her preference for handsome men. Is also makes a statement that she is looking for a man who is as good-looking as she considers herself to be. Steve, the matchmaker, yells at her for this. However, she is showing one of the principles of attractiveness, the principle of similarity. I am, however, still wondering which principle is used the most whenever it comes to being attracted to a person.

Smiling=Happiness?

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In an article by David Womack, he focuses on smiling. He mentions how at the artificial intelligence lab at MIT, researchers are engaged in understanding the relationship between facial expressions and emotional states for the purpose of creating advanced robot interfaces. Ironically, the fact that computers do not have to feel the emotions they display gives them a big advantage. Smiles are not all created equal. A true or zygomatic smile requires the contraction of special zygomaticus muscles in the face that are directly linked to the cerebral cortex. The close connection between these muscles and emotion means that a zygomatic smile is very difficult to fake. Humans are also very good at detecting false smiles. We can tell from a young age when people are "faking it." According to the facial feedback hypothesis, you're likely to feel emotions that correspond to your facial features. So if you are smiling, then you are more likely to feel happy. One finding that supports the facial feedback hypothesis is the cartoon study that we did for psych discussion. People were instructed watch cartoons holding a pencil in their mouths, either between their lips or between their teeth. People with the pencils in their lips were therefore prevented from smiling. It turned out that the people with the pencils in their teeth, who could smile, rated cartoons funnier than those who could not. Although there are studies such as this one that support the hypothesis, it's not certain that these effects work by means of facial feedback to the brain. This is a problem with ruling out rival hypotheses- these effects can be explained by other things, such as classical conditioning.
link to article

emotion

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Dawt wage
Psychology writing#4
Date- 11/3/11
Emotion is a multiple range of observable behavior, expressed feeling, and changes in the body state .psychologists divided emotions in to two categories. These are primary emotions and secondary emotions. Primary emotions are those that we feel firs, as a first response to a situation. They are unconscious natural response that we have. The primary emotions include, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, surprise, and happiness. They are easily observable on our facial expression and universally similar despite the cultural specificity. The primary emotions do not tell the whole story of our feelings. The secondary emotions are the complex chain of thinking of the primary emotions that come through our experiences. Secondary emotions appear after primary emotions, for example we see a dangerous animal in our way that wants to threaten us, our first response is fear, that fear turns to anger that anger in turn prepares our body to fight back or run away from it.so to get the full picture of someone's condition, it is better to look at both the primary and secondary emotions together.
Some of our emotions take place in a specific region in our brain. For example fear is relatively specific to amygdala, disgust to insula- a region within the limbic system, anger to a region of the frontal cortex behind our eyes. There is no a single process for each of emotional feeling, multiple brain regions participates in all emotions. Is our emotion develops through our life stage? Yes, as we learned in previous lesson, emotional development starts since early age of childhood. Parents have a great influence on their children emotional development to be socially competitive in their future life. Especially, Authoritative style parents encourage children to be independent but still limit and control on their actions. Children of authoritative parents are socially competent, self- reliant, and socially responsible. What is so strike me is that how parents deal with their children determine the children future behaviors. For example, when they grew up, how they react with friends, school teachers, a spouse, and coworkers are depend on how families treat them since child hood age. This is what an authoritative parenting style looks like...An authoritative parenting style image.jpg

Some question the ability for same sex couples to raise children just as well as heterosexual couples. Many studies show that same sex couples are just as well likely to raise children. But the real question here is: Are gay parents more likely to raise gay children?
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From the stories of Rebecca Meiksin and Terrance McGeorge, you would expect that they turned out gay because of their gay parents. But in Terrance's case, he did turn out gay and he did have gay fathers but he claims it was all genetics. His father knew from the beginning that he was going to be gay. Rebecca on the other hand, is heterosexual and says that she has never been pressured to be gay by her mothers.
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Research scientist Paul Cameron believes that Parents of the same sex influence their children's sexuality based on his research. But couldn't the children that did turn out to be gay from same sex parents, most like be from genetics? Their parents are gay and the genes may have transferred to the child. This is a case of nature vs. nurture. I don't believe same sex parents influence children's sexuality, but open their eyes to accepting the sexuality of others. Some parts of it may be due to genetics or environment. Think about the children who did turn out to be gay with straight parents. How do straight parents influence the sexuality of their children that turn out gay?

Check this article defending gay parents here!

Is Seeing Believing

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"Our brain picks and chooses among the types of sensory information it uses, often relying on expectations and prior experiences to fill in the gaps and simplify processing" (Lilienfeld, 2010). This automatic processing we do everyday of our lives helps us makes sense of the world, however this is also our downfall in that we can easily be fooled by our own brain. This is probably why we are so fascinated by magic shows and illusions. What we think we see and thus believe is dependent on sensation and our perception. Therefore, an illusion can deceive one or both of these to make you believe something that may or may not be real or possible.

Practically every stimulus around us goes through our main sense organs (vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste). From there it undergoes transduction into electrical signals that is sent to the brain, but this is the point where brain processing can go astray. What the brain "thinks" it sees, hear, feel, smell, and/or taste is based on our past experiences; it uses these experiences to interpret the information we can understand.








It is from that information that our perception can, in turn, physically change our response or make us feel or believe something that was caused by the stimulus/stimuli. In addition our perceptions results from multiple senses that affect each other, like our vision and smell, which can make food look appetizing or make us feel sick. Sometimes the brain's false perception could be a good thing. Other times, our perception can also fool us.

The concept of perception is important to understand as this can be used to fool us, such as in magic shows and optical illusions or in the vast amount of advertisements we are bombarded by every day. For those of us that have taken and intro psych. class or understand this concept, it can help us think more carefully and therefore, hopefully, help us avoid being tricked and taken advantage of.

For years, the idea has persisted that divorce has a negative impact on children due to conflict between parents and unhealthy situations. However, divorce may not be that cut-and-dry as previously considered to be. The impacts of divorce stretch beyond the realm of fighting to the decrease in contact between parents and their children as well as deterioration in financial situations.

First off, the conflict that is associated with divorce has commonly been known to cause problems with children. The arguments create an uncomfortable environment that feels insecure to children, causing them stress. Likewise, it can hinder the psychological development of children. The sons/daughters of divorcees are known to respond differently to these conditions based on their age and even their gender. Kids as young as 3 years old have come to think that the divorce was their fault while both children and teenagers are found to experience anger, loneliness, fear, depression, guilt, and resentment. These findings are associated with the conditions of children who have parents that are still married but continue to fight regularly.

At the same time, divorce (when one parent gets custody) can create impacts similar to those of a one-parent family. The contact between the noncustodial parent and their child is known to decrease in quantity/quality. Meanwhile, the custodial parent is most likely required to work more due to the changes with the divorce, taking away time/energy that could be spent with their child. The children who experience this absence of attention often turn toward misbehavior and have low self-esteem. Likewise, the divorce may lead to economic hardships for that family. The income of the custodial parent (especially if it is the mother) is likely to be low, generally being at about poverty level. These adverse effects are seen in children as well due to their lack of nutrition and inability to possess many instruments that would be helpful in their future growth.

Consequently, divorce can lead to consequences beyond the realm of conflict to the lack of attention and nutrition in children, hindering their development. However, there are other things still to be considered: How many children of divorce are actually left in these conditions? Are these conditions as harmful as they are presented? Although the severity alters, it is clear that divorce does have effects on children due to the major change in lifestyle ahead of them.

Trypophobia

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Look at the right picture,do you think it is disgusting and shockingly repellent?If you say yes,that means you are a human because hating dense object is the basic instinct of man . In ancient times,serried thing is usually in contact with dangerous eggs,herpes virus infection,social insects and so on.These survival experience have accumulated in our mind for million years .It make us feel bad or even vomiting to escape as so
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But if you have the same feeling or let my scalp pins and needles when you looking the left one ,you may get a kind of Phobias called trypophobia.There are lots of reason can course the disease,the common one is that patients tied the thing he faced when he was hurt in the past and dense object together.The hippocampus remember the unforgettable experience and it will be recalled and replay the feeling when patients meet serried things.

orange juice.pngI recently found an article online discussing how orange juice creates a more positive outlook for people. The article discussed how surveys asked people about their thoughts and feelings towards orange juice and how it affects their lives. Most people responded by saying that it made them feel better about their lives and help them think more positively through out the day.
Later in the article it mentions how people shared positive emotions through analogies and memories about orange juice. However, it is important to note whether or not this study is replicable because of people sharing memories about positive emotions with orange juice one doesn't know if the misinformation effect was used. If the misinformation effect was used during this study it would the research invalid.
The article continues to discuss how this positive outlook caused by orange juice can be seen when 1,002 adults were surveyed nationwide. However because of obtaining information in this form it may not be reliable due to the fact that people can lie during a survey. In order to improve this research they could perform an experiment or do a naturalistic observation.
One thing that the article describes is how orange juice may not only be the cause for the positive outlook. It says that focusing on the simple things in life can also create a positive outlook. This makes orange juice an incorrect causation to this correlation. The article goes on to say that recent studies have shown that people who focus on positive thoughts live a healthier life, which rules out the hypothesis that orange juice is the cause of people living a healthier life. While it may help people live a better life it is not the only cause. To read the full article check out this link, http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/research-suggests-orange-juice-evokes-positive-emotions-132995078.html.

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