Recently in Reproductive Rights Category

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The New York Times wrote a great article today about Oklahoma's decision to make women who are considering having an abortion have an ultrasound and listen to a detailed description of the fetus in an attempt to dissuade them--even in the instance of rape or incest. Another part of this new law says that women who have given birth to children with serious birth defects cannot sue the doctors for withholding this information because they did not want the woman to choose to have an abortion. Another part of these laws wasn't to make it mandatory for women seeking abortions to fill out a lengthy questionnaire about why they are choosing to have an abortion and then post their information on the internet. Also, they are looking into how the state can restrict certain insurance policies so to make it unable for women to use them when seeking an abortion.
I really could go on and on about this but I think you get my point. If it isn't already hard enough for women to make these decisions lets just step it up 10 fold and force them to put their life choices on the internet. I am so, so sad about this and I can only hope that feminist can rally behind this and make sure that this ridiculous nonsense does not come to fruition.

I'm curious about...

I originally posted the following questions as comments on the group presentation summaries. I thought that it might be helpful to post these as a new entry for everyone. Did the presentations make you curious about anything? Feel free to post comments to this entry with your thoughts and questions about the presentations.

Here are some questions that the birth control presentation raised for me:

  • What would a historical account of birth control from the perspective of non-Western medicine or women (and men) who functioned outside of the "medical establishment" look like? 
  • What various knowledges have been generated by those engaged in these non-Western/non-medical establishment practices? And how has an emphasis on western medicine as more advanced obscured/ignored those practices?
  • Is it possible to understand these different practices (that is western and non-western or medical establishment/non-medical establishment) simultaneously without valuing one over the other or are they fundamentally opposed to each other?
  • In terms of the impact that education has on whether or not women use birth control, what other factors influence how/when/why women do or do not use birth control?
  • How do the types of questions we ask and the types of answers we formulate change when we shift our key question from "why aren't women using birth control?" to "what factors impact their ability to make informed choices?"
Here are some questions that the surrogacy presentation raised for me:

  • How are feminists around the world discussing the issue of surrogacy?
  • What are Indian surrogate mothers saying/writing about their experiences with this reproductive technology? Have any Indian women organized in response to their situations? How have they organized?
  • What other geographical locations are "hot spots" for outsourcing surrogacy?

You could also post any comments you have about the agenda assignment--Was this a helpful assignment for processing all of the reproductive rights readings? Did you find it hard to come up with a collective agenda? In the process of discussing the issue did you come to any conclusions about whether feminist agendas should be narrow/broad, far-reaching/very specific in scope and focus?

Summary - Feminist Perspectives on Commercial Surrogacy

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When we decided which topic within reproductive rights/choice to choose, we realized that the only widely recognized as a feminist issue is abortion. We decided to investigate commercial surrogacy because we realized that we ourselves had little knowledge of the wide range of feminist opinions surrounding reproductive choice and surrogacy. We learned that the feminist issues surrounding surrogacy were even more complicated than we anticipated; incorporating the financial, legal, emotional, physical, and psychological intricacies of the actual process brings surrogacy from muddied waters into an unnavigable tropical storm.

Of the sources we consulted, we found three main perspectives on commercial surrogacy.

The pro-surrogacy feminist perspective argues reproductive choice includes the right to sell one's reproductive services; if sperm can be sold, so can a woman's reproductive services.

We found two different anti-surrogacy (or at least cautionary) feminist perspectives:

Anti-Perspective One argues that allowing pregnancy to become a service alienates women from their own bodies. The argument equating sperm donation and surrogacy fails; pregnancy involves a much longer time commitment and is far too emotionally and physically intense to equate it to what is, in essence, paid masturbation.

Anti-Perspective Two argues that Perspective One is too simplistic - it is true that pregnancy is long and emotionally intense, but so is writing a novel, and no one questions an author's right to be paid for her books. Instead Anti-Perspective Two argues that the real concerns surrounding commercial surrogacy are its potential to exploit certain groups of women, and that it could reinforce the idea that women are baby factories.

The 1986 Baby M custody case
between a surrogate mother and a sperm-donor father brought such issues to the forefront of the public eye, and forced feminists and others to make some tough decisions regarding reproductive rights and choice.

A survey of local and international surrogacy perspectives and issues lead to some surprising results.

Locally, Minnesota law is completely silent regarding surrogacy. On the other hand, we do have several reproductive centers in the Twin Cities-area for both physical surrogacy services, and financial, psychological, and other concerns.

Internationally, oversees surrogacy has stirred feminist controversy - are Indian surrogate mothers being regionally and financially exploited, or are they empowered women, filling a commercial niche?

And surrogacy isn't as simple as we've presented it here. Issues of exploitation related to impoverished regions or countries, class discrimination, etcetera can be analyzed outside of the context of reproductive rights and choice.

Group Members: Sarah Turgeant, Danielle Hall, and Will Menzel

Birth Control Summary

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Although birth control has been around for quite some time, avoiding pregnancy wasn't always this convenient. Before the emergence of birth control, there were many other methods tried. Most of them were dangerous for the user or not very easy to use or effective. Discovering the birth control pill was a revolutionary time for women. Giving them the option to be able to control when they wanted to reproduce in a safe way was very liberating.

Planned Parenthood has had a huge impact on the St. Paul - Minneapolis area. Not only does the organization assist individuals in getting the health care they need, but it makes contraceptives easily accessible for many people. Planned Parenthood also does an excellent job on educating the community about many sex related topics, including contraceptives. The advocacy programs that Planned Parenthood provides has people speak out about making sure sexually active individuals be smart and stay safe.

The benefit of birth control has been present for women since the 60's. New research has shown a possible birth control pill for men in the future. Studies have begun to understand the reproductive hormones in the male, which has made this a possibility. It doesn't seem like the freedom for men to control their fertility as well is too far down the road.

There is a lot of information about birth control, and most women are aware of the wonderful benefits that go hand in hand with the pill, yet there are still many people within our country that do not obtain birth control for various reasons. It is important to address the reasons why women do not acquire the pill when they are trying to avoid pregnancy.

It is astonishing to see how much education has an effect on the amount of women who use contraceptives and on the number of children they have. More contraceptives are used by women who have a higher education. As the amount of education a women has increases, so does the age at which she has her first child. It is also proven that the number of children a woman has decreases as the amount of education she has increases.

Education and Contraception Use

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While we are all probably well informed about the different types of birth control available, many people are not as fortunate. There is a direct correlation between the amount of education a woman has and the use of contraceptives. Just a couple of the sources that prove this are a study done in Turkey and the class Biology 1001 offered here at the University of Minnesota.

There was a study done in Kocaeli, Turkey in which the goal was to examine contraceptive use by women who are sexually active and of reproductive age that live in the city. The researchers doing the study were interested in finding the correlation between contraceptive use and demographics. The results of the experiment show that almost everyone involved in the experiment was aware of at least one method of birth control. The two most commonly reported techniques were intrauterine devices and the withdrawal method. The study stated that both illiterate women and housewives were less aware of modern contraceptives. It showed that as literacy rates for both men and women increased, so did the amount of contraceptives used and the involvement of men in family planning. Overall the study proved that if the education of both men and women increased, so would the use of contraceptives.

Biology 1001 also teaches about some of the statistics related to education and number of children per family. In the class it is taught that as education increases, so does the age at which a woman has her first child. The average number of children that a woman has decreases as the level of education increases.

Both the study done in Turkey and the class Biology 1001 taught at the University of Minnesota show valuable facts on the use of birth control. It is astonishing how much education can affect the number of children a woman has due to the use of contraceptives.

Netherlands, Springer. "Advances in Contraception." 15.4 (2004): 1. Web. 24 Feb 2010. .

To view this article... CLICK

Birth Control

Why not?
Our group found an interesting article that followed a research study on why women do not obtain the desired birth control in situations where they did not wish to become pregnant and did. Although there is safe and effective contraception available in the United States, there are still many women who don't use it or use it inconsistently when they are sexually active with no desire to get pregnant.
Majority of the women involved in the study did not use birth control. This is an alarming issue when it is known that they were not interested in having a baby. The survey asked all of the women what the reasons for not getting proper contraception were. Most of the reasons fell under the categories of:
-Limited knowledge
-Limited access
-Didn't know how or where to get it
-Too expensive
-Too hard to get or needed a prescription
-Worried about side effects
-Worried about weight gain
-A partner or family didn't want it
-Too hard to remember

Some of those reasons seem to be pretty miniscule when you have such a large consequence. If people are choosing to be sexually active, they should also take the responsible route and use proper contraception.
The United States has one of the highest unintended pregnancy rates among all developed countries. About half of all pregnancies are unintended. That is shockingly high and sad. A lot of these end in abortion. Unintended pregnancies result in negative health and social outcomes for the mother and the child.
Taking into consideration that half of unwanted pregnancies occur when the woman is not using any form of contraception, and another forty percent is the result of incorrect or inconsistent use, it is clear that contraception is necessary if pregnancy is not the goal.
There are many existing reasons for not getting desired contraception, but none of them outweigh the logic of having safe sex. The website/article that we found our information on is very interesting. There are some charts/graphs as well as some very good information.
ScienceDirect - Full Size Table.webarchive


Academic Source: Surrogacy: The Psychological Issues

Edelmann, R. J. "Surrogacy: The Psychological Issues." Journal of Reproductive & Infant Psychology 22.2 (2004): 123-36. Print.
This article was written by R.J. Edelmann with intent to discuss the psychological issues both of the infertile couple and of the surrogate mother. In any case, they found that those seeking treatment for infertility were under a great deal of stress, especially after going through multiple procedures with no success; the author sees this as completely understandable. Edelmann further writes that there is nothing abnormal in the current psychological exams of surrogates -something that may seem a bit odd, since a woman who is willing to let another couple use her body for nine months is generally either desperate for payment or excessively altruistic, especially when the surrogate is completely unrelated and a stranger originally to the infertile couple.
Edelmann goes on to describe societal views of surrogacy, which he believes are generally negative. "It has been suggested that surrogate motherhood raises 'intense feelings of endangering the family and society, evoking adultery and incest taboos and raising legal concerns and theological objections'" It seems that the author advocates surrogacy as a decent method for infertile couples, however, believes that surrogate motherhood is not for couples who want a surrogate for convenience. His research shows that both in a small sample from Canada and the United States that in general, society disapproves of the idea of surrogacy no matter what the case. Edelmann is worried that the societal disapproval will negatively impact the infertile couple seeking a surrogate and may even have a negative impact on the future child.
Motives for looking for a surrogate are fairly obvious - when a couple is desperate for a child of their own and all other treatments fail, that is there last option. The only other way for them to have children is those not of any genetic relation by adoption. Edelmann specifically mentions 'continuing the genetic line' as a reason for seeking a surrogate. He also brings up the idea of surrogacy for convenience; something that he believes would be rare and completely unnecessary and immoral. Women who want someone else to carry their child because they're too busy will still probably be too busy to really devote their full attention to the child born. In general, Edelmann has found that motives to become a surrogate mother are based on the idea that the mother is achieving something for the greater good, all motives are altruistic. In many cases, the surrogate mother already has children of her own and is doing this to help a couple, and at the same time, can make the process much smoother because the knowledge of the positive and negative aspects of pregnancy are already known.
About half of the time, it appears that the commissioning couple and the surrogate mother keep contact, and the other half of the time, the infertile couple are too afraid that the surrogate mother may later try to help raise the child or take the child away. In many of these cases, the infertile couple and the surrogate mother develop a strong relationship and then immediately cut it off after the baby is born. This is one of the reasons that Edelmann believes more therapy would be useful to the surrogate especially. Research suggests though that only 5% of all cases the surrogate ends up deciding to keep the baby.
The main concerns about the child psychologically are that the parents who have spent so much time and effort trying to have a child in the first place may be too overprotective or have exceedingly high expectations for the child, something that would trouble later in life. However, research shows that most children conceived through the new reproductive technologies, including surrogacy, have no differences in family perception or any psychological disorders that were caused by the surrogacy. Only half of all infertile couples that choose surrogacy would ever tell their family, even less would tell their friends and less than seventy percent would tell the child where his/her origins came from, out of fear that the child might feel less of a connection for the parents and try to seek out the surrogate mother. No matter what the case, Edelmann still believes that counseling is absolutely essential for a smooth process and no long term psychological disturbances.

Binion, Gayle. "Baby M, Surrogate Parenting and Public Policy." Policy Studies Review 11.1 (1992): 126-40. Print.

This article very briefly outlines the case of Baby M and the case's ability to cause reform in regards to surrogate motherhood. Baby M, M for Melissa, was born to Mary Whitehead on March 27, 1986. Although the egg was hers, the sperm belonged to William Stern. Artificial insemination had taken place so that William Stern could have a daughter of his own, when his own wife, Elizabeth Stern could not carry a child and ensure the health of the baby or herself during the pregnancy. There was a contract signed by both parties that through several complicated steps, Mary Whitehead and her husband would give up the rights to the child, and William Stern and his wife would be given total custody with no interference.

This arrangement did not go well when Mary Whitehead decided that she no longer wanted to give Baby M up to the Stern's. The first court that they went to gave custody to the Stern's, declaring that a contract should be enforced, and that Mary Whitehead was not a fit mother anyway, after hearing several testimonies from different psychologists that diagnosed Mary Whitehead with Borderline Personality Disorder. This ruling was overturned in another court, and Mary Whitehead was given custody of her child. The courts decided that surrogacy is the equivalent to selling babies, so that Mary Whitehead was not at all obligated to accept the money that was to be paid to her for her child. All in all, the courts decided that for all future surrogacy cases within the state, that surrogacy not be allowed if money is to be exchanged for the child. Each state is unique in its policy.

The article outlines several questions about the case and whether or not the decisions were appropriately made. The questions it answers are: Does the Baby M ruling interfere with the liberty of contract?, Does the unenforceability of surrogacy contracts undermine reproductive freedom?, Does the unenforceability of surrogacy contracts undermine the status of women?, and lastly, in part one of the article, it discusses whether or not surrogacy is really a violation of public policy.

The author, Gayle Binion, attempts to avoid leaning one way or another in her piece and speaks simply about legality and how the law should be interpreted. Overall though, Binion strictly wants rights for women, both the surrogate and natural mother, and she clearly believes that the policy needs to be decided upon as soon as possible.
The second part of this article specifically addresses past rulings in regards to surrogacy, and reiterates the Baby M conclusion.

Birth Control for Men?

According o Science Daily, a new research report came out in December of 2009 stating that men might eventually have the option of taking a form of birth control. Men could possibly gain the same kind of control that women have over their fertility. Women have been granted this benefit since the 1960s, and it seems like a great idea to transfer the same concept on to men. Scientists found out how and where androgenic hormones work in the testis. With this new information they are able to control normal sperm production and male fertility. Understanding these ideas are key points in the process for developing a birth control pill for men.
This recent discovery has another advantage to point out as well. Men who have suffered from low sperm counts and were unable to have children, now may see a new light in the distance. New possibilities have emerged now that androgens have become more revealed. Opportunities to understand how androgens control sperm production will help in both categories of developing treatments for male infertility and possibly male contraceptives.
Although the research has only been carried out on mice at this point, a similar effect is likely to occur within humans.
The pill has been liberating for the woman population since it was developed and the same outcome is now in the future for males. This new research has been able to narrow in on understanding androgenic hormones and has made new hopes for possibilities such as birth control contraceptives, and speeding up the production of sperm for males.


Surrogacy on a Local Level

Minnesota law is completely silent on the issue of surrogacy. In some states there are laws as to the legality, some saying yes and some saying no while others are completely ambiguous on the issue. The American Surrogacy Center which is a nationwide surrogacy resource has made a legal map of surrogacy in the United States. Minnesota is silent on the issue. There are many countries in the world that have taken a stand to ban surrogacy, including France, Germany, Sweden, Norway, and many others. This issue is very complicated and laws differ as to who has legal custody of the child, the rights of both surrogates and intended parents, and the difference in legality of commercial surrogacy and altruistic surrogacy.

In Minnesota specifically, even though there are no laws specifically on the issue of surrogacy, agreements still occur throughout the state. There are a handful of lawyers that along with offering adoption counsel also offer surrogacy agreement services.

Right here in Minnesota we do have the International Assisted Reproduction Center in Maple Grove specializing in surrogacy services. This center walks surrogates and "intended parents" through every step of the surrogacy process - legal, medical, psychological, and financial. The center itself does not have a medical clinic but employs various fertility clinics throughout the country to facilitate the implantation and other medical related issues.

There are other reproductive centers nearby including:
The Center for Reproductive Medicine and Advanced Reproductive Technologies with Minneapolis and St. Paul campuses open to all fertility issues which does have a gestational carrier surrogacy program.

Midwest Center for Reproductive Health in Maple Grove and other Minnesota cities, which doesn't specify whether or not they include surrogacy services.

Wombs for Rent - Outsourcing Surrogacy?

A popular comedy came out in 2008 called "Baby Momma" about an infertile single woman wanting to have a child. Since she was unable to conceive herself, surrogacy was her choice. The movie is a comedic look at the journey of the relationship of surrogate and donor. In this clip, the character played by Tina Faye is meeting with the woman who runs the surrogacy clinic that she is working with:

"What is surrogacy if not outsourcing?" Tina Faye goes on to ask if she means that her child will be carried by some poor underpaid woman in a third world country. Of course not, right?

Actually, outsourcing surrogacy is a growing business. It is becoming more and more common for couples to go abroad to find their "baby momma." Surrogacy costs in the United States can cost between $60,000 and $100,000 depending on what type of surrogacy it is (gestational vs. traditional). As other industries have found, work and labor come cheaper abroad - as does surrogacy. Surrogacy fees are a fraction of the cost in India than they are here.

This Stanford University project gives an overview of commercial surrogacy and its relation to women's rights, poverty, health and more. Surrogate Motherhood in India

There are undoubtedly heated debates on this subject and recent media coverage on commercial surrogacy specifically in India have been seen from Oprah talk show to Marie Claire magazine. Is it exploitation of the poor or is it rising to meet the demands of the market? Does commercial surrogacy further the subjectivity of women? How far can commercial surrogacy go before it goes too far - "baby farms"? What type of regulation is needed?

Local Planned Parenthood

Planned Parenthood has had a huge impact on many people in the surrounding area. The organization does a lot to ensure health care, education, and advocacy for everyone.

The fact that Planned Parenthood provides cheap health care for qualifying individuals makes getting protection easier for those who do not have the money to afford it. They offer free birth control pills to some, and otherwise they have different payment options, such as the "Pills Now, Pay Later" program. Planned Parenthood just put out a report on how almost 60% of their patients live in rural Minnesota. The poverty, un-insurance, provider shortages, and simple geography of residents in rural Minnesota all combine to create huge obstacles to basic health care services. Planned Parenthood is able to make life easier for many of these individuals.

Being educated about sex and birth control is the first step in being able to be sexually active and stay safe. Planned Parenthood offers different educational programs for teens and adults in the Twin Cities. They have speakers that inform people on birth control, healthy relationships, sexually transmitted infections, and responsible decision making. Some of the programs involve becoming educated enough about sex and birth control to be able to teach others about it. Getting the correct facts about birth control out to the public is important so everyone knows their options.

Along with the education that Planned Parenthood provides, they have a great advocacy program. They encourage people to get involved and speak out on issues like increasing access to birth control and emergency contraception, promoting comprehensive sex education in our schools, and keeping abortion safe and legal.

Between offering discounted health care to those in need, educating people on sex and birth control, and offering advocacy, Planned Parenthood has done wonders for our community.

For more information on your local Planned Parenthood... CLICK

Birth Control-Background


History;leading to the pill

The birth control pill is a much safer means of contraception. Avoiding pregnancy wasn't always this convenient. The oldest methods of attempting contraception are coitus interruptus (the "pulling out" method), barrier methods, herbal methods, and ingesting certain toxins.
Taking a look at a method that is still commonly used today, coitus interruptus is the technique used to avoid most of the semen entering the vagina. This is done by the male pulling out of the vagina just before ejaculation. A similar practice used by the male to avoid pregnancy is called coitus reservatus. This is where the male would grab and squeeze the base of the penis in order to stop ejaculation. Both of these methods are not one hundred percent reliable because of pre-ejaculation and possible timing errors.
Another form of controlling pregnancies was done by means of barrier methods. The oldest known effort using a barrier was preformed in Egypt, which had women inserting crocodile dung or honey into their vaginas. The stickiness of these substances was believed to stop semen from entering the woman. Considering this practice is rather disgusting, it aided in discouraging males from even desiring intercourse with users. Because of this, other vaginal suppositories came into play. Resin, oil, and honey were some of the most common substances applied to the cervix as birth control. These were able to reduce the amount of sperm that entered the woman. One of the barriers that had most success was inserting a cloth soaked in vinegar. Although they did not realize it, the acidity killed the semen. A male barrier that is still used today is the condom. Although it has gone through a transformation, once being made from animal intestines, it is an effective means of birth control.
Some women resorted to herbal remedies to avoid pregnancy. The herbs pennyroyal and tansy were well-known as abortive agents. At the time they did not realize these herbs had high levels of chemicals that poisoned the woman and damaged her organs. Woman would ingest certain poisons knowing their reproductive systems would be disrupted.
All of these methods have flaws and in some cases can be very dangerous. It was clear that women needed a safer form of birth control. The invention of the birth control pill was revolutionary.

For a timeline of events leading to the pill... CLICK.

Commercial Surrogacy: Feminist Perspectives


Surrogacy is commonly defined as a hiring a woman to bear a child she turns over at birth to her employer (Karkal online). Feminists are quite divided on the issue. Pro-surrogacy feminists argue that reproductive choice includes the right to sell one's reproductive services; if sperm can be sold, so can gestational services. Anti-surrogacy feminists, on the other hand, argue that pregnancy is too complex to label it a "service." Pregnancy is a physically and emotionally intense event, and surrogate mothers are alienated from their own bodies. Feminist Debra Satz believes that the previous anti-surrogacy argument is too simplistic: "the sale of women's reproductive labor is not ipso facto degrading. Rather, it becomes 'degrading' only in a particular political and social context" (Satz 109). Furthermore, Satz disagrees with the idea that connecting female reproduction and profit alienates women from the beauty and power of pregnancy: an artist may feel an intense emotional connection to his/her work, but still expects to be paid for it. Satz argues the more pressing issue is the fact that mothers could easily be exploited; poorer women, for example, would probably be more likely to become surrogates than their middle- or upper-class counterparts. Surrogacy could also enforce the woman-as-baby-maker stereotype.

Such dilemmas surrounding the (im)possibility of a feminist surrogacy were brought to the forefront in the 1986 Baby M case. William Stern sued Mary Beth Whitehead for custody of Melissa Stern, a child conceived by Whitehead via artificial insemination with Stern's sperm. Although Whitehead had originally turned over the infant to Stern and his wife, Elizabeth, Whitehead threatened to commit suicide unless the Sterns gave Melissa back. The New Jersey Superior Court originally upheld the surrogacy contract and awarded custody to the Sterns on the grounds that Whitehead was an unfit mother. The Sterns' lawyers and expert witnesses argued that White dyed her hair, may have borderline personality disorder, and, worse still, that when Whitehead's interactions with Melissa during scheduled playtime sessions were not optimized for Melissa's maximum intellectual development.

Before the case was decided in favor of the Sterns, over 120 prominent women issued a statement calling attention what they regarded as unfair treatment of Whitehead. "By These Standards, We Are All Unfit Mothers," signed by Betty Friedan, Carly Simon, Susan Sontag, Gloria Steinem, and Meryl Streep, among others, asked those involved in the case to "recognize that a mother need not be perfect to 'deserve' her child" (Frost-Knappman and Cullen-DuPont 312).

Whitehead appealed the decision, and in 1988, the Supreme Court of New Jersey overturned the Superior Court's ruling in a unanimous decision, arguing that it could not support a case in which "a perfectly fit mother was expected to surrender her newly born infant, perhaps forever, and was then told she was a bad mother because she did not" (Frost-Knappman and Cullen-DuPont 312). The court awarded Whitehead and William Stern joint custody and annulled Elizabeth Stern's adoption of Melissa.

This case presents feminists with quite an ethical quandary: did invalidating the surrogacy contract ultimately set a precedent of restriction on a woman's reproductive rights, or did it uphold a basic right of motherhood - the right to mother one's own child?

Satz, Debra. "Feminist Perspectives on Reproduction and the Family." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Spring 2010 Edition. Web. 10 February 2010.

Karkal, Malini. "Surrogacy from a feminist perspective." Indian Journal of Medical Ethics 5.4 (1997): n. pag. Web. 2 February 2010.

Satz, Debra. "Markets in Women's Reproductive Labor." Philosophy and Public Affairs 21.2 (1992): 107-131. Print.

Frost-Knappman, Elizabeth and Kathryn Cullen-DuPont. Women's Rights on Trial. Farmington Hills: Thomson Gale, 1997. Print.

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This page is an archive of recent entries in the Reproductive Rights category.

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