One of the most interesting concepts of memory that I remember learning about is chunking. It applies directly to short-term memory, which is where we store a majority of our information we acquire for 3-15 seconds.
Hypothetically let's assume a teacher assigns you to memorize the first and last names of 5 presidents. Abraham Lincoln, Chester Arthur, Barack Obama, Bill Clinton, and Richard Nixon. The initials of their first and last names are ALCABOBCRN. If you were to try and remember the 10 letters of both their first and last names in random order, you would most likely fail at putting that information into your extended short term memory. On the other hand, using chunking would help ingrain that information into your extended short term memory and even better, help you pass the task that your teacher has assigned. My best example of chunking this data would be CAR-NBC-BOAL. Chester Arthur, Richard Nixon, Bill Clinton, Barack Obama, and Abraham Lincoln.
This is a great example of using a memory concept to help train your brain to remember information. Anyone can memorize tons of information if they just put meaning behind it. My favorite example to date is Rajan Mahadevan who memorized the first 31,811 digits of pi by using chunking and linking all the numbers with important historical numbers and dates.