Psychology writing assignment # 5
Date - 11/18/11
Intelligence is the ability to understand and learn and make judgment or have opinions that are based on reason. As we have seen in our text book the ideas of psychologists are divided toward the concept of intelligence. There are many controversies among psychologists to get the real concepts of intelligence. For instance psychologist Charles Spears described intelligence as - g or general intelligence. He tried to define intelligence as overall individual mental capacity without the specific ability of individual on a certain area of field. Actually some people are smarter than others no doubt about it, the problem is we do not know on which area he or she smarter than others. He himself aware the general intelligence didn't produce individual difference and tells the whole story of intelligence among individuals. Spears also came up with the idea of s factor or specific ability that sounds nice to me; because every individual is good at certain area of field and bad at others field. For example some people are good at mathematics and bad at linguistics area.
On the other hand psychologist Howard Gardener dissatisfied with the idea of general intelligence that Spears proposed. Gardener states intelligence as multiple domain which means, each individual has around eight components of independent intelligences which enable individual to perform mental task. Gardner believed each person is good at many areas of field rather than a certain area of field but his idea was not supported by many psychologists. Extra ordinary claims need extra ordinary evidences. Another psychologist, Robert Sternberg who supports Gardner idea also proposed three fundamental aspects of intelligence: analytical, practical, and creative. Sternberg and Gardner they both criticize Spears for the idea of general intelligence. In my opinion the idea of factor s or specific ability that Spears came up with was very sounds to me, because some people are good at mathematics and physics and bad at linguistic area. Imagine if everybody had the same level of understanding to ward something the world would be in a very boring and uninteresting place to live. This would make the diversities of knowledge nonsense that we all enjoy today. Therefore, in my opinion the factor of s or specific ability of Spears idea would be better supported the individual differences ideas and the diversities of knowledge that are exist in our world. Let us rejoice and appreciate the diversity of knowledge that each individual is good at it. For instance, Albert Einstein mathematics and physics are his second nature that no one can deny about it.
Source Scott Lilienfeld
wagex001: November 2011 Archives
Emotion is a multiple range of observable behavior, expressed feeling, and changes in the body state .psychologists divided emotions in to two categories. These are primary emotions and secondary emotions. Primary emotions are those that we feel firs, as a first response to a situation. They are unconscious natural response that we have. The primary emotions include, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, surprise, and happiness. They are easily observable on our facial expression and universally similar despite the cultural specificity. The primary emotions do not tell the whole story of our feelings. The secondary emotions are the complex chain of thinking of the primary emotions that come through our experiences. Secondary emotions appear after primary emotions, for example we see a dangerous animal in our way that wants to threaten us, our first response is fear, that fear turns to anger that anger in turn prepares our body to fight back or run away from it.so to get the full picture of someone's condition, it is better to look at both the primary and secondary emotions together.
Some of our emotions take place in a specific region in our brain. For example fear is relatively specific to amygdala, disgust to insula- a region within the limbic system, anger to a region of the frontal cortex behind our eyes. There is no a single process for each of emotional feeling, multiple brain regions participates in all emotions. Is our emotion develops through our life stage? Yes, as we learned in previous lesson, emotional development starts since early age of childhood. Parents have a great influence on their children emotional development to be socially competitive in their future life. Especially, Authoritative style parents encourage children to be independent but still limit and control on their actions. Children of authoritative parents are socially competent, self- reliant, and socially responsible. What is so strike me is that how parents deal with their children determine the children future behaviors. For example, when they grew up, how they react with friends, school teachers, a spouse, and coworkers are depend on how families treat them since child hood age. This is what an authoritative parenting style looks like...