Deboer Ch1 notes
here are my notes from Chapter 1. Feel free to give constructive criticism
DeBoer Chapter 1
Deboer sets the stage for early 20th century science education as being far outpaced by the scientific discoveries made in that time period. Educators had been in heated debate over whether or not science was a subject that ought to be emphasized more, and at an earlier age. On one side, the classicists, argued that through a general education of language, individuals and therefore society could better itself through an awakening of the faculties by careful and rigorous mind exercises. This would allow a person to gain a higher mental power, and allow that person to make more rational judgment on their part. Scientists on the other hand, felt that science could accomplish this same ideal and on top of that, contribute the high amount of discovery that was being made at the time.
According to Deboer, education at the turn of the century was mostly a status symbol. It was used to create a â€śgentileâ€? society, but where the only real difference was being able to balance accounts and recite the classics. â€śfor those who obtained it, it was simply and adornment of their social classâ€? pg2
Main argument for study of science over classics
-More relevant and modern breadth of knowledge was neccessary to prepare citizens to cope with the changes and progress with the future. â€śto equip them in the age they live inâ€? pg3
Main argument for study of classics over science
Teaching of classics leads to greater mental capacity. A greater ability to reason and think therefore a person who could do these things would enjoy â€śgrowth and personal pleasureâ€? pg3
Argument stated most eloquently in â€śThe Yale Reportâ€?
Humanization takes place best through reading and comprehension of classics. All faculties of brain are increases which leads to higher â€śmemory, judgment, and reasoning powersâ€? and also â€ślays the best foundation for professional studiesâ€?.pg.3-4
to counter this argument, Deboer then introduces 3 giant reformers
Edward Livingston Youmans,
contributed to The Culture Demanded by Modern Life a collection of essays. In his â€śMental Discipline of Educationâ€? Youmans counters what the Yale Report by saying that it is science that is superior to that of language studies.
In terms of memory exercises, science has just as many facts, if not more. It could also be taught in a way that focused on generalities which could then work up to more focused knowledge (a pyramid of sorts).
With a current idea about how the way the brain functioned, Youmans then went on to explain how learning science could be done in multiple ways (a precursor to labs). That is the human brain could make multiple associations through different senses on the same subject or object.
Last but not least, science was a 2 for 1.
The knowledge was useful
and it increased mental capacity.
Science should be major branch tought in universities
-Uses majority of collective knowledge
-People can relate to science study as it impacts on their daily lives (examples are germ theory)
-Science should be taught at an early age. Should start broadly and then narrow focus.
Textbooks, while reliable for theory, should not be used as sole tool for learning but should be used in conjunction with labwork or some type of fieldwork.
â€śthe source of knowledge was to be the physical objects themselvesâ€?.
If book work theory could not be taught in lab settings, it could be lost on the student.
Labs and book work go hand in hand. The lab should provide â€ś a definite image on the mindâ€?
a student should understand what they reading and it should be less of a â€śrepetition of wordsâ€?
Teacher should know practicalities of subject so that they can be as thorough as possible in explaining . If the teacher cannot go out of bounds with theory, then â€śdogmaâ€? results
4 essays Education, Intellectual, Moral, and Physical
organized into several ways knowledge was used to impact human welfare.
rearing/discipline of children
Maintenance of social/political position
employment=self preservation which could be found through science education which was a way to compete and produce.
Students should be taught how to rear children.
If students could do this properly, then they could set up future generations.
Leisure elevated by knowledge and respect of science.
Lab work offered way towards â€śJudgmentâ€?
a moral obligation to think independently. To dispense with any preconceived notion which would enable people to become more worldly citizens
Science reflected society's developing needs.
He encouraged self growth and allowing one to take over ones experiemtents
Level of learning should match age.