Glaucoma is a group of diseases affecting the eye’s optic nerve, a cable that transmits visual information from the eye to the brain.
Glaucoma is caused by increased pressure inside the eye that damages the optic nerve, leading to vision loss and blindness.
With early detection and treatment, most people with glaucoma can be protected against serious vision loss. Without treatment, peripheral vision decreases until only tunnel vision remains. In some cases, people with glaucoma may become blind.
Treatment generally includes medication in the form of eye drops or pills, but some patients require surgery—either conventional or laser surgery—or a combination of medication and surgery.
Of the many types of glaucoma, open-angle glaucoma is the most common. Other types include low tension (also called normal tension), angleclosure, and congenital glaucoma.
Source: National Eye Institute