Howard Garnder coined the term Multiple Intelligences to challenges the traditional definition of intelligent. He argues that I.Q. testing alone is far too limited and it does not account for boarder human potentials. The theory of Multiple Intelligences incorporates the following "smartness" to categorize intelligent.
1. Linguistic intelligence - word smart
2. Logical-mathematical intelligence - number/reasoning smart
3. Spatial intelligence - picture smart
4. Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence - body smart
5. Musical intelligence -music smart
6. Interpersonal intelligence -people smart
7. Intrapersonal intelligence -self smart
8. Naturalist intelligence -nature smart
He highlights the fact that people are not smart in the same way. Individual inhibit various degree of these types of intelligences. As a result this theory questions the traditional school culture. It argues that the traditional classroom comprises of lecture and textbooks undermine difference learning behavior. This method are bias toward students who are linguistic and logical- mathematical intelligent, while ignoring other type of smartness. Therefore, this lack of reinforcement actually leads to underachieving students. Hence, the failure in the public school system is due to the teacher and administrator rather than students. Through Gardner's assertion many teachers actually tailor their teaching around children's learning style. However, this may not be a wise decision seeing authority's expectation actually plays a key role in the measurement of intelligences. Rosenthal and Jacobson finding in the "self-fulfilling prophecy" where student's performances reflect the expectation their teacher's expectation. More importantly, this theory is hard to falsify since these intelligent may not be independent of other. Plus, it is hard to test since there is no formal test to measure these intelligences.