Writing 5: November 2011 Archives

One of the most controversial TV characters on modern television has got to be Dexter Morgan from the TV show Dexter. The premise of the show is that Dexter is a blood spatter analyst who works for Miami Metro Homicide. He is a proud father and was even a great husband to a lovely wife for a while in the show. However, Dexter has a secret. When Dexter was three he was locked in a storage crate with his mother and a few other people who owed drug cartel money. They were made an example and he witnessed them all get brutally killed by a chainsaw. For the rest of his life Dexter could only feel things by killing them and so he became one of the longest running serial killers in America. At first glance the story makes perfect sense. Dexter witnesses trauma and suddenly his life becomes the product of a horrific incident. But regardless of how novel the story sounds it sounds almost identical to B.F. Skinner's theory of radical behaviorism. Radical behaviorists would love Dexter's story because it confirms what they believe, "...all of our actions are products of preexisting causal influences" as stated by the Lilienfeld text. They would whole-heartedly agree that Dexter has no free will when he kills people. He's simply been conditioned and that killing is all he can do. Especially since his horrific incident happened at such a young age and they believe the first few years of life are absolutely critical in adult development and that we can't change very much upon reaching adulthood. But with radical behaviorism and with Dexter, there are several challenges with them to critical thinking. Causal thinking does play a large role in how we act and behave. Nature wouldn't have endowed us with such huge cerebral cortexes if thinking and reasoning wasn't a large part of human existence.
Dexter

Bloody Mary

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(http://urbanlegends.about.com/od/horrors/a/bloody_mary.htm)
-Bloody Mary-
The legend states Mary Worth lived a long time ago, a very beautiful young girl. One day she had a terrific accident that left her face so disfigured that nobody would look at her. She had not been allowed to see her own reflection after the accident in fear that she would loose her mind. Before this, she had spent long hours admiring her beauty in her bedroom mirror and so on...
The claim is that if you go in front of a mirror and say the words "Bloody Mary" in consecutive time intervals. Scientific Thinking Principle #4 Replicability means that a study's findings can be duplicated consistently. If one were to see a ghost, face, and or image in the mirror after consecutively saying the words "Bloody Mary" it is possible that an image may come from it. It would be highly impossible to replicate the situation in which the first "Bloody Mary" folktale situation was originated back in the 1960's or before. Scientific Thinking principle #6 Occam's Razor means if two explanations account equally for well for a phenomenon, we should generally select the more parsimonious one. It is possible that one can consecutively say the words "Bloody Mary" into a mirror and have an image appear afterwards in the mirror but it is more possible and highly likely that the house in which the person is in is haunted (if you believe in ghosts). I believe the most useful principle for evaluating this particular claim would be Occam's Razor due to the fact that so many folktales are becoming apparent this day and age.


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Mouakoon Yang
Writing 5
11-20-11
An important concept or term that I have learned in our text book is the "lexical approach". Which in this approach it considers that a person who act a certain way is influence by his culture or the type of ethnicity one person is this include his way of living and languages he speaks. This concept or term I believe is important because it is also a certain truth to it. Because of ethnicity a white male compare to Asian male would be more likely to live on his own because generally a white male would be more likely to move out and leave his parents and the Asian male would more likely stay with his parents. This is due to the Asian culture where the male will stay and live with their parents and help them on the other hand the white male would leave and start a family of his own because in his culture it is more of a culture to be on your own to prove you are grown up and for the Asian culture it is to be able to support your parents that prove you have grown up. In a way the Asian culture is more of a respecting the parents and the white culture is more of making your parents proud you are on your own now. I thought this is a good term because I could apply it to my own way of life. I am an Asian an in my culture it is natural that the son stay living with their parents even when they are marry the wife and husband would stay living with the husband's parents or they move and move the parents with them. My father and we still live with his parents because he is a son and it is kind of a custom for the parents to stay living with the son so that he can support and help the parents when they grow old. But because we live here in America now our generation want to leave and live on our own now because we have grown a custom to the American culture. This is why I feel this term or concept is important it help me learn how people with different culture or race acts or do like living with their parents or moving out I found this out by seeing the diffidence in the cultures.

IQ vs Obesity

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Recent studies have shown that there is a link between scores on the intelligence quotient tests and obesity. This study reports that people that score low on the tests tend to have a higher chance of being obese. This raises the question of the link between the correlation and causation between the two.
Image: http://www.newsmania.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/obese_1.jpg
The link between obesity and intelligence is one that has been brought up throughout the years. The fact is that there is a positive correlation between the two, but they may not be the cause of one another. This connects back to the question in psychology of correlation vs. causation. Although there is a correlation between the two, it does not necessarily mean that scoring low on an intelligence quotient test will lead to obesity or vise versa. The argument against there being any causation involved is that there are many other factors involved that can make it seem as if there is this direct connection between the two. These factors include social environment as well as socioeconomic standing. More nutritious food tends to be more expensive in comparison to foods like McDonald's Dollar Menu. The only possible causation argument that I feel can be made is that people with lower scores on intelligence quotient tests are less aware of how to eat healthily and take care of their nutrition. Although this link may be legitimate, I find the first of the two to be more likely because socioeconomic standing and ability to buy nutritious food seems like a more likely connection.

Link: http://www.examiner.com/intrapersonal-self-awareness-in-national/obesity-linked-to-low-i-q-new-study-suggests

IQ vs Obesity

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Recent studies have shown that there is a link between scores on the intelligence quotient tests and obesity. This study reports that people that score low on the tests tend to have a higher chance of being obese. This raises the question of the link between the correlation and causation between the two.
Image: http://www.newsmania.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/obese_1.jpg
The link between obesity and intelligence is one that has been brought up throughout the years. The fact is that there is a positive correlation between the two, but they may not be the cause of one another. This connects back to the question in psychology of correlation vs. causation. Although there is a correlation between the two, it does not necessarily mean that scoring low on an intelligence quotient test will lead to obesity or vise versa. The argument against there being any causation involved is that there are many other factors involved that can make it seem as if there is this direct connection between the two. These factors include social environment as well as socioeconomic standing. More nutritious food tends to be more expensive in comparison to foods like McDonald's Dollar Menu. The only possible causation argument that I feel can be made is that people with lower scores on intelligence quotient tests are less aware of how to eat healthily and take care of their nutrition. Although this link may be legitimate, I find the first of the two to be more likely because socioeconomic standing and ability to buy nutritious food seems like a more likely connection.

Link: http://www.examiner.com/intrapersonal-self-awareness-in-national/obesity-linked-to-low-i-q-new-study-suggests

IQ vs Obesity

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Recent studies have shown that there is a link between scores on the intelligence quotient tests and obesity. This study reports that people that score low on the tests tend to have a higher chance of being obese. This raises the question of the link between the correlation and causation between the two.
Image: http://www.newsmania.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/obese_1.jpg
The link between obesity and intelligence is one that has been brought up throughout the years. The fact is that there is a positive correlation between the two, but they may not be the cause of one another. This connects back to the question in psychology of correlation vs. causation. Although there is a correlation between the two, it does not necessarily mean that scoring low on an intelligence quotient test will lead to obesity or vise versa. The argument against there being any causation involved is that there are many other factors involved that can make it seem as if there is this direct connection between the two. These factors include social environment as well as socioeconomic standing. More nutritious food tends to be more expensive in comparison to foods like McDonald's Dollar Menu. The only possible causation argument that I feel can be made is that people with lower scores on intelligence quotient tests are less aware of how to eat healthily and take care of their nutrition. Although this link may be legitimate, I find the first of the two to be more likely because socioeconomic standing and ability to buy nutritious food seems like a more likely connection.

Link: http://www.examiner.com/intrapersonal-self-awareness-in-national/obesity-linked-to-low-i-q-new-study-suggests

IQ vs Obesity

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Recent studies have shown that there is a link between scores on the intelligence quotient tests and obesity. This study reports that people that score low on the tests tend to have a higher chance of being obese. This raises the question of the link between the correlation and causation between the two.
Image: http://www.newsmania.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/obese_1.jpg
The link between obesity and intelligence is one that has been brought up throughout the years. The fact is that there is a positive correlation between the two, but they may not be the cause of one another. This connects back to the question in psychology of correlation vs. causation. Although there is a correlation between the two, it does not necessarily mean that scoring low on an intelligence quotient test will lead to obesity or vise versa. The argument against there being any causation involved is that there are many other factors involved that can make it seem as if there is this direct connection between the two. These factors include social environment as well as socioeconomic standing. More nutritious food tends to be more expensive in comparison to foods like McDonald's Dollar Menu. The only possible causation argument that I feel can be made is that people with lower scores on intelligence quotient tests are less aware of how to eat healthily and take care of their nutrition. Although this link may be legitimate, I find the first of the two to be more likely because socioeconomic standing and ability to buy nutritious food seems like a more likely connection.

http://www.examiner.com/intrapersonal-self-awareness-in-national/obesity-linked-to-low-i-q-new-study-suggests

Post Hoc Fallacy

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Post Hoc Fallacy

The concept of 'post Hoc Fallacy' is a false assumption in which because one event happened before another event, it must have caused the proceeding event. Though, this type of reasoning becomes tempting when the previous behavior seems logically related to the later one, we need to be to be careful because the scientist found a lack of evidence for whether earlier event actually causes the proceeding event (correlation vs. causation). The concepts of Post Hoc Fallacies are usually committed because people are simply not careful enough when they reason. Jumping to a causal conclusion is always easier and faster than actually investigating the phenomenon. When considering examples of Post Hoc fallacy some examples are very plausible to make senses whereas others are not so much reasonable. In most cases, the heauristical conclusion seems far from the reality.


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For example, I heard one of my friends who said, " after failing my first two test, I begun to use a pen my mother gave me and I started getting better grade". From this example, we cannot simply conclude that his grandmothers gift is the cause for his improvement because there could be a third factor, because he did really bad on his test he found a new way to study or spent more time studying.

http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/post-hoc.html



High IQ vs. Success

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http://www.iqtestexperts.com/iq-success.php

In class we debated about whether or not companies should hire people based on their IQ levels or not. This question is a real life example of how correlation does not always equal causation. One would figure that a person with a very high IQ, would end up being very successful in life. This assumption is false more times than not, one specific study had shown that there was only a 20% correlation between high IQ and success in the real world. The numbers do not lie, but they are very contradicting. In this same study, school work and getting a degree with top grades, directly correlated to having a high IQ, over 95%. So then what happens between graduating with a degree and top grades and actually achieving "success"? Where does this 75% change just occur? Once people get to the real business world other things factor into success, not just intelligence anymore. A person, depending on what profession they are going into, need to have a well balanced combination of intelligence, people skills, and creativity among other things. So then the answer to the question of should companies look at people's IQs when hiring, should be yes. All of the previous information may lead one to believe the opposite but that should not be the case. Not only should companies look at IQ test scores but also emotional intelligence (EQ), political intelligence (PQ), cultural intelligence (CQ), and contextual intelligence (XQ). Depending on what kind of person a company is looking for a specific job, the balance of all of these factors would change. To look at a person's IQ important, but then the rest of these other intelligence measurements must be brought into just as much consideration.

http://www.famouspeopleinfo.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Sigmund-Freud-9.jpg


Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, is one of the most influential figures in psychology to this day. In 1885, he studied in pairs with neurologist Jean Charcot. Jean treated people who had a condition known as grande hysteria. It was a mental disorder, mostly in women, that caused one to experience physical symptoms such as seizures and paralyses of the arms and legs. Studies done on people with this condition came up empty. This then lead Freud to the conclusion that some mental disorders are produced by psychological factors rather than physiological factors. This idea was then named Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality. This theory consists of 3 main claims. These include Psychic Determinism, symbolic meaning, and unconscious motivations. First, psychic determinism is the idea that everything happens for a reason so to speak. That we don't have control over our actions. Freud said this happens because, "we are at the mercy of powerful inner forces that lie outside our awareness". The second claim of this theory, Symbolic meaning, is a strange concept to me. It states that an object has special symbolic meaning. An example out of the Lilienfield Text is that in class, a male professor breaks a long piece of chalk in two. This would then have a symbolic connection to something sexual in nature. The third claim is Unconscious Motivation. This states that we rarely understand why we do what we do even though we seem to make up an explanation for it almost instantaneously. Freud believes that there is an unconscious part of our personality in which we are completely unaware of that plays a much larger role in our personality then the smaller portion of the conscious part of personality which is the part we are aware of.

Psychologist Sigmund Freud had developed many fascinating yet controversial ideas throughout his life and career. His theories ranged from the description of our inner psyche and how its components interact to form our personalities to the stages of psychosexual development. Many of his ideas have been criticized as pseudoscientific; they are often unable to be falsified and their effects on our individual personalities often have simpler explanations. However, his unique thinking has influenced many other psychologists in their theories of the role of our unconscious in our decision-making and personalities.

Freud was a believer in psychic determinism, the assumption that all psychological events have a cause. Freudian slips are one topic of psychic determinism. This occurs when something slips out of your mouth that you didn't mean to say. Have you ever had something slip out of your mouth in the middle of a sentence that might have been embarrassing? You probably had no intention of saying this, or weren't even thinking about the word but it still slipped out! According to Freud, this is part of your deep psychological unconsciousness coming up to the surface; the slips serve as a window into our inner conflicts.

Newscasters are known for having Freudian slips every once in awhile. Their slips are probably more noticeable because they are being broadcasted to thousands of people. See the attached link below for a slip by Gene Rayburn, the host from "The Match Game." Freud believed that our unconscious contained many suppressed ideas about sex and these are noticed in our slips. But isn't it possible that our slips in speech are not always about sex? If Gene Rayburn had said a more common word such as ripple instead of nipple, we may not have even noticed it, and wouldn't have classified it as a Freudian slip. So perhaps it only seems our slips are about sex because that is what we notice and remember. Freud's theory that our slips in speech have a cause is difficult to support with evidence, slips can be easily described as just a random mistake in speech. Overall, Freud's ideas are quite controversial and difficult to support with evidence; however, they offer intriguing insight to what may be happening in our minds.

The Match Game - Gene Rayburn slip

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The youtube video aptly entitled "Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us" by theRSAorg is cartoon narrating a speech by Dan Pink.

The speech address the age-old fable that "If you reward something, you get more of the behavior; if you punish something, you get less of it."
He concludes that there are "3 factors that lead to better performance and personal satisfaction: autonomy, mastery, and purpose."

He states that "money is a motivator", but only to the point of "taking the issue of money off the table"... After that point, it actually inhibits (according to his research) performance requiring tasks beyond rudimentary cognitive skill.

He comes to this casual conclusion from a study he found in Cambridge, MA; and Madurai, India.
This is anecdotal evidence, and even though he mentions that the results have been "repeated over and over and over by psychologists, sociologists, and economists" he fails to actually lead us to the replicated studies.
At this point, it is safe to say that perhaps his amassed amount of studies agreeing with him results from a confirmation bias study: one in which a person amasses their own hypothesis and destroys or ignores alternative explanations for the findings.
His confirmation bias is practically observable when he explains his idea for a business model. That is, he already believed what he is presenting to you before he made an objective conclusion.

Pseudopsychology is always proposing new theories that are supposedly supported through quality experiments. This most recent study, suggests that men who score lowly on their IQ examines also appear to have an unhealthy waist/hip ratio leading to obesity and heart risk disease when they reach middle age. I think that they really need to eliminate rival hypothesis and simplify their study by minimizing other possibilities. First off, one observational study cannot prove causation. Secondly, other reasons behind low IQ and obesity could be that there is a positive correlation between IQ and overall success in life. Which means that lower IQ would correlationally have lower success in life, and I did a research paper which showed a correlation between poverty and obesity. That could be just one of the many reasons. Finally the article shows no evidence of replicability nor any precise correlations, just stating that they are related.
http://www.examiner.com/intrapersonal-self-awareness-in-national/obesity-linked-to-low-i-q-new-study-suggests
http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504763_162-57326843-10391704/low-intelligence-causes-obesity-what-research-shows/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+cbsnews%2Ffeed+%28CBSNews.com%29&utm_content=Google+Reader

Freud

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sigmund_freud35082.jpg

Now, this blog is not intentionally meant to be a "roast" of Sigmund Freud; but, you know, it may just end up that way.

It baffles me that Freud believed and preached the claims that he made.
How did these claims even make it into any psychology book?
They are such extraordinary claims and he never any backs it up with
extraordinary evidence. Did he not understand the scientific thinking principles?
I mean, there are only six of them...

First, I would ask him, "What were the events that lead to causation of us meeting?"
He states in his theory of personality that 'psychic determinism' is the assumption that all events are caused and apparently we aren't free to choose our actions.
But in all reality, I chose freely to ask that question. Didn't I?
Falsify that one Sigmund.

Next, I would spend most of my time questioning his idea of
"The Stages of Psychosexual Development".
This 'concept', if you can call it that, is what puzzles me most.
I would ask him, "What kid, girl or boy, have you EVER met that wanted to kill his mother or father because they felt strong urges to have sex with their parent of the opposite sex?
What kid?
Name five?
Okay, no, name one?"
The only "evidence" that Freud had was that he attended a Greek play, where the son kills his father because he fantasizes about his own mother.
But, the key word there, was that he attended a play.
So, because he witnessed a fictional play he was somehow able to discover how the mind works.
Yeah, I don't think so.

Sorry Sig, but next time you want to come up with a theory, just follow the 6 simple scientific principles. We learned about them in chapter one, so it shouldn't be all that difficult.
Also, sorry for roasting you. I'm sure you were a nice guy.

EQ? IQ? Or Both?

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Continuing on with our debate from our discussion sections on IQ, this article talks about the great importance of Emotional Intelligence over standard intelligence which is measured by regular IQ tests. I says that in certain professions EQ testing was a better indicator than IQ testing because plenty of jobs have to do more with a person's emotional health, rather than simply there overall intelligence.

I find this to be very interesting because most companies take more stock in a person's standard intelligence than they do on their emotional intelligence. This is because in most jobs you must be able to deal with stressful situations and constructively deal with people on a daily basis. Therefore, if you have a strong emotional intelligence, then you should be better equipped to handle these types of situations.

IQEQ.gif

Overall, I feel that is important to consider people on more than just an IQ basis for a job. This is because not only does there emotional intelligence matter, but there are many other factors that matter correlate to good performance on the job, like motivation. Many businesses however take into account only one or two small factors when considering an applicant's likely performance on a job. This is unfortunate, because they are not giving everyone a fair chance to obtain a job, because while some people have a very high general intelligence and a very low emotional intelligence (or vice versa), they are not able to show a potential employer their greatest strengths this way.

Therefore, in order to way applicants for a job fairly, and accurately, it is important to look at more than just one factor, like their IQ.

Does my nose grow?

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According to the Lilienfeld text, the infamous "lie detector" relies on the assumption that the human body experiences a physiological or behavioral change when lying known as the Pinocchio response. If the test relies on this naturally occurring response, then what exactly is it measuring?post-23599-043113800 1299275862.jpg

In laments terms, the Pinocchio response is a concept where our body changes state while we engage in telling a lie. This generally has deals with things like blood pressure levels, respiration frequency, and an involuntary increase in the amount of sweat that we perspire.The test generally measures the amount that these processes fluctuate while answering questions, generally saying that these will fluctuate greatly when a lie is told.

To me, this idea can and has been utilized very well when it comes to the use within law enforcement in order to keep society running smoothly. Unfortunately, this response is not a fool proof way to detect lying due to differences in everybody's responses, and the fact that one can train to control these responses at their own will. Even so, I know that I for one do get a little short of breath when I lie, and I can feel my heartbeat rise out of being nervous.

I personally think that this is a fascinating natural phenomena, and I'm very curious how well the polygraph test actually does for detecting lies based off of this criteria. As the text states, this does yield a considerable amount of false-positives so I don't think that it should be used as a fool proof way to come up with a verdict on somebody being guilty, however I do believe that it can at least give an idea on how truthful somebody is.

Does my nose grow?

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Taking either an SAT or an ACT test is a standard procedure to apply for college. Because the scores are linked to the type of colleges a student is accepted into, it is no wonder that many students hope to study and improve their scores. So, many companies capitalize on this fact by charging students money to help them study for the exam.
However, it is not clear as to whether these programs really work or not. Although there is a positive correlation between taking these courses and student's scores, there are multiple ideas as to why that is. One such idea is that students who take the courses are better educated to begin with. Also, there is a hypothesis that the improvement seen after the classes is due to practice effects. Practice effects means that people improve because of practice alone and not necessarily because of the classes.
Why is this important to know? It is important because taking SAT and ACT's as well as other forms of IQ tests are a part of life that many people have to face. It is important to know what you should and should not do to achieve the scores that you are looking for. So, should you spend your money on one of these classes? Well, if you do, you should expect improvement but not miracles. It is unrealistic to expect more than a 200-point increase. So, I would avoid any articles that claim to boost your score by an unrealistic number of points such as this article. If there is something that I am still wondering about, it's what my SAT scores would have looked like if I had taken one of those classes. I suppose I will never know. However, I assume that it would not be hundreds of points different.

EQ? IQ? Or Both?

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Continuing on with our debate from our discussion sections on IQ, this article talks about the great importance of Emotional Intelligence over standard intelligence which is measured by regular IQ tests. I says that in certain professions EQ testing was a better indicator than IQ testing because plenty of jobs have to do more with a person's emotional health, rather than simply there overall intelligence.

I find this to be very interesting because most companies take more stock in a person's standard intelligence than they do on their emotional intelligence. This is because in most jobs you must be able to deal with stressful situations and constructively deal with people on a daily basis. Therefore, if you have a strong emotional intelligence, then you should be better equipped to handle these types of situations.

IQEQ.gif

Overall, I feel that is important to consider people on more than just an IQ basis for a job. This is because not only does there emotional intelligence matter, but there are many other factors that matter correlate to good performance on the job, like motivation. Many businesses however take into account only one or two small factors when considering an applicant's likely performance on a job. This is unfortunate, because they are not giving everyone a fair chance to obtain a job, because while some people have a very high general intelligence and a very low emotional intelligence (or vice versa), they are not able to show a potential employer their greatest strengths this way.

Therefore, in order to way applicants for a job fairly, and accurately, it is important to look at more than just one factor, like their IQ.

IQ vs. Obesity?

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http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504763_162-57326843-10391704/low-intelligence-causes-obesity-what-research-shows/

Extremely recently, CBS published an article that brought up the point that low scores on the Intelligent Quotient could be related to obesity. Even after just reading the title of the article, my couple months of studies in Psych 1001 led there to be many red flags appearing in my head. According to Freeman, "For the study - described at a recent meeting of the American Heart Association - researchers in Sweden compared the waist-hip ratios of more than 5,000 40-year-old men to their scores on IQ tests taken when they were around 18 years of age. The researchers found a strong inverse relationship between the ratios, which scientists use to gauge obesity and heart disease risk." First thing I thought of was that correlation does not equal causation. I am questioning whether there is an extra variable in there that is causing the obesity (overeating). It does not make any sense to me that having a low IQ would cause someone to be overweight. The author of the study argues that people with a low IQ have troubles receiving all the messages that are sent to them. Even so, I find this claim to be extremely ridiculous. What could be causing this relationship? It could be that these people make poorer or cheaper food choices. However, I firmly think that just because someone scores "lower" on the IQ test does not make them more likely to be overweight.

Repression

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Repression is the motivated defense mechanism to forget emotionally threatening memories and or impulses as they may cause anxiety. Freud theorized we repress unhappy memories to prevent future pain or suffering they may occur. There are two stages of repression. In the first stage, primal repression it consist of denial of psychical representation of the instinct to the conscious. The second stage, repression proper creation of an ego and by censorship. We believe this an important important because, it can explain why we don't remember events that occurred prior to age three, infantile amnesia, and embarrassing events we do not want to remember.
I am a victim of repression. Repression has made my life easier to deal with because I am fairly pessimistic. Usually I think things through but in the spur of the moment I don't. When I do not think things through, often I act on impulse and do embarrassing things many which I do not want to remember. For instance, during middle school I have done some really embarrassing freaky dance moves during a dance battle that I am not proud of. Thinking about it gives me the shivers.
Is there a way to permanently remove memories or induce amnesia? How do we distinguish repression from denial when some memories are caused by a mixture of internal and external experiences?

Psychology and Architecture

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I entered the U last year as a pre-graphic design major and took a class called Introduction to Design Thinking. It was an awesome class that really changed the way I think about much of the world around me. Now, I'm a public relations major but also pursuing a minor in design because I believe design these days is very thoroughly integrated and important in our lives.
One thing we discussed in class is how design can make you feel. I found this article on wired.com and was intrigued. It lists numerous studies that show that design of rooms can influence the way we think. I always think discoveries like this are pretty nuts. I mean, imagine if we could make people more productive or better at certain tasks just by putting them in different environments. I work for the U's School of Nursing as a Communications and New Media intern and they actually had published an article in last semester's newsletter about hospital architecture and its effects on patient healing. Unfortunately I couldn't find the article online but there are many very similar to it. The neat thing about the SON article though was that apparently there's a set of classes they have set up for students in the health field to take pertaining to this subject. I really love seeing so many subjects of my interest become intertwined- psychology, design and bettering the world.

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As Dr. Howard Gardner discovered, there are many different kinds of intelligence. This is a concept that is very important and should be taken into consideration when thinking about how "smart" someone is. Just because they're not so great at spelling does not mean they're also terrible at solving math problems. This is because those are two separate types of intelligence. So how do we decide if someone is an overall intelligent person? The IQ test is not a very reliable source for that because it does not measure all of the intelligences.

This article takes the 9 different kinds of intelligence -- linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, and existential--and explains them in an easy-to-understand way. It's important for people to realize that intelligence comes in many different forms and that if someone lacks in a certain area of intelligence, they make up for it in another. People that are very intelligent musically, but not linguistically (reading, writing, etc.) are still very smart and can still do something with their specific intelligence. They could be a genius in the musical area but not get linguistics at all, and that doesn't mean that they are not intelligent. Another thing that needs to be realized is that there are ways to strengthen the intelligence that you lack. For example, if you're lacking in bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, you can do yoga, crafts or dance to increase this ability. There are many ways that humans can branch out and be smart in different areas other than the standard IQ test definition of intelligence and this is seen in Howard Gardener's multiple intelligence theory.

Recently in class, we have talked about the Intelligence Quotient, a score that is used to assess the amount of knowledge that one has. 100 being the average, 140 being the approximate number for "geniuses," and about 80 and under being mental retardation.

If you would like to get your IQ assessed, I recommend going to a psychologist, who will administer an IQ test. IQ tests ask questions in the areas of logic, linguistics, and other abstract areas of thinking.

If you are like me and you don't have time to go see a psychologist (or know where to find one for that matter) to administer a test, you may have google searched "Online IQ testing." When I was younger, I used to believe these were accurate assessments of my IQ, but now I am aware that it is all pseudoscience.

Here you can find an online IQ test that I recently took (actually 5 minutes ago as a matter of fact) that you only need to enter your name and email address and answer 30 short questions. I received a score of 159. This would mean that I am, frankly, a genius.

genius.jpg

As much as I want to believe I am a genius, sadly I know I am not. These IQ tests are not accurate at all, they are not replicable (on a different online test I received a 120), because they do not go in depth. 30 questions in 10 minutes cannot even come close to evaluating anything, these tests are simply scams to try to make money and to advertise.

For more info on IQ, follow this link

Ferris Buellers Day Off castWhile watching "Ferris Bueller's Day Off" I noticed some very interesting personality characteristics in the cast. Ferris Bueller and his best friend Cameron Frye are almost complete opposites. Ferris is extremely extroverted whereas Cameron is very introverted. Ferris knows everyone in the school and has relationships to everyone. He is very secure with his attachments and has no worries that anyone likes him. He parents almost coddle him too much but they still leave him to take care of himself during the day why he is sick. This is most likely the reason he trusts that others will love and support his. Cameron is avoidant in his relationships. He withdraws his emotions from others because he does not feel that others will come to his needs being that his parents did not take care of him. In the beginning he is seen being sick in bed where his parents are not even in town.
Cameron is much more neurotic than Ferris also. He is shown as indecisive and having many different emotions through out the movie where as Ferris is mainly happy and excited. He is open to many new experiences like being in a parade and dining at an upper class restaurant. Cameron is opposed to everything. He worries about his fathers car and what Ferris is doing to it. Immediately after taking it out he wants to return it to his house so his father will not find out. This shows that he is also much more conscientious then Ferris. Ferris takes the moment as it comes but Cameron worries about everything. He takes his time and he wants to plan out all of his actions.
This also shows that he is not so agreeable. When Ferris leaves the car in a parking garage, Cameron refuses to get out of the car. Ferris had to call him several times in the beginning of the movie just to get him to come over. The movie directors did an excellent job of plotting out two completely different characters to star in the movie. Even though the movie is technically about Ferris, I think the movies true plot line shows the development of Cameron's personality throughout the movie. He becomes more confident and braver in the end of the movie.

On the bottom page 333 of the Lilienfeld text, the authors' support the idea of IQ scores predicting life outcomes by looking at past president's IQ scores and their quality of leadership. Dean Keith Simonton estimated the IQ scores for all U.S. presidents through George W. Bush. For each president, there is a 10-20 point IQ range that estimates their IQ score. He then compared the estimated IQ scores to the quality of leadership for each president, and found a moderate correlation between the two statistics. The authors of the book then used this correlation to show that IQ scores predict life outcomes, but circular reasoning shows that this may not be a correlation at all.
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Because the actual IQ scores for all of the presidents are not known, Dean Keith Simonton would have to look at historical data in order to estimate them. He would have to look at accomplishments, decisions, and documents about each of the presidents. By looking at the things that each president did and said during their presidency, an IQ score was then estimated. He then compared the IQ to each president's "quality of leadership" and then found a correlation. This is actually not a correlation at all, because the same data and judgement that was used to predict each president's IQ was more than likely the same data and judgement that was used to judge their "quality of leadership".

President's Popularity Rankings

When looking at past president's popularity rankings, the findings are eerily similar to Simonton's IQ estimates. Unpopular presidents such as Warren Harding, the president at the beginning of the great depression, are both extremely low in popularity and rated as one of the least intelligent president's on Simonton's list. Presidents high in popularity, such as Lincoln and FDR, also have some of the highest IQ's on the list. Although IQ could be a strong indicator on popularity because they are both positive attributs, we don't know that for sure. When historians are the one's assigning IQ scores to presidents, it seems silly to prove a correlation by comparing it to a different historian's presidential rankings. President's IQ could be a strong indicator of their quality of leadership, but when we don't know their actual IQ scores, we cannot prove a correlation by using estimates.

Eugenics: Good or a Bad?

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Is Eugenics a good or a bad thing?
The idea of eugenics was first founded by Francis Galton who believed that if talented partners were to have children, then their offspring would also be intelligent. This idea was transformed and adopted in the United States first by California. The eugenics movement in America was to improve the human race by sterilization, banning marriages, and segregating those who do not fit the Nordic, blue eyed blonde, type and also desire those who were tall, strong and talented.
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In the opinion of those who believe this is a good thing due to the elimination of those who are "untalented", is it certain that those who are talented produce offspring who will also be talented? This can relate back to the idea of nature vs. nurture. There are many who are very talented and came from a poor background and took advantage of their struggles to do better. Think about the Reign of Adolf Hitler who wanted blonde haired blue eye people. Millions were killed, unless you don't have a heart, then you would see that the loss of lives is not worth improving the human race.
20th-century-eugenics-religious-right-eugenics-inbreeding-political-poster-1262597803.jpg
If we didn't have those who weren't talented or the ideal "perfect" type, then who would be doing some of the jobs out there? I do not want to list the types of jobs due to possibility of offending people as well as creating a stereotype. There is a place for everyone in this world and no one should be denied the opportunity to be a mother, marry, or be alive because they were born the way they were from their environment and genetics.

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lust, like, and love.

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Attraction is often the first step to like, lust, or love. It may even cause one of those three. There are many influences on attraction, and eventually love. Proximity is the first factor that leads us to feelings. If someone is close and convenient, we are more likely to be interested. The psychology book says that people with similar last names tend to be friends, just because of their placement in lines and classrooms. The next factor in like is similarity. We like things and people that are similar to us. When we have things in common, it's easier to form a connection because of mutuality and similar opinions. Next is reciprocity, an important factor in relationships and feelings. We feel obligated to maintain equity and give and take an equal amount.

Along with factors of love and like, there's different types of love. Passionate love is when two people have a physical attraction and an overwhelming longing for each other. Another type is companionate ove, which is a deep sense of friendship and fondness of each other. Empty love is when the feelings are gone, and they stay together for other reasons.

http://www.livescience.com/7023-rules-attraction-game-love.html

The article talks about the rules of attractions, many of which we talked about in discussion section such as symmetry, hip to waist ratio, and the face. It's interesting to me to see how many people view attractiveness, and what is considered the most attractive and acceptable in society.

Positive Emotion

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There are a lot of emotions in this world. In my opinion, the most important kind emotions is that positive emotions, also it is called "other-praising family". According to the a study by Jonathan Haidt. There are 17 potentially basic emotions are called positive emotions. Such as excitement, interest, pride in achievement, relief, and sensory pleasure... Based on Haidt's study, negative emotions make people change, but positive emotions make people "stay here". Imagine if there were no positive emotions in this would, that would be a disaster. We always want to change because we don't want to get over difficulties. People don't feel good when finish good things. We can't keep our promises because we feel they are so hard to keep.
There are two definitions I have learned about emotions. The first one is that behaviors and decisions about behaviors that affect social outcomes (Gazzaniga & Heatherton, 2006). The second one is that shared norms that indicate how people should behave, especially in community situations (Haidt, 2007). Just like Haidt said, emotions are the reasons that make people behave.
In my opinion, there are in fact positive emotions that belong to moral emotions. It is more like Freud's superego. According to Haidt's paper, people do have positive emotions such as gratitude. To me, when someone do me a favor, I feel thankful and want to improve our relationship, I want to do something back. I can remember about 1 year ago, I just moved into centennial hall when I was a freshman. I needed to get new dorm to check in, but I had no idea where is it. So I asked a friend to picked me up at the airport and drove me there. I appreciated his favor and we are really close friends now and I think that ride started our friendship. It made us closer than before. That is what I think about moral emotions. On contrast, even though Haidt has a lot of fancy words for his theory but these hypotheses are still falsifiability. People don't think moral emotions are really scientific exist. Based on Haidt's words, people have moral emotions are always have some reasons. For example, people show respect because we feel fear, but on the other hand, people behave that most of time concern ourselves more.
http://forum-network.org/lecture/positive-psychology-praising-others-changing-self

The Big Five

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While psychologists have never been able to pin down one specific model of personality, Paul Costa and Robert McCrae's Big Five theory has been adopted as the most widely accepted. The Big Five Model of Personality was formed by factor analyses of trait terms in literature and dictionaries. The Big Five are as follows:
-Openness to Experience: People who are open to new events and are curious
-Conscientiousness: People who are careful and responsible
-Extraversion: Interpersonal people who are lively and social
-Agreeableness: Social people who are able to get along with many others
-Neuroticism- Usually tense and moody individuals
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An easy way to remember the Big Five is with the acronym OCEAN. The Big Five traits can be used to describe all humans, including those with psychological disorders. The Big Five traits have been used not only in psychological studies, but also websites and social networks like the dating website eHarmony.com. It has been hypothesized that there is also another trait, Dominance, when studying chimpanzees. However, chimpanzees and humans are quite different, so this trait may not be easy to bring over to homo-sapiens.
The Big Five are often good indicators of real-world behaviors, like job performance, grades in school, and health. While the Big Five is just a theory, it is still a widely used and respected test of personality around the globe.


IQ.jpgOne of the most interesting and controversial topics of psychology is the intelligence quotient and the influences that affects it. The intelligence quotient is a formula invented by Wilhem Stern that quantify difference among people and their intelligence. The formula consists in the mental age, that is the age corresponding to the average individual's performance of the test, divided by the chronological age, multiplied by 100.
A graphic of the results of these IQ tests form a bell curve almost a normal distribution with mean 100 and standard deviation of 15 points. Very few of the test takers with a result below 70 and above 130, defined as mental retardation to genius. These are the two extremes results. Now what influences these results? Only genetics? Environment?
Again the nature versus nurture is present here in the IQ topic. Investigations have found in twin studies that genetics influence IQ scores. Also in adoption studies found that adopted children's IQ score resemble their biological parent's IQ, both offering evidence that genetics influence IQ scores. On the other hand, it is known that education affects IQ. Children better educated will have a better IQ score. Also it is founded that children's IQ drops significantly on summer vacations.
Another factor that plays a key role in IQ, and in my opinion is very interesting, is the socioeconomic and nutritional deprivation. It's there that a reason to think that nutritional deprivation can adversely affect IQ. I am a track and field runner and found that African runners have a good group of distance runners. Studying about their training and environment I found that their nutrition consist mainly in corn and grains. That can be one of the major factors that cause their development in distance running. The same event can be occurring with IQ. Nutrition is very important. Some studies have found that children that were nutritionally deprived, increase their IQ when receiving a better nutrition.
In conclusion the factors that play the most important roles in IQ are genetics, nutrition and education among others.

Karma

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Everyone knows someone who believes in karma or even yourself, but is it real? The principle of karma is that every act done by a person will return to that person eventually: a good act will be returned with good; an evil act with evil. In Buddhist traditions, this cycle is treated as a natural law of cause and effect, whereas in theistic Hindu traditions, God is responsible for ensuring karmic rewards and punishments. Since bad things often happen to good people, and vice versa, it is important that the return on good and evil actions is not direct, but can happen much later. For this reason, belief in karma is linked to belief in reincarnation, when an apparently good person endures a life of misfortune, it is the deserved result of evils in a past life. Similarly, when a person apparently gets away with many evil actions throughout their life, karma ensures that this will return to cause them misery in a future life.
There is no plausible evidence for the existence of reincarnation, without which the principle that good deeds are always rewarded and evil always punished is obviously false because experience provides many counter examples. When combined with the theory of reincarnation, the principle of karma return becomes an entirely untestable supposition. Since we can never know the life history of the entire sequence of past and future selves of an individual, it is impossible to evaluate whether or not the good deeds they have done have been met with equally good consequences. Karma becomes an unfalsifiable principle as soon as it is admitted that the balance of good and evil need not be restored in a single lifetime. Within most interpretations of the concept of karma, it's untestability means it is impossible to refute or support through evidence. So although everyone at some point believes they have witnessed or had karma, there is no actual proof that it is real.

http://dharma.ncf.ca/introduction/truths/karma2.html

It is quite amazing that some of the smartest people in the world can believe some of the strangest things. The IQ of someone doesn't asses their ability to think scientifically. People with high IQ's are at least as prone as other people to beliefs in conspiracy theories. It goes to show you that just because someone believes in an outrageous theory doesn't mean that they are unintelligent. One of the main reasons that this is, is because people with higher intelligence are better at creating or proving that their theories are sounder then the ones they are arguing against. This means that once they believe in a certain theory then they are extremely likely to have confirmation bias and push the facts against their thought out of their minds. Also people with a high IQ are more likely to have a sense of omniscience or thinking that they know everything. Since they know a lot of things they feel that they know everything about everything, especially when they are comparing themselves to the amount that other know. A perfect example of this is Sir Arthur Conan Doyle who is famous for creating Sherlock Holmes, fell for a trick by a couple of girls and actually wrote a book defending the girls when they said they were with fairies. Later on the girls confessed that they were lying. This is just a preview of this book but it shows exactly what I am saying. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=smart-people-believe-weir This is showing that smart people do things without weighing out all of the pros and cons but rather by going by what they already know and because they are good at defending their beliefs.

It is quite amazing that some of the smartest people in the world can believe some of the strangest things. The IQ of someone doesn't asses their ability to think scientifically. People with high IQ's are at least as prone as other people to beliefs in conspiracy theories. It goes to show you that just because someone believes in an outrageous theory doesn't mean that they are unintelligent. One of the main reasons that this is, is because people with higher intelligence are better at creating or proving that their theories are sounder then the ones they are arguing against. This means that once they believe in a certain theory then they are extremely likely to have confirmation bias and push the facts against their thought out of their minds. Also people with a high IQ are more likely to have a sense of omniscience or thinking that they know everything. Since they know a lot of things they feel that they know everything about everything, especially when they are comparing themselves to the amount that other know. A perfect example of this is Sir Arthur Conan Doyle who is famous for creating Sherlock Holmes, fell for a trick by a couple of girls and actually wrote a book defending the girls when they said they were with fairies. Later on the girls confessed that they were lying. This is just a preview of this book but it shows exactly what I am saying. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=smart-people-believe-weir This is showing that smart people do things without weighing out all of the pros and cons but rather by going by what they already know and because they are good at defending their beliefs. http://www.michaelshermer.com/writing/wp-content/uploads/bc_why_people_believe_cover.jpg

It is quite amazing that some of the smartest people in the world can believe some of the strangest things. The IQ of someone doesn't asses their ability to think scientifically. People with high IQ's are at least as prone as other people to beliefs in conspiracy theories. It goes to show you that just because someone believes in an outrageous theory doesn't mean that they are unintelligent. One of the main reasons that this is, is because people with higher intelligence are better at creating or proving that their theories are sounder then the ones they are arguing against. This means that once they believe in a certain theory then they are extremely likely to have confirmation bias and push the facts against their thought out of their minds. Also people with a high IQ are more likely to have a sense of omniscience or thinking that they know everything. Since they know a lot of things they feel that they know everything about everything, especially when they are comparing themselves to the amount that other know. A perfect example of this is Sir Arthur Conan Doyle who is famous for creating Sherlock Holmes, fell for a trick by a couple of girls and actually wrote a book defending the girls when they said they were with fairies. Later on the girls confessed that they were lying. This is just a preview of this book but it shows exactly what I am saying. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=smart-people-believe-weir This is showing that smart people do things without weighing out all of the pros and cons but rather by going by what they already know and because they are good at defending their beliefs.http://www.michaelshermer.com/writing/wp-content/uploads/bc_why_people_believe_cover.jpg

It is quite amazing that some of the smartest people in the world can believe some of the strangest things. The IQ of someone doesn't asses their ability to think scientifically. People with high IQ's are at least as prone as other people to beliefs in conspiracy theories. It goes to show you that just because someone believes in an outrageous theory doesn't mean that they are unintelligent. One of the main reasons that this is, is because people with higher intelligence are better at creating or proving that their theories are sounder then the ones they are arguing against. This means that once they believe in a certain theory then they are extremely likely to have confirmation bias and push the facts against their thought out of their minds. Also people with a high IQ are more likely to have a sense of omniscience or thinking that they know everything. Since they know a lot of things they feel that they know everything about everything, especially when they are comparing themselves to the amount that other know. A perfect example of this is Sir Arthur Conan Doyle who is famous for creating Sherlock Holmes, fell for a trick by a couple of girls and actually wrote a book defending the girls when they said they were with fairies. Later on the girls confessed that they were lying. This is just a preview of this book but it shows exactly what I am saying. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=smart-people-believe-weir This is showing that smart people do things without weighing out all of the pros and cons but rather by going by what they already know and because they are good at defending their beliefs.http://www.michaelshermer.com/writing/wp-content/uploads/bc_why_people_believe_cover.jpg

It is quite amazing that some of the smartest people in the world can believe some of the strangest things. The IQ of someone doesn't asses their ability to think scientifically. People with high IQ's are at least as prone as other people to beliefs in conspiracy theories. It goes to show you that just because someone believes in an outrageous theory doesn't mean that they are unintelligent. One of the main reasons that this is, is because people with higher intelligence are better at creating or proving that their theories are sounder then the ones they are arguing against. This means that once they believe in a certain theory then they are extremely likely to have confirmation bias and push the facts against their thought out of their minds. Also people with a high IQ are more likely to have a sense of omniscience or thinking that they know everything. Since they know a lot of things they feel that they know everything about everything, especially when they are comparing themselves to the amount that other know. A perfect example of this is Sir Arthur Conan Doyle who is famous for creating Sherlock Holmes, fell for a trick by a couple of girls and actually wrote a book defending the girls when they said they were with fairies. Later on the girls confessed that they were lying. This is just a preview of this book but it shows exactly what I am saying. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=smart-people-believe-weir This is showing that smart people do things without weighing out all of the pros and cons but rather by going by what they already know and because they are good at defending their beliefs. http://www.michaelshermer.com/writing/wp-content/uploads/bc_why_people_believe_cover.jpg

It is quite amazing that some of the smartest people in the world can believe some of the strangest things. The IQ of someone doesn't asses their ability to think scientifically. People with high IQ's are at least as prone as other people to beliefs in conspiracy theories. It goes to show you that just because someone believes in an outrageous theory doesn't mean that they are unintelligent. One of the main reasons that this is, is because people with higher intelligence are better at creating or proving that their theories are sounder then the ones they are arguing against. This means that once they believe in a certain theory then they are extremely likely to have confirmation bias and push the facts against their thought out of their minds. Also people with a high IQ are more likely to have a sense of omniscience or thinking that they know everything. Since they know a lot of things they feel that they know everything about everything, especially when they are comparing themselves to the amount that other know. A perfect example of this is Sir Arthur Conan Doyle who is famous for creating Sherlock Holmes, fell for a trick by a couple of girls and actually wrote a book defending the girls when they said they were with fairies. Later on the girls confessed that they were lying. This is just a preview of this book but it shows exactly what I am saying. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=smart-people-believe-weir This is showing that smart people do things without weighing out all of the pros and cons but rather by going by what they already know and because they are good at defending their beliefs. http://www.michaelshermer.com/writing/wp-content/uploads/bc_why_people_believe_cover.jpg

It is quite amazing that some of the smartest people in the world can believe some of the strangest things. The IQ of someone doesn't asses their ability to think scientifically. People with high IQ's are at least as prone as other people to beliefs in conspiracy theories. It goes to show you that just because someone believes in an outrageous theory doesn't mean that they are unintelligent. One of the main reasons that this is, is because people with higher intelligence are better at creating or proving that their theories are sounder then the ones they are arguing against. This means that once they believe in a certain theory then they are extremely likely to have confirmation bias and push the facts against their thought out of their minds. Also people with a high IQ are more likely to have a sense of omniscience or thinking that they know everything. Since they know a lot of things they feel that they know everything about everything, especially when they are comparing themselves to the amount that other know. A perfect example of this is Sir Arthur Conan Doyle who is famous for creating Sherlock Holmes, fell for a trick by a couple of girls and actually wrote a book defending the girls when they said they were with fairies. Later on the girls confessed that they were lying. This is just a preview of this book but it shows exactly what I am saying. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=smart-people-believe-weir This is showing that smart people do things without weighing out all of the pros and cons but rather by going by what they already know and because they are good at defending their beliefs. http://www.michaelshermer.com/writing/wp-content/uploads/bc_why_people_believe_cover.jpg

It is quite amazing that some of the smartest people in the world can believe some of the strangest things. The IQ of someone doesn't asses their ability to think scientifically. People with high IQ's are at least as prone as other people to beliefs in conspiracy theories. It goes to show you that just because someone believes in an outrageous theory doesn't mean that they are unintelligent. One of the main reasons that this is, is because people with higher intelligence are better at creating or proving that their theories are sounder then the ones they are arguing against. This means that once they believe in a certain theory then they are extremely likely to have confirmation bias and push the facts against their thought out of their minds. Also people with a high IQ are more likely to have a sense of omniscience or thinking that they know everything. Since they know a lot of things they feel that they know everything about everything, especially when they are comparing themselves to the amount that other know. A perfect example of this is Sir Arthur Conan Doyle who is famous for creating Sherlock Holmes, fell for a trick by a couple of girls and actually wrote a book defending the girls when they said they were with fairies. Later on the girls confessed that they were lying. This is just a preview of this book but it shows exactly what I am saying. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=smart-people-believe-weir This is showing that smart people do things without weighing out all of the pros and cons but rather by going by what they already know and because they are good at defending their beliefs. http://www.michaelshermer.com/writing/wp-content/uploads/bc_why_people_believe_cover.jpg

Eugenics and IQ Testing

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During the early 1900's, the United States turned to eugenics, a term meaning "good genes", in an attempt to purge the population of "bad/inferior genes". Before 1935, when sterilization laws were repealed, over 66,000 North Americans were involuntarily sterilized. The Supreme Court upheld rulings for people who were considered "feeble minded", and in the case of Buck v. Bell, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote, "Three generations of imbeciles are enough". How far was Sir Francis Galton willing to go to rid the US of people with lower IQ's?
What bothers me most is that they justified sterilizing people based on IQ tests and their corresponding intelligence scores. Not only were the first IQ tests unreliable, but even today, we can't accurately quantify people's intelligence. Many immigrants were forced to take these tests upon their arrival to the United States during this time period. Those immigrants who were not fluent in English had difficulties with the test and caused them to underestimate their intelligence and were sometimes subjected to the involuntary sterilization.
Two different IQ tests given to a person during the early 1900's more than likely would not produce the same results for the individual. Since this violates the scientific principle of replicability, sterilization based on IQ test scores could not last. You could make the case that most IQ tests are testing different areas of intelligence, so replication of the results would be very difficult. From that perspective, there should be an opportunity to recreate results within each area of intelligence being tested. I see no real reason to get rid of IQ testing altogether, but if consequences of low IQ were to be reinstated, it would not be ethical.

PARENTING STYLES

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No set of parents raise their children the same. As we learned in our chapter in human development, there are three types of parenting styles that parents typically fall into. They include permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parenting styles. Parents raise their children according to their morals, values, and beliefs. There are however many factors that play into what type of style of parenting you fall into. Religion, relationship with child, and personal experience all play into what type of style parents use.

When parents fall under the permissive style, they give up most rules to their children which allows them a considerable amount of freedom in their life. They avoid disciplining their child at all cost which often means giving them the benefit of the doubt or simply turning a blind eye to what's really going on. Most importantly though, permissive parents shower their children with more affection than you can imagine.

Another type of parenting is the authoritarian parenting style. In this style, parents are extremely strict and punish children whenever they deem necessary. They set high standards for their children and are greatly upset when these standards are not met. In doing this they show very little emotional and are often distant.

The Final type of parenting style is authoritative which is a combination of permissive and authoritarian parenting styles. Most parents use this style to raise their children because it provides structure as well as affection. They help their children be responsible for themselves and own up to any consequences that come their way. They want them to succeed in life, and be the best that they can be. They set clear guidelines for their children to follow, and praise them when they do well.

Personally, my parents raised me in an authoritarian home. The pushed me to have good grades in school, yet rewarded me whenever I came home with A's. I always had chores around the house, and rules about going out at night too. However, with these rules, I became a well trusted daughter and was allowed to go places like Chicago without having my parents worry about me.

source: "Parenting Styles." About Pediatrics - Pediatric Parenting and Medical Advice . The New York Times Company, 2011. Web. 20 Nov. 2011.

Hate: A Neglected Topic

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Hate: A Neglected Topic
http://www.psychology.com/articles/?p=233

"In my heart, there are two wolves: a wolf of love and a wolf of hate. It all depends on which one I feed each day." This quote by a Native American woman is extremely interesting, because it delves into the character of human beings. Hate comes easy for human beings, because it is synonymous with aggression, a natural instinct that all humans possess. I have notice from my own personal actions and the actions of others worldwide that it is easier to experience Hate than Love. This is especially true in Western-Individualistic societies. Hate is bred when your own personal anxieties are brought about whether it's through envy, extreme dislike, unfamiliarity etc. These anxieties that we experience led to hatred towards the subject producing the anxiety. We then blame these anxieties on the subject leading to our actions of hatred. Now hatred can be executed in so many ways, ranging from a snide comment to something as horrible as genocide. Hatred is a difficult emotion to cover and hide away; it also seems to come easier than love. It feels good to release it too, so it's an emotion that leads to more hate, like in the picture hatred breeds hatred. You are natural going to dislike someone that hates you. This is where hatred gets scary. Hatred also breeds community. Like the old saying "The enemy of my enemy is my friend" people bond over mutual hatred, this can lead to more hatred. This has been shown perfectly in the Israeli-Palestine conflict, where there is just extreme hatred for each other, and it is being fueled by the mutual hatred and the bonding over a common hatred. So when you think which wolf shall I feed today, do the wolf of love. Even though hatred is contagious, so is love and the world would be a better place if people could overcome their hatred with love without having their love for something lead to the hatred of another competing subject.

Are you smart?

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Howard Garnder coined the term Multiple Intelligences to challenges the traditional definition of intelligent. He argues that I.Q. testing alone is far too limited and it does not account for boarder human potentials. The theory of Multiple Intelligences incorporates the following "smartness" to categorize intelligent.
1. Linguistic intelligence - word smart
2. Logical-mathematical intelligence - number/reasoning smart
3. Spatial intelligence - picture smart
4. Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence - body smart
5. Musical intelligence -music smart
6. Interpersonal intelligence -people smart
7. Intrapersonal intelligence -self smart
8. Naturalist intelligence -nature smart

He highlights the fact that people are not smart in the same way. Individual inhibit various degree of these types of intelligences. As a result this theory questions the traditional school culture. It argues that the traditional classroom comprises of lecture and textbooks undermine difference learning behavior. This method are bias toward students who are linguistic and logical- mathematical intelligent, while ignoring other type of smartness. Therefore, this lack of reinforcement actually leads to underachieving students. Hence, the failure in the public school system is due to the teacher and administrator rather than students. Through Gardner's assertion many teachers actually tailor their teaching around children's learning style. However, this may not be a wise decision seeing authority's expectation actually plays a key role in the measurement of intelligences. Rosenthal and Jacobson finding in the "self-fulfilling prophecy" where student's performances reflect the expectation their teacher's expectation. More importantly, this theory is hard to falsify since these intelligent may not be independent of other. Plus, it is hard to test since there is no formal test to measure these intelligences.

Band, Orchestra, or Choir?

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A study was conducted between two high schools involving their band, orchestra, and choir ensembles and their relationship to personality. The study also tried to indicate whether having a certain personality type would make you choose a certain instrument. To ensure validity, those being measured had be involved in only one ensemble and had to have participated in that ensemble for more than a year. It was predicted that those in choir would be more extraverted and those participating in band and orchestra would be more introverted. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), one of the most widely used personality tests worldwide, was administrated to test this theory. They found that for all ensembles more students preferred extroversion, but for all of the other categories that MBTI tested there was no difference. As predicted, choir students had higher extroversion scores than did the students in band and orchestra. Although our textbook states that the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is not a reliable test of personality, most the results have been replicated by other studies.

After taking the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator for my job in high school, I believe that the results were accurate and described my personality well. One of my friends who also took the test seemed to feel the same way. However, this could be due to the P.T. Barnum effect. I would be interested in taking the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator again to see what my results would be like now that I am in college and living a new lifestyle. It would be interesting to see how consistent personality is through your lifetime.


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Your baby..... can't read

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From our readings in the book, there has been a general trend of increased IQ every generation also know as the Flynn effect. This increase may also stem from the fact that there is also an increase in the amount of technology present in our every day lives that might have helped us become smarter. Today more students are taking more rigorous course and standardize test to get into elite schools than before. Some parents might do what-ever they can to give their child an edge; but how young is too young? You may have seen some infomercials about products that claims that your baby can learn to read or become smarter by purchasing there DVD and flashcard sets. However, before you do, you might want to do some research on the claims presented.

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One very important principle from the six scientific principle of scientific thinking that should be considered in this case is "extraordinary claim." Although the company show testimonials of parents claiming that their baby can read, research show no evidence to back this up. One study show that "each hour per day of viewing baby DVDs/videos was associated with a 16.99-point decrement in CDI (Communicative Development Inventory) score" (Zimmerman, 2007). Consumers should also consider other explanations as well- ruling out rival hypothesis. The system eposes the child to the DVD's and drills them on flashcards which could actually cause the child to memorize the "images" of the word instead of reading the words themselves.
Further more, most IQ test for young children assess sensory abilities, thus has very little association with intelligence (Lilienfield, pg. 332). Additionally the reliability of an IQ is not reliable prior to age two. Genetics plays a role in "smartness" but environmental influences also affect these babies. I feel that if you really want your child to be smart you just can't take the easy way out and depend on a set of DVD's and flash cards to do that. Actively engaging, interacting and encouraging the baby might be a better solution.

Zimmerman F.J., Christakis D.A., Meltzoff A.N. Associations between Media Viewing and Language Development in Children Under Age 2 Years (2007) Journal of Pediatrics, 151 (4), pp. 364-368

Fortune tellers have always been known for being sufficiently vague and arbitrary about everything they predict for an individual. Their predictions could in fact apply to anyone else who is even slightly similar to the given person. (An interesting incident that illustrates this is seen in the short story The Fortuneteller by Karel Capek).
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It is a proven fact that people find it exceedingly difficult to pick out a prediction which was made for them from other predictions as they are all so similar. Regardless of this, when they are told only their own prediction they are more than eager to say that it applies to them and that it's "spot-on". This phenomenon is known as the P.T. Barnum effect and it is also seen in things like tarot card readings and horoscopes.
When reading one's horoscope, if one took the time to also read other horoscopes the similarity between them all would be inescapable. The P.T. Barnum effect explains the reason for ignoring the principle of extraordinary claims by using the principle of confirmation bias.
People tend to believe what they're told and what they read in the case of horoscopes- they do not consider the fact that it is nigh impossible to tell a person's fortune by any means that are scientifically verifiable. They refuse to look for the extraordinary evidence that is required as proof for horoscopes, tarot card readings etc.
More information about the effect can be found here.

According to the book, birth order tends to be associated with out personality. They claim that firstborns tend toward achievement, middle-borns toward diplomacy, and later-borns toward risk taking. Sulloway's findings raised the possibility that birth order is an important non-shared environmental influence. He found that later-borns were 3.1 times more likely than firstborns to favor revolutionary ideas for extremely radical ideas, this ratio increased to 4.7. In contrast, firstborns usually supported the status quo. If we look at an example from the show "Even Stevens" it is easy to see that these kids actually do support the birth order idea. Donnie is the athlete that is always accomplishing achievements in sports. Ren is the smart one who is always trying to do well. Louis though, he is the slacker/trouble maker of the kids.
If we take a look at my family though, it is almost the complete opposite of this idea. My older brothers are all slackers, and just tend to not care about anything. They are the trouble makers. They always had some place to go, and never really cared all that much about school or anything. I on the other hand, the youngest, always strive to succeed at what I do. I never went out much in high school unless all my work was done. I'm the one who had to get all "A's" in high school. I always was trying to achieve something unlike my brothers. So, birth order can't really be generalized. It varies it different types of families.

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In chapter nine of the Lilienfeld text, titled "Intelligence and IQ Testing," it discusses racial differences in IQ scores. For starters, IQ stands for intelligence quotient and is defined as a systematic mean of quantifying differences among people in their intelligence. Studies have proven that the average IQ score does indeed differ among races, for an example, Asians score higher than Caucasians and Caucasians score higher than African Americans and Hispanics. However, it is emphasized that this does not necessarily imply genetic differences in intelligence or learning potential. There are many factors that go into somebody's intelligence level, including environmental and cultural influences.

I think that this particular topic caught my attention because I am half Asian and I have been stereotyped under these circumstances. During high school, many of my peers assumed that I had a higher intelligence level because of my ethnicity and thought that the pure Asians obtained an even higher level of intelligence. Although this could remain true in some cases, it is very wrong and inaccurate to make the assumption about every Asian. I believe that all ethnicities have the opportunity to flourish and develop high intelligence, but that some may have greater success because of their culture or environment. For an example, the Asian culture has always highly valued education and emphasizes it at a young age, and this could be why some may believe that all Asians are born smart. I think that this concept is important because many believe that Asians have some sort of advantage over other races, when that is not necessarily true.

I know some families where all the children are intelligent so I am still wondering if intelligence is genetically influenced at all? Are certain people born with more potential to develop a higher intelligence than others? When you're younger, what can be done to help obtain a higher intelligence? Are IQ tests ever looked at when someone is getting hired for a job?


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Intelligence

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Dawit Wage
Psychology writing assignment # 5
Date - 11/18/11
Intelligence is the ability to understand and learn and make judgment or have opinions that are based on reason. As we have seen in our text book the ideas of psychologists are divided toward the concept of intelligence. There are many controversies among psychologists to get the real concepts of intelligence. For instance psychologist Charles Spears described intelligence as - g or general intelligence. He tried to define intelligence as overall individual mental capacity without the specific ability of individual on a certain area of field. Actually some people are smarter than others no doubt about it, the problem is we do not know on which area he or she smarter than others. He himself aware the general intelligence didn't produce individual difference and tells the whole story of intelligence among individuals. Spears also came up with the idea of s factor or specific ability that sounds nice to me; because every individual is good at certain area of field and bad at others field. For example some people are good at mathematics and bad at linguistics area.
On the other hand psychologist Howard Gardener dissatisfied with the idea of general intelligence that Spears proposed. Gardener states intelligence as multiple domain which means, each individual has around eight components of independent intelligences which enable individual to perform mental task. Gardner believed each person is good at many areas of field rather than a certain area of field but his idea was not supported by many psychologists. Extra ordinary claims need extra ordinary evidences. Another psychologist, Robert Sternberg who supports Gardner idea also proposed three fundamental aspects of intelligence: analytical, practical, and creative. Sternberg and Gardner they both criticize Spears for the idea of general intelligence. In my opinion the idea of factor s or specific ability that Spears came up with was very sounds to me, because some people are good at mathematics and physics and bad at linguistic area. Imagine if everybody had the same level of understanding to ward something the world would be in a very boring and uninteresting place to live. This would make the diversities of knowledge nonsense that we all enjoy today. Therefore, in my opinion the factor of s or specific ability of Spears idea would be better supported the individual differences ideas and the diversities of knowledge that are exist in our world. Let us rejoice and appreciate the diversity of knowledge that each individual is good at it. For instance, Albert Einstein mathematics and physics are his second nature that no one can deny about it. Alber.jpg
Source Scott Lilienfeld

A Focus on Extraversion

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In lecture last week, we learned about the Big 5 Personality Traits, which include Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism. These Big Five Traits are said to have emerged from factor analyses, which is a statistical way of looking at the correlations between different responses on personality assessments. In an article I found on Science Daily, researchers present a view on one trait in particular; extraversion. In this article, Ronald E. Riggio talks about how extraversion and leadership correlate. Although a lot of people may assume that those who are extraverts are automatically good leaders, Riggio uses the critical thinking principle of ruling out rival hypotheses to present an alternate viewpoint. He says that social skills could be a better predictor of leadership. In his longitudinal study (one in which he studied the same group of individuals at different points in time), Riggio used a sample of everyday adults, not leaders, to assess social skills. Even though previous, replicable research has found that extraversion was correlated with both attainment of leadership and measures of effectiveness, Riggio also found that social skills are a predictor of leadership. So, when social skills were put into the mix, only extraverts with high levels of social skills were considered to be good leaders. I feel that this study is a very effective way of showing not only ruling of rival hypotheses, replicability and falsifiability, but it also includes a lot of important psychology terms and ways to look deeper and be more analytical in the psychology world. Personality is an important factor, but this article helps show that other complex matters, such as social skills, may matter more when it comes to social behaviors such as leadership.

The Big Five

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Something we discussed in lecture last week is The Big Five. The Big Five is five traits that make up a personality. The five traits are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.

Open people are often curious, such as Curious George.
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Conscientious people are careful like Hermione Granger.
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Extraverted people are very sociable like Will Smith.
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Agreeable people are easy to get along with like Ellen DeGeneres.
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Neurotic people are said to be tense and quite moody like Monica Gellar.
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These traits are often influenced my many aspects of culture such as individualism-collectivism and personality. People in individualism cultures determine their own behaviors because they work towards individual goals. People in collectivism cultures behaviors are determined by social norm because they work towards the goals of the group.
These traits can also determine what kind of job a person might be good at. For example, a person of high extraversion might be a good salesman or business person. They are social enough to get their point across. Shyer people would not be as good at confronting customers because they are strangers. Another example is agreeable people make good talk show hosts. Oprah is a good example of this. People tend to like her because she has the happiness and health of others in mind. She has good intentions. People like her and get along with her for these reasons.
One flaw in this system is there is no Big Five trait that deals with morality. Morality plays a big role in many peoples life and shapes who they are. Researchers admit the system is not perfect but is a pretty good idea of how personality traits affect us.

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The Questions Never End

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In lecture, Professor Jeff Simpson covered attachment theory. Ainsworth and her fellow scientists discovered three attachment patterns in children. The three patterns were secure, avoidant, and anxious-ambivalent. Parents of secure children were attentive and caring toward their children. Parents of avoidant children were inattentive and detached in regards to their children. Finally, parents of anxious-ambivalent children had good intentions, but they didn't know how to act as a parent or were distracted.
Attachment theory is important because it helps explain the dynamics of the parent-child relationship and how that affects the behavior of the child in that relationship. This theory can help account for flaws in parental behavior and possibly steer that behavior in a better direction. Attachment theory can also help explain the behaviors of people later in life as they undergo growth from child to adult. This particular theory may also be useful for predicting or identifying criminal behavior in teens and adults. In essence, attachment theory can be used to help explain human behavior in many contexts.
There are still many questions on my mind as I ponder different aspects of attachment theory. Is attachment theory applied differently based on the number of children parents have? Is this same theory applicable based on the number of boys and/or girls parents have? How does culture affect parenting style? Is there a point where parents give too much attention to their children? The list goes on and many variables may need to be considered. That is the beauty of science. The questions never end.

Fine with Freud?

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Sigmund Freud was one of the most influential psychologists when it came to the topic of personality. Freud was not originally a psychologist or psychiatrist but a neurologist. After studying a woman in Paris with a mental disorder, Freud directed his attention on the unconscious mind.
For Freud, he came up with the Freud Model of Personality Structure. It is based off of the three ideas that personality is shaped by a person's id, ego, and superego. The Id represents primitive impulses which drives our behavior. This would be the home of the sexual drive otherwise known as the libido that Freud believed to be a main source for a persons unconscious decisions. The Id operated off of the pleasure principle, which would strive for immediate gratification. The ego would be the decision maker of the personality. The ego interacts with the real world and uses the reality principle. The reality principle strove to delay gratification until it could find an appropriate outlet. The superego is known as the sense of morality. This would be the equivalent to voices in our head telling us what is right and what is wrong. According to Freud, this is where our guilt lies.
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Freud believed that the three components of personality worked together when creating dreams. He believed that dreams were symbolic. He also believed that dreams were wish fulfillments. He felt that many items such as umbrellas, ties, and tunnels were all sexual innuendos. How ever, I disagree. I do not believe that everything is aimed at being sexual in dreams. Also, I do not agree that if you dream of an object it only means one thing. According to http://www.dreammoods.com/dreamthemes/bodyparts.htm#Teeth, when you have a loose tooth it means that it is a sign of failure where as source http://www.meaning-of-dreams.net/dreams/tooth.html says that if you loose a tooth it signifies the loose of innocence.
As you can see, Freud's theory of dreams is not very accurate when it comes to symbolism due to the fact that everyone interprets dreams different.


It seems as though some people have a difficult time understanding the terms gender and sex. Sex refers the biological status of an individual as having a male or female reproductive system, whereas gender is the wide set of characteristics that help distinguish males from females. Society has had a major influence on the way people view male and female individuals and the roles they should take on based upon their sex.

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Starting from infancy, people treat male and female babies differently. Examples could be toys given, colors that they are dressed in, or how they are talked to. Males toys tend to be tools or sports equipment whereas females are more likely to be given dolls or toy kitchen supplies. Sexes are also often shown through clothing. If a baby is wearing pink or purple, it is likely that the baby is female. As for boys, blue and green are often worn to show their sex. When communicating, people use words such as strong and handsome when talking to a baby boy. In contrast, girls are often called pretty and adorable instead.

These differences in treatment do not go unnoticed. Children pick up on these differences and begin to form their own ideas of gender roles. As you will see in the following video, children have a distinct idea of which sex should do specific tasks and what characteristics are appropriate for each.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pWc1e3Nbc2g&feature=related

According to the video, children have set ideas in their head of characteristics and actions that are appropriate for a certain sex. From the video, some children have the perspective that child care and cleaning are done and even liked by females. In contrast, males work. The way in which people act and treat others impacts the way society grows to view the sex of individuals and the way they perceive gender roles.

What determines if a person is gay or straight? Is it his upbringing? Could it be his group of friends that he hangs out with? Or could it be something that occurs much earlier than one's childhood? Recent findings have indicated that sexual orientation is determined mostly by genetics. According to the authors of our Psych 1001 text book, "it's plausible that biological differences are sometimes present even before birth" (Lilienfeld, pg. 441). The textbook also states that Michael Bailey and Richard conducted a study and found that there was a 52 percent likelihood that a set of identical twins shared the characteristic of homosexuality, compared to only 22 percent between fraternal twins. The higher percentage between identical twins demonstrates that genetics are a higher indication of sexual orientation because identical twins share 100 percent genetics.
CBS covered a story of two sets of twins and the differences between these twins. The first set of 9 year old twins is Adam and Jared. Adam and Jared are completely different in their interests. The movie below describes how Adam's room is pastel colors, with stuffed animals and white horses covering the majority of the room. Adam's behavior is known as childhood gender nonconformity, meaning that his behavior is similar to that of the opposite sex. Juxtaposed to Adam, Jared's room is filled with a G.I. Joe collection and several military toys. Untitled.png

The other set of identical twins is Steve and Greg. Greg is gay while his brother Steve is straight. The mother mentions how there were early indications in the difference between the two sons. Even during high school, Steve admits that he knew that Greg was gay.

http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=1391768n

Michael Bailey, a psychology professor at Northwestern University, believes that nurture is not a plausible explanation for sexual orientation. These two sets of twins show how even though they are raised in the same environment, their sexual orientation and behavior differs.

Freudian Slip

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The idea of a "Freudian slip" has become a punch line for many jokes with people accidentally saying something they think without meaning to say it. However, it is also a psychological term created by Sigmund Freud to support his model of psychoanalytic theory of personality.

In Freud's theory, he emphasizes the point of psychic determinism (meaning that all psychological events have some sort of cause). This includes even "slip of the tongue" experiences. Freud claims that all people have both unconscious and conscious minds: unconscious being the part of personality in which we're unaware, conscious being what we are aware of. So, a Freudian slip occurs when a person makes an unintentional error when speaking which ends up revealing their unconscious thoughts or feelings. This slip occurs due to particular circumstances that allow someone to reveal their true beliefs while they are having their own internal struggle between some unconscious wish along with a desire they have to keep it hidden.

However, the Freudian slip is also given much criticism for being inaccurate. There are instances in which speech is merely a mistake/accidental rather than having some underlying meaning. This is likely to happen in cases in which someone is merely inattentive, has insufficient knowledge, or they have a routine response pattern due to emotions or situations. Clearly, these cases have nothing to do with unconscious desires, rather they are simply mistakes. Yet, this doesn't mean that all wording accidents are a result of these causes. Psychologists agree that some of our slips are due to unconscious desires that are brought to the surface.

Thus, whether a verbal mix-up is a Freudian slip may depend upon the situation. Further questions to pursue include: is there any meaning behind our slips? And, if so, when are these slips a revelation of our unconscious and when are they simple cases of misspeaking? Regardless of the validity of the Freudian slip, Sigmund Freud's ideas were revolutionary, influencing others and generating novel discoveries in the field of psychology.

Beauty in the eye of the beholder elaborates on the idea of different people possessing diverse principles of beauty and that not everyone approves on who is attractive and who is not. Yet beauty is universally defined by a combination of qualities, such as shape, color, or form that pleases aesthetic senses, especially sight as well as the intellect or moral sense. The evolutionary models of psychology have overturned this idea by explicating that the same standards of beauty are the similar across individuals and cultures. For instance, within the United States, the ethnicities of Eastern Asians, Caucasians and African Americans agree on which faces are more or less beautiful. Cross culturally, there is substantial agreement in the judgment of beauty among Latins, Russians, Brazilians, Hispanics, Cruzans, Indians, and the Chinese. The evolutionary theory also states that we are born with the knowledge of who is beautiful and who is not. Two studies conducted in the mid-1980's independently validated that infants as young as two to three month olds stare longer at the face that adults judge to be more attractive than at a face that adults judge to be less attractive. This study explained that babies tend to stare at objects that they consider to be pleasing, thus, babies favor to look longer at a person they view more attractive.
I think the idea of beauty in the eye of the beholder plays an important role in society of demonstrating that there is more to life than physical attractiveness. I think personality can make or break someone's beauty and that although there is a universal way of defining beauty, not everybody is forced to conform to it and feel the same way as everybody else. Ultimately, "The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched. They must be felt with the heart"(Helen Keller).

Genes or Environment?

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nicoleandjaqueline.jpgAccording to the Lilienfeld text, results from a University of Minnesota study show that genes play a big role in personality. Researchers at the U of M collected a sample of 130 identical and fraternal twins that grew up apart. It was found that identical twins reared apart tend to be very similar in their personality traits. They're also a lot more similar than fraternal twins reared apart. When compared with twins that grew up together, it's shown that identical twins grown up apart are about as similar as identical twins grown up together- suggesting that shared environment plays little or no role in adult personality. Although shared environment plays some role in childhood personality, this role generally subsides as we grow older. This is important to understand, because although there may be some studies showing that shared environment has a big impact- you should check to see whether they were studying children or adults, since as we grow older the connection between environment and personality is generally lost. Something I wonder about is how big of an impact genes have on personality when looking at siblings, not just twins? Would there be any correlation between genes and personality with siblings that grew up separately? Would the environment play a bigger role, since unlike twins, siblings do not share all the same genetic material? Would HOW siblings are being raised have a bigger impact?

The Big Five

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In the Lilienfeld text in Chapter 14, we are introduced to the Big Five. The Big Five, according to the Lilienfeld text is, five traits that have surfaced repeatedly in factor analyses of personality measures. The Big Five were uncovered using a lexical approach to personality, which proposes that the most crucial features of human personality are embedded in our language. According to Paul Costa, Robert McCrae, and their collaborators there are five dimensions to the Big Five. Openness to Experience- people tend to be intellectually curious and unconventional. Conscientiousness- people tend to be careful and responsible. Extraversion- people tend to be social and lively. Agreeableness- people tend to be sociable and easy to get along with. Neuroticism- people tend to be tense and moody. I feel that the Big Five is important because you can use it to describe a lot of different factors about a person and not just one single trait. For me, I scored really high as an extrovert and with conscientiousness. I am a super organized person and make sure to be very careful and take my time until everything is perfect. I am in a sorority so being an extrovert is a great trait to have because you are constantly meeting other people and having to be social at events. I wonder how accurate these tests are and if people "cheat" on the test, so that their results come out to something that they wish they could be. How do we monitor that and make sure that the information is correct?
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Everyone has taken a standardized test at some point in their life. I think it'd be safe to say standardized tests.jpgthat 100% of students in college have taken one; more commonly the ACT or the SAT. But are these standardized tests as effective in telling how "smart" or not a person is?

I believe that there are multiple levels of intelligence; most of which cannot be measured by a test. Yes some people are 'test-smart'- they understand the curriculum to a certain point, but are extremely good at taking the tests. These sort of people have advantages in the standardized testing world. It doesn't matter if there are others who are significantly smarter than them; if you don't do as well on the standardized test, it doesn't matter, you're not as smart, right?

Wrong. There may be some students who are extremely talented in a certain subject, take science for example, but not so good in English; because the standardized tests take the average of all the testing categories, this student could appear to colleges as unintelligent. For example, on the ACT this student got a 34 of 36 on his science and a 32 for math; but low scores in writing, English and reading caused his overall to be 26. Who is this test to tell this student that he is dumb? These tests are weighted so heavily in the college communities that it makes a drastic impact on the student's future. That is extremely unfair. It is understood that colleges look for well-rounded students, but say this student is looking to pursue a career in the maths and/or sciences, but is denied from colleges due to his overall score. This puts the student in an uncomfortable position; they feel as if they're not good enough. This student had the potential to do wonders in the math and science worlds, but due to standardized testing, he may never get the chance.

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These tests consume so much of a high school student's time and money. As high-schoolers,you spend lots of money to take the test in the first place, then spend money on study groups, books, and tutors. The studying for the tests takes hours upon hours out of your day when you could be doing homework from your classes, or being social- both HUGE parts of high school. In the end only to be told whether we're "adequate enough for college".

Standardized testing may work for some situations, but there should be other ways when determining the outcome of someone's future- an extremely delicate topic to simply toy around with. Your life and your future shouldn't depend on a test.

Stereotype Threat

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One may define a stereotype threat as the fear that we may confirm a negative group stereotype. These can be directed at anyone who falls into a minority group. This article refers to the many different things that apparently women can not do. When a women reads this list, if they believe it, their performance will be affected by it. People tend to perform less well because they believe that they can not perform as well. A stereotype threat can affect someone's individual performance on an IQ test. Although, stereotype threats are not the main reason for the differences in IQ scores between African Americans and Caucasians. The main difference between IQ scores between these groups are the social differences in resources, opportunities, attitudes, and experiences. One woman who has overcome a stereotype threat and particularly number 13 on the list is Chelsea Handler. According to the list, women can not "tell a joke." But Chelsea Handler has not let these accusations affect her in her career and is one of the most well-known comedians ever. Stereotype threats affect people in many different ways, but if one is not affected by these false accusations, they can excel in whatever they wish to.

How birth order and IQ

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According to recent information, there is a small but reliable negative correlation between IQ and birth order. This is that the more older siblings one has, the lower the person's IQ is. This result came after many speculations of the finding; before, there was little evidence that birth rate and personality coincided. There is a major flaw in research because the size of the family plays a large role. According to Joshua Hartshorne, "A child from a two-kid family has a 50 percent chance of being a firstborn, whereas a child from a five-kid family has only a 20 percent chance of being a firstborn." Therefore, if you are part of a smaller family, it is much more likely that you will be a first born than if you were part of a larger family.
The first born tending to be more intelligent could be linked to many factors. The major reason is that larger families have to distribute their resources more thinly (time, money, etc). Also, well educated and wealthy parents tend to have fewer children, while less educated and economically unstable families tend to have more children.
Even though new evidence supports these claims, there is still not a strong correlation between intelligence and birth order, so the evidence, to me, seems unreliable.
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BIG FIVE

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After learning about the Big Five during Psychology, I decided I wanted to further investigate the factors and how they affect personality.

The Big Five factors are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Openness to experience measures whether one is curious or cautious. Conscientiousness measures whether one is organized or careless. Extroversion measures whether one is outgoing or reserved. Agreeableness measures whether one is friendly or unkind. Finally, neuroticism measures whether a person is nervous or confident. The Big Five traits measure a wide variety of personality and produce comprehensive results.

The study goes on to show that the Big Five factors are influenced by both hereditary and environmental impacts. Studies which use longitudinal data and correlate people's test scores over time show a high stability with their Big Five percentages. On average levels of extroversion, neuroticism, and openness tend to decrease with time, whereas agreeableness and conscientiousness typically increase. In addition to these group effects, there are individual differences: different people demonstrate unique patterns of change at all stages of life.

Currently testing is being done on non-human beings in order to see if we can use the Big Five factors to separate others by personality. The prime animal they are testing is the chimpanzee.

The biggest concern with the Big Five personality test is that it does not gauge several other categories that describe personality. Will we ever be able to create a test that accurately examines all personality traits and produces labels for the test-takers?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Five_personality_traits

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In the article here by Times Magazine, it discusses a study done by Princeton University that claims if you make an income lower that $75,000 a year you are less happy. The study says that there are two types of happiness, mood/day and satisfaction about your life. The group of people that were studied fell under the satisfaction about their life category. Our book claims that money is a secondary reward but is not a factor that makes us happier. This article provides a replicable study that claims different then this.
I also agree with the article. When a family has stresses about their financial living, they definitely are less happy. My mom without the support of my dad does not bring in a big income. She lives check by check to pay her bills and finds herself less happy because she is constantly stressed about paying the next bill. "At $75,000, that effect disappears. For people who earn that much or more, individual temperament and life circumstances have much more sway over their lightness of heart than money. The study doesn't say why $75,000 is the benchmark, but "it does seem to me a plausible number at which people would think money is not an issue" (Money). To have a livable amount such as $75,000 proves to bring happiness from this article, and I believe the study to prove true. Happiness is an emotion of satisfaction and positivity that money can provide. It is not a healthy thing to rely on money to bring you happiness but it will give you it.

Screen shot 2011-11-18 at 8.47.28 PM.pngIt is obvious that some people are more successful in different intellectual domains than others. Gardner's Multiple Intelligences suggests eight different domains of intellectual skill people can identify with. The domains consist of the following, in which people can score any level in all categories: linguistic, logico-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalistic. Although his model is impossible to falsify, this idea is important because it serves as a good starting point in which scientists can begin distinguishing what qualifies as an "intelligence" versus a talent. However, it is possible that talents and intelligence are actually the same, when intelligence is defined among Gardner's approach. It is impossible to say Einstein had a talent in math yet didn't identify with that intelligence. A causation approach seems to be inapplicable because research points towards intelligence being considerably stable, while talents can be improved... yet those talents remain in the same realm as its partnering intelligence. This article talks about how there is a controversy on the misuse of his idea into new teaching methods. However, who said that just because someone is intelligent in music means that they will all of a sudden learn geography classes significantly better based on singing the information? They would simply just excel in the musical part of tasks, further concluding their continued talent/intelligence. As suggested in the text, I prefer to conclude I have an intelligence in humor, but one could beg to differ. Overall, I now wonder if someones IQ could actually be the degree in which every arguable intelligence is taken into consideration, then somehow calculated. The WAIS test seems to imply there are different areas of intelligence, so why not add them all...? Oh, how psychology is incredibly ambiguous.

In lecture, Professor Simpson gave us two examples for determining the personality of patients. These two tests were the Thematic Apperception Test and the Rorschach test. But, these two tests aren't the only ones that determine the personality of a person. Another test that determines someone's personality is a test called Draw-A-Person Test (Draw-A-Person Test, History of Projective Testing). Created by Karen Machover in 1949 this test is usually tested on children to examine the range of their personality traits, whether it be aggressiveness to relationships with family.

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The child is first instructed to draw a picture of woman, man, and a picture of themselves. Once the child has finished drawing, the child is then asked to explain what they have drawn and why they have drawn it. Apart from the explanation the child gives, the administrator also analyzes the aspects of the drawing like the size of the head, arms, placement of body parts, and whether things are included or not included. Observing these aspects are believed to tell what is going on cognitively inside the child's mind and determine aspects of his/her personality.

There are a various versions of the Draw-A-Person test, including one that is on the iPad/itouch. The app is called Dr. Touch and it asks you, like an administrator asks a child, to draw something. Once you have finished your drawing, the app analyzes the drawing and gives you feedback on the analysis of your personality or gives you advice based upon your drawing.

You can see this app in the works here.

Isolated

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Genie.jpgAs college students, we complain about deprivation of many things during finals week. Sleep is generally the biggest concern, but social interaction, healthy meals, and personal hygiene are all details of our daily lives that seem to be put on the backburner when that dreaded week of each semester occurs. However, after the week is finished, we go home to home-cooked meals, time for sleeping and social events, and moms to take care of laundry and make sure we are washing our hair.

What if that week of deprivation, however, was more extreme and lasted for a total of 13 years? It sounds unbelievable, yes...but for the case of "Genie," a psychological research study that gave researchers an inside look at human development, the disastrous effects of deprivation are a reality. The information that follows comes from a program aired on PBS.

The story of Genie begins when Genie (a pseudo name given to the child of the study) was just an infant. Raised in isolation, Genie was kept in the confines of a bathroom for 13 years of her life. She was left alone and punished for making noise, depriving her of any sort of stimulation. When authorities found her in 1970 (at 13 years of age), she was extremely malnourished and unable to talk. Even her physical movements seemed off. Her walk was described as that of a bunny and she was still in diapers.

As one can see, the effects of deprivation are extremely detrimental to an individual, especially a developing child. Because the plasticity of the brain is a key component of proper development, it is critical that a child receives adequate stimulation while the brain is still malleable. Unfortunately for Genie, this lack of stimulation affected her lifelong success. Although she was put through countless hours of therapy, Genie was unable to communicate effectively even into her old age. She was eventually placed in a group home after the psychological experiments were called off. Controversy still remains as to whether or not the studies on Genie were ethical.

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Enneagram is a model of human personality which is principally used as a typology.It definite nine types temperament:
1. The Reformer
2. The Helper
3. The Achiever
4. The Individualist
5. The Investigator
6. The Loyalist
7. The Enthuiast
8. The Challenger
9. The Peacemaker
Sometimes we use the "wing" to make the definition more incorrect.Just like the picture-- 116742785_f9995f9ed8_o.gif116742804_d359f6d950_o.gif
And it also be classified Instinctual subtypes which usually called "self-preservation", "sexual" and "social".
No one know who created it,most of people think that it is a old knowledge which can find in history of Pythagoras. But Enneagram is one of the most popular theory on personality.Many company like HP and Coke Cola apply it on HR and it is a hot course in university too.
If you want know which one is your type,It is the test
http://similarminds.com/advtest.html

Logotherapy

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So this might be kind of off topic for this writing assignment, but a book titled Man's Search for Meaning, by Viktor Frankl, an austrian Psychiatrist and Philosopher, has a different theory behind happiness than our text book. A holocaust survivor, Frankl saw the worst possible parts of human personality, but also some of the most resilient. What Frankl concluded from his experiences was that meaning was the driving force behind human life. "A man with a why to live, can bear through any how." After his experiences in the concentration camp, Frankl devolped his own type of Psychology, called Logotherapy. Logotherapy--logos means "meaning" in Greek--has three basic premises: Life has meaning under all circumstances, people crave meaning, and people always have the power, under any circumstances, to find meaning. While Frankl's theory may not be the most scientific according to our text book, I think it makes a lot of sense. finding meaning in life probably isn't the only key to happiness, but I think it definitely helps.
"Happiness cannot be pursued; it must ensue." --Frankl, Man's Search for Meaning

Dissociative Identity Disorder

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iStock_000004356705Small-300x222.jpgI recently read an article about dissociative identity disorder or DID for short. In the article it discussed how DID according to the media and even some mental health doctors is not a real disorder. However, it is a real and debilitating disorder that people suffer from everyday.
When looking at the belief that DID does not exist it is easy to see why people believe this. In the article it says that when someone has dissociative identity disorder that it is very obvious. This myth is because in movies and on television characters who have DID have an over exaggerated form of the disorder. This over exaggeration is just like the pseudoscience concept of extraordinary claims. In reality people who suffer from DID spend seven years in the mental health system before they are diagnosed.
Another myth in relation to dissociative identity disorder is that treatment of DID may make the disorder worse. However, the treatment of DID does make help the person suffering from DID get better. People who are treated and do not improve may have been given outdated or ineffective approaches. This claim of outdated or ineffective approaches is the pseudoscience concept of Occam's razor. People not over exaggerating why treatment isn't effective makes the claim very simple and not to far fetch.
To read more about DID and the other myths that are about this disorder check out,

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What if someone told you that they would know everything about your personality by just looking at your handwriting or your signature? Would you believe them?

Graphologists claim that they can uncover characteristics of one's personality by looking at one's handwriting. They use the study of graphology or the psychological interpretation of handwriting. They have whole glossaries that tell what characteristics of handwriting demonstrate which traits. For example, forgetting to cross one's T demonstrates that the person is forgetful or absentminded. A full glossary of these handwriting characteristics and their traits can be found here.

This method of determining personality should be evaluated using the Six Principles of Scientific Thinking before we consider the claim to be fact. The principle we should use is the principle of Extraordinary Claims. This principle states that extraordinary claims must be supported by a lot of evidence before we believe them.

Graphologists say that they can tell one's personality traits by looking at his/her handwriting, and they say they can predict job performance. However, when comparing the results of graphologists to other personality tests, their findings didn't match up. And there is almost no evidence that supports the claim that graphology can predict job performance. (The article that demonstrates this research can be found here)

In order to further evaluate the method of graphology, we must also look at two important criteria used for evaluating all tests. The first is reliability. It refers to the consistency of measurement or if a test will produce the same results when taken a second time. The second criterion is validity or the extent to which a test measures what is says it is going to measure.animated.gif

Researchers have found that graphology has low reliability. They discovered this by giving professional graphologists the same handwriting to evaluate multiple times. However, they told the graphologists that is was a different person every time, and the graphologists produced different results each time. Researchers have also found that its validity is close to zero.

So from evaluating graphology scientifically, we have come to realize that there is not enough evidence to support the claim that graphologists can decipher personality traits from handwriting. We have also come to realize that graphology is low in reliability and validity, therefore graphology is not a good test for determining personality traits.


Sources:
- http://www.ere.net/2004/10/21/using-graphology-to-predict-performance/
- http://www.handwritingpro.com/index.html
- "Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding" Textbook

Pictures Taken From:
- http://www.handwritingpro.com/index.html
- http://putroperdana.wordpress.com/

Sex Appeal in Humans

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Often times we find ourselves attracted to people at first sight, but have you ever thought of why this really is? Yes, it's obvious they're attractive to us, but what truly drives attraction? Researchers are finding evidence that attraction is a biological concept rooted deep in our mind that we subconsciously perceive. The Discovery Channel did a television series called the Science of Sex Appeal, which analyzed many different ways in which we perceive beauty, one of them being the Golden Ratio. In the video below there is an excerpt from this series talking about the Golden Ratio and talking about the software that can be used to calculate the beauty of someone's face using this ratio. A perfect score being a 10, about a 5 is average when rating a person's face and anything over a 6 is usually considered attractive. Our mind subconsciously computes this with every person we meet, rating their general attractiveness. Another way we calculate beauty without thinking (also shown in this video) is by the masculinity or femininity of the face. A face a female perceives is usually considered more attractive when it's masculine and has a wider and longer jaw, and thicker eyebrows. For men it's the opposite when they're attracted to women.
So why are these rules of attractiveness important? Our brain calculates beauty because the more beautiful a face is, the more likely it is that their genetics will also be good, so this is an Evolutionary trait that's been forming so that the human species can benefit from reproduction. If every person in the world was found attractive, some bad genetics would be passed down, causing negative consequences for the species over time.
So now next time you see a person who you find attractive, you can now know exactly why this happens. Maybe think to yourself about the masculinity of femininity of their face, or how symmetrical they were. Things like this are very important in person to person attraction, and there is a deep biological need for them.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HA6nBS-KHEc&feature=related

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