Lawrence Kohlberg's work started a foundation for development and moral decision making. Kohlberg demonstrated his concepts by using the "Heinz Dilemma" that he created. The basic premise of the dilemma is that Heinz, the husband of a woman who is dying of a special kind of treatable cancer. There is a drug that would cure the problem, but the problem is that Heinz can no raise enough money to pay for the seemingly overpriced drug. The questions is about whether Heinz should steal the drug because he can not raise enough money or whether he should just let his wife die.
Kohlberg focused on the reasoning behind making decisions about what to do in situations such as this. His work was later criticized. What I found to be the most interesting criticism is the fact that Kohlberg's work has a significantly low correlation with real world applications. Correlational studies have shown a score of around .3. This basically points out the fact that though Kohlberg's work influenced how people approach moral decision making, it really only works when we are thinking about the problems rather than actually being faced with them.