October 2009 Archives
This provides a nice example of an LIII mutation. Because there is an excess of red pigmentation the leaves appear pinkish. The mutation is visible in the center of the leaves as a lighter pink color. This is because this portion of the leaf is lacking chlorophyll so only the red pigment is visible.
This spider plant shows us an example of an LI mutation. You can see the areas lacking pigment are on the very edges of the leaves.
I found this plant in front of Murphy hall. I don't know the name of this plant (nothing new)
But this plant has a mutation in L-II and L-III layer.
This plant was found in the building right in front of Coffman called the cube. I also do not know what type of plant this is. But as you can see, it seems like it has all the mutation in L-I, L-II, and L-III layers.
This picture was taken at my parents house in CLoquet, MN. It looks like the mutation is in the L-II layer.
This picutre was taken in my family home in Cloquet, MN. It shows what looks like mutation in the L-III layer and maybe some in the L-II layer as well.
I found this plant at my friend's apartment. Its the result of L-III mutation.
This is another plant from my friend's apartment. It is the result of L-I and L-II mutation.
This leaf is from one of my house plants.Their is discoloration throughout the whole leaf resulting from mutation in both the L-I layer and the L-II layer.
This leaf is from one of the chimera plants my mom owns. Cells in the center of the leaf lack chlorophyll resulting in a white color. This is due to a cells mutation in the L-III layer(corpus).
I found these leaves in the front of U Common, and I think this is the result of both L-II and L-III mutation.
I found these leaves beside the frontdoor of Melrose, and I think this the result of L-III mutaion.
This plant found outside of my house has L-I and L-II mutation.
This monocot also found outside of my house has L-I and it appears L-III also.
This is a new houseplant that I acquired at the Magrath Library this semester. It is a cutting from one of the library plants. The chimera could be LIII GGW, but I wonder if this is a mosaic design caused by a virus?
These top two pictures from the same plant seem to be exhibiting L-ll and L-lll variagation and I'm not sure actually if they exhibit L-l as well since there is not a clear outline but rather just the entire L-ll and L-l regions are lacking pigment.
This chimera is showing L-lll mutation. It is also interesting how you can see the hair-like structures on the leaves. I wonder if this is also a sign of mutation.
I'm not sure if this mutation is LII, LIII, or both.The lack of pigment is pretty spotty, so it is hard to tell what area is being affected.
Here is my first example, I believe this would be an L-I mutation because the leaf surface lacking in chlorophyll is only on the outside edge of the leaf. (This could also be an example of L-III mutation because of the slight mottling throughout the leaf, although because the second leaf beneath my example does not show this, I will stick to L-I as my guess...)
Here is an example of an L-III mutation. This leaf is mostly lacking chlorophyll along the vascular structures, but this deficiency also presents itself in a more subdued way throughout the leaf.
This picture shows spotted pigment loss mutation. I believe this to be mainly LII but possibly LIII in some cases as it nears the center and LI as it runs off the end of the leaf.
G1 Interphase. Nuclear membrane holds relaxed chromosomes together.
Prophase. Chromatin coils and condenses = chromosomes. Form sister chromatids. Nucleus expands. Spindles on to scene.
Metaphase. Spindles attach to chromosomes at centromeres.
Anaphase. Chromosomes separate, each sister chromatids to one pole. Spindle fibers shorten.
Telophase. Nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes. Chromosomes relax. Cell plant forms in between.
This is the stage of mitosis called telophase. This is where the spindle fibers start to disapear and the nuclear membrane starts to from around the chromosomes. and the new cell wall plate starts to seperate the 2 parts of chromosomes.
This is the stage of mitosis called anaphase. This is where the spindle fibers pull apart the chromosomes.
This is the stage of mitosis called Metaphase. This is where the chromosomes (good and plentys) line up in the middle because of the spindle fibers.
This is the stage of mitosis called prophase. This is where the nuclear membrane disapears(the popcorn) and the spindle fibers start to form tooth picks)
this is the stage of mitosis called interphase.
The stage above is Telophase. In this stage,the nuclear membrance forms around both of the daugter cells.
The stage above is Anaphase. In this stage, chromosomes are devided into sister tomatids.
The stage above is Metaphase. In this stage, spindle grows quickly and attach to the chromosomes at the centromeres. And the point of attachment is called the kinetochore.
The stage above is Prophase. In prophase, chromatin begin to form chromosome. And each chromosme have two strands.
In the picture above is the stage of interhase.During interphase, the chromosomes are relaxed.
During Interphase the chromosomes are relaxed, and during the S phase of interphase each chromosome replicates. The two identical copies are called sister chromatids and they are held together at a site called centromere.
In prophase the chromatin begins to coil and condense to form chromosomes. The nuclear membrane begins to disappear and the chromosomes spread out to fill much of the cell.
The spindle grows and forms attachments to the chromosomes at the centromere. This point of attachment is called kintochore. Chromosomes move to an imaginary equatorial plate.
The spindle fibers shorten and the sister chromatids are drawn to opposite poles of the cell.
Interphase: After chromosome replication, each chromosome is composed of two sister chromatids. Centrosomes have replicated.
Prophase: Chromosomes condenses, and mitotic spindle begins to form. During prophase, the mitotic spindles begin moving to opposite sides of the cell, or they form on opposite sites.
Metaphase: chromosomes complete migration to the middle of cell. At this point, the formation of the mitotic spindle is complete. Each chromosome is held by kinetochore spindle fibers reaching to opposite poles and exerting the same amount of tension or pull. A tug of war is occuring, with kinetochore spindle fibers pulling each chromosome in opposite directions.
Anaphase: Sister chromatids separte. Chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles of the cell. The kinetochore spindle fibers then begin to shorten. The two poles of the cell are also pushed away from each other by motor proteins associated with microtubules that are not attached to chromosomes. During anaphase, replicated chromosomes splite into two identical sets of unreplicated chromosomes.
Telophase: The nuclear envelope re-forms, and the spindle appartus disintegrates, and the chromosomes begin to de-condense. Once two independent nuclei formed, mitosis is complete. During cytokinesis, the cytoplasm divides to form two daugter cells, each with its own nucleus and complete set of organelles.
The membranes return (headphones), while the chromosomes become the relaxed chromatins. In the middle a cell plate forms in a process called Cytokinesis.
The chromosomes seperate at the centromeres and the sister chromatids head to opposite poles. The spindles also begin to shorten.
The spindles grow and attach to the chromosomes at the centromeres. This attachmment is called kinetocore. The chromosomes move to the metaphase plate in between the polar sides. The chromosomes are at its most condensed state.
This picutre shows the chromosomes condensing joining each sister chromatids by the centromere. The nucleus membrane begins to disappear in this phase. The spindles (blue gum) begin to appear.
The headphones surrounding the blob of chromosomes (blue pens) represents the nucleus.
This is G1 Interphase. The cotton balls are the chromosomes and the are held together like a blob within the nuclear membrane. These chromosomes are relaxed.
Here is Prophase. The chromatin is beginning to coil and condense to form chromosomes. You can begin to notice two strands (sister chromatids) and that these sister chromatids are attached to each other at a centromere. Also, spindle apparatus begin to appear.
Here in Metaphase, the spindle grows and forms attachments to the chromosomes at the centromeres. This point of attachment is called the kinetochore.
In Anaphase, the chromosomes separate and the centromeres divide so that one of the sister chromatids migrates to one pole, and the other sister chromatid migrates to the opposite pole. Spindle fibers also shorten.
Here, in telephase, the nuclear membrane forms around the chromosomes in each of the daughter cells, a cell plate forms between the two daughter cells and cell walls separate the newly formed cells in a process called Cytokinesis.
G1 stage is a growth stage. You can see the nucleus in the center of the cell.
During anaphase the sister chromatids seperate and move to either the top or the bottom of the cell.
During metaphase, the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell.
During interphase, the chromosomes are relaxed.
This picture shows the prophase stage of mitosis. This is where the chromatins begin to condense in preparation for division and the spindles (toothpicks) begin to appear.
This is the metaphase stage of mitosis, where the chromosomes are now attached to the spindles and the have assembled at the center of the cell.
This is the anaphase of mitosis, where the chromosomes have split and now are being pulled by the spindles towards either end of the cell.
This picture is the telophase stage of mitosis, where the chromosomes have now separated and become separate cells. The nuclear membrane has formed around the newly formed cells, but the spindles have not yet disappeared. At this stage the chromosomes have relaxed again, but they will soon recoil and condense to continue the replication process and divide again.
This is the G1 Phase, where the cells are growing and becoming defined in their functions.
Prophase: coil condenses to form chromosomes, nuclear membrane disappears, spindles which are microtubules associated with movement during division appear.
Metaphase: spindle grows and attaches to chromosomes at centromeres = kinetochore.
Anaphase: chromosomes separate into sister chromatids and are drawn to opposite poles, divided precisely to contain same genetic DNA.
Telophase: Nuclear membrane forms around identical daughter cells, cell plate, and cell wall. Citokinesis: cell plate between cell walls around daughter cells.
In G1 phase, chromosomes are held together.
In prophase the chromatin begins to coil and condense to form chromosomes.During this phase, the spindle apparatus begins to appear.
In this stage the spindle grows and forms attachments to the chromosomes at the centromeres. The chromosomes move to an imaginary equatorial plate which is formed along the midline of the cell between the poles. The chromosomes are in their most condensed state at metaphase.
Chromosomes begin to seperate.When the chromosomes separate, the centromeres divide so that one of the sister chromatids migrates to one pole, and the other sister chromatid migrates to the opposite pole. The spindle fibers shorten and the sister chromatids are drawn to the opposite poles of the cell.
In this stage a cell plate forms between the two daughter cells and cell walls separate the newly formed cells in a process called Cytokinesis. The chromosomes decondense and once again become relaxed chromatin.
During G1 this is the stage of growth. The white bottles are the nucleus.
The most minuscule movement on this bed used to result in the loudest most obnoxious squeaking noise imaginable. It was so bad that the noise from rolling over would wake me up from a deep sleep! The hypothesis made about why the bed was squeaking so badly was that the wooden slats were rubbing against the wooden frame of the bed creating a friction that made the squeaking noise. The first experiment of taking the slats off and putting them back on failed, but he next experiment of placing a buffer material between the slats and the frame worked beautifully! Now I can get a full nights sleep on my non-squeaky bed thanks to my scientific experimentation skills!
Once I moved into my dorm a few weeks ago I had realized I left my ethernet cord at home. So I purchased the one seen in the picture from the Bookstore, but when I plugged it in and set up my internet connection it didn't work. I noticed that my roomates was working fine and thought maybe it was a problem with my ethernet port, so I plugged my cord into his ethernet port. When that did nothing I thought maybe my cord was faulty, so I used my roommates cord for my computer and that also didnt work. Finally I figured out that I had to just re-scan my computer on Resnet.umn.edu. So once I typed in that address and clicked scan and my internet started to work
We found out why our measurements weren't adding up - there was space between the walls! Yay! The only problem was after we found the hidden space all of a sudden our sink began to back up.
We tried Drano, we tried jiggling the plunger - nothing worked. We eventually took off the pipe under the sink to find that it had been clogged with plaster from when I punched a hole in the wall. Apparently fragments of the plaster had been falling in the sink and we never noticed. Lesson learned: cover the places you don't want debris when doing any demolition!
Experience: My bathroom sink is clogged
Observation: Since we just moved in perhaps there was an existing hair clog or another unnamed terror lurking in the pipes?
Hypothesis: Since Drano didn't take care of the problem after repeated uses, something bigger than hair must be causing the clog.
Experimentation: Removed the pipe and found the problem - plaster bits!
Way back when I was not such a bright child. I had found myself cornering a pretty large centipede in a deep sink in my old house. I swear this thing was about 5 inches long. I was so freaked out by its sight that I wanted to kill it in the most ruthless way as possible. There were nothing in sight besides for a bunch of aerosol cans. So I figured that I would poison it with all these chemicals and then light it on fire since I knew that these chemicals were flammable. I had the biggest evil smile on my face. So I grabbed five unknown cans in sight and just proceeded wildly spraying it at the centipede. The aerosol was doing its job because the centipede was rendered motionless after about a good minute of non stop chemicals spray action. So with my feeble little mind that was not quite up to par....I did not realize that most of the fumes were still lingering around the deep sink. I grabbed one of those grill lighters and slowly bringing it to the motionless centipede's face. And with the sick thought of burning it, I hit the trigger and BAM!!!! A huge giant fire ball flew out of the sink burning the hairs off my arm, eye lashes, eye brows and the tip of my head. I let out a loud scream for my mom and she came running in and saw my hairs all singed off. Even though I got burnt, I managed to get that nasty centipede. But that day, I learned a huge valuable lesson.
So my Demonstration experiment, you could say, was learning that the fact of spraying all those aerosol cans at the centipede did kill it, but the fumes did not just go straight and enter into the centipede and kill it. The Fumes also lingered around in a tight area with no way of dispersing, and lighting the a fire to burn the centipede caused a chain reaction with the flammable fumes that created the fire ball. And I learned that a giant fireball hurts.
Using the Discover experiment, I made a test of my own, hypothesize that it was the closed area and how the fumes linger around because there was no consistency of air flow. I did this experiment, this time, with proper equipment and protection. Using a piece of paper as my victim, I completed the experiment successfully.
So what I learned most out of these findings is that its just easier to squish the bug then to have to run around finding an aerosol that kills insects and lighting it on fire.
Experience: I'm new to my apartment. The first morning in my new bathroom, I plugged in my blow dryer into the outlet as shown and got no results.
Observation: I spent five minutes pushing the reset/test buttons trying to figure out why it wasn't working.
Hypothesis: Either its an electrical problem with the sockets/electrical wiring or my hair dryer is broken.
Experimentation: After pushing the reset/test buttons and it still not working, I flipped the other switch on the light switch next to the door. The one that controls the light over the cabinet. I tried turning on my blower dryer again and it worked! I figured out that you need to have the light switch controlling the light over the cabinet on in order for the outlet to work. There are two switches - the other controls the light/fan above the shower.
Hypothesis- If I wander around my house long enough I will find something that I can take a picture of, then fix, then describe the process for this assignment.
Experimentation- I first looked around my room for anything that is obviously broken, but would take little-to-no effort to fix. I noticed my screen on my window had come undone. But that looked too hard to take care of. Then I noticed an empty water glass; I thought to myself that I could take a picture of the water glass empty, then another full and describe the process. But that sounded lame. So I got up from my chair to hopefully find some juicy specimen downstairs. On the way down I remembered that my vacuum was clogged. I fetched that only to find out that it didn't have a bag anyways. I felt discouraged and thought long and hard as to what possibly could be my subject for this assignment. And as I sat there thinking, it dawned on me. I had unknowingly followed the scientific method almost exactly just by trying to figure out what to do!
Reflective observation - Thinking back I now realize the hypothesis I began with was indeed correct. The act of wandering around my humble abode led to a complete assignment. This is a victory for both me and the scientific method.
As a full time student who deals with constant stress and classes and very little exercise, I have very tense upper back and constant shoulder pain. I recently found out I had very bad posture when Im using the laptop, which adds more burdens on my upper back muscle. I thought: what if I make my laptop higher? then I have to sit straight! So I put a box full of my textbooks under the laptop, and I bought a wireless keyboard so i don't need to lift up my hands to type. and it works very well! The laptop screen is at the same height as my eyes and I can sit up straight every time i use the laptop. This way would effectively reduce the stress on my upper back muscle, problem solved!
I opened the microwave to defrost some meat and I found a half-eaten chimichanga. I thought to myself, where could this be from? who would eat half of a chimichanga and then put it back into the microwave? Well, I had to come up with a hypothesis. I realized that I haven't been home this weekend and neither was my sister so it must have been either my sister's boyfriend or his friend, we'll call them bob and brad. I asked Bob if he knew anything about it and he said he didn't so I drew the conclusion that Brad must have been the culprit who left the half eaten chimichanga in the microwave.Case Closed.
I just bought a large bottle of icecream. It was so good, but i didn't finish it. So i put it into my freezer. The next day when i try to finish it. It was melted and looks disgusting. I was so sad. So i try to figure out what's wrong with my fridge. First I check the control. It is okay and I set it highest level. And than i think what's wrong, is that machine doesn't work. So i put ice cube box in it try to figure out if it works. And it does work! I was so confused. And an other day when i wake up i find the fridge's door opened. Than i figure out my roomate forget to close the door!
Hypothesis: From the observation, I assume that the water and oil can not be soluble, then I begin to do the experiment.
The 1 step: I used three cups to carry oil, soy bean sauce and water seperatedly.
The 2 step: I poured the soy bean sauce to the oil and found they can not be soluble with each other.(see picture 3)
The 3 step: I poured the water to the cup with oil and soy bean sauce and found that the water can be soluble to the soy bean sauce and both can not be soluble to oil.
When I took my soup out of the refrigerator,I found that there was some oil floating on the top of the soup.
Hypothesis: I emptied out my garbage and figured usually recycling does not smell because it just consists of plastics, cardboard, and paper. However, I forgot that I had finished my half gallon of milk a few days prior and stuck it in the bin with little residue on the bottom which had started to mold.
Experimentation: When I saw the milk carton I knew immediately it was the source. I picked it up and looked inside and sure enough there was a white clump that was extremely sour smelling.
My microwave clock was not keeping time. It was about 2 hours late. I thought about how it needed to be reset and realized that I needed to use the manual. After looking for a long time to try and find the manual to figure out how to reset the clock. I found that I had to hold in the start button until the time flashed and then had to enter the time. I tried that it has been keeping time ever since.