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Feminist Perspectives on Parental Leave

There are several important feminist perspectives that have played an important role in the current understanding of Parental Leave in the workplace. This post highlights several of these perspectives.
1. The Liberal Feminist Viewpoint finds its roots in the political philosophy adopted by the US founding fathers: that all men (and women) are created equal, and that all individuals should have the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. As such, liberal feminists have been concerned with dismantling structural impediments to equality that prevent women from full participation in the workforce. Standing litigation on work force equality such as the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA). While liberal feminists have been fundamental in breaching discriminatory laws, criticisms of the viewpoint are that the liberal feminist approach have supported laws based on the notion that women can become just like men and that it calls women to change their behavior to more closely resemble that of men, a presumption that becomes problematic when it comes to the debate over maternity rights in the workplace.
2. Cultural Feminism takes a serious look at the specific biological needs of women and the social differences that arise as a result of this as a means of shaping policy around maternal leave. They argue that current policies (the ones supported by liberal feminists) ignore the demands pregnancy places on women, and that biological differences justify parental leave policies that compensate women on leave while not providing the same option for men having children. Criticism of this perspective is that (1) it operates under the assumption that all women are the same and leaves no room for women who do not fit under the traditional conception of womanhood (2) it only perpetuates the cycle of sexism and the assumption that women should remain responsible for the majority of childrearing and (3) that it gives little incentive or possibility for fathers to take time off following the birth of a child as its policies focus specifically on women.
3. Post-structural feminists, unlike cultural feminism that groups all women together, take an individualist approach to maternity leave, believing it is a futile exercise to clump all women (or all men) together as a means of forming policy. As such, they challenge altogether the idea that women are more properly suited for child rearing than men and that policy itself must be derived from local context and individual needs. The proper management around parental leave to a post-structural perspective would be to deal with parental leave issues on an individual cases to case basis since every local context and individual circumstance is different and thus requires due accommodation. Criticism of this approach is that the perspective does not recognize how individuals themselves may inherit oppression through group membership, as well as the long and tedious process of negotiation that it requires.
4. Postmodern Feminism works to combine all the previous theories to include all of their strengths and eliminate their weaknesses. The postmodern approach believes that parental leave should be available for both men and women, but that the length of leave time can vary depending on the demands that come from childbearing itself. This would mean that all parents are eligible for paid leave for a fixed period of time (say 6 weeks) with an extended period of paid leave eligibility for childbearing mothers (say and extra 6 weeks).

Tagged below is a youtube on how Maternity Leave is dealt with at Yale...policies that seem to reflect the post-modern approach.

Work links

Breaking the glass ceiling for women scientists
program audio

The glass ceiling Task Force Report

Important Litigation on Parental Leave in the US

Pregnancy Discrimination Act (1978)
Key Points: prohibits the discrimination on the basis of pregnancy and childbirth in the consideration of hiring, firing and pay levels of employees.
Criticisms:
*labels pregnancy as a disability - stigmatizing pregnancy itself as an "unexpected event that disrupts life"
*does not require aid from institutions on the matter of maternal leave
*poor regulation - employers still discriminate

FMLA - Family and medical Leave Act
Also see this link for more information.
Key Points: Covered employers must grant an eligible employee up to a total of 12 workweeks of unpaid leave during any 12-month period for one or more of the following reasons:
* for the birth and care of the newborn child of the employee;
* for placement with the employee of a son or daughter for adoption or foster care;
* to care for an immediate family member (spouse, child, or parent) with a serious health condition; or
* to take medical leave when the employee is unable to work because of a serious health condition.
Criticisms:
*limited eligibility for recipients
*many people cannot afford unpaid leave
*employees of small organizations are not covered


Work....Summary

Women entered the workforce in significant numbers during the end of the 19th century due to the rise of big business companies, industrialization and urbanization. During the next half-century or so, women would find themselves in gender specific roles in the workforce by occupying positions such as helpers, "sales girls", secretaries, laborers and clerks.

In 1964, Congress enacted Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, in which it was made unlawful to discriminate against any individual in the workplace based upon their race, color, religion, sex or national origin. This was an attempt to end the informal oppression of withholding decision-making positions from women in the workplace, also known as "the glass ceiling". Three issues that influence the role of the glass ceiling in the workplace are the Preference Theory, and the Psychological Perspective, and a study done By MN Governor Arnie Carlson in 1994.

The Perspective Theory is based on the premise that there are three work-lifestyle preferences for women: work-centered, adaptive, and home-centered. Adaptive women make up the majority by 60% and want to balance both a family and career life. This is compared to the majority of men who are work centered, which is defined as those who are most dedicated to their work. Women in this category, will often forego having children in order to concentrate on their career and social life, but only make up 20% of the categories. This Theory says that since most women are adaptive, they are less likely to ask for promotions, or work in higher-level jobs that require traveling and irregular working hours.

In the Psychological Perspective, The basic hypothesis was that "beliefs about interpersonal and situational variables in the organization were related to the perception that men and women were treated differently overall." This is essentially the cause of the glass ceiling. Interpersonal issues are the factors that pertain to the relationships among the people within an organization, which relates to boys sticking together essentially. The two main situational issues are the "existence of objective hiring standards and the number of women who have been in the pipeline". This study showed how interpersonal issues and situational issues play a major role in the glass ceiling. The information from this study needs to be used in a way that will discourage inequality.

Governor's Arne H. Carlson Glass Ceiling Task Force in September of 1994 produced findings that women and people of color are not being equally represented in leadership positions. The article states: "The reasons: women lack the "right" type of job experience, employers do not give flexibility so mothers have to choose between their children and their jobs, stereotypes affect the self-esteem and ambition of children of color and work and therefore many women and people of color do not come out of schools with the credentials and confidence needed to succeed" (Psychology of Women Quarterly, 33 (2009), 285-294). Stereotyping is a big influence on how people perceive themselves. This is also known as the self-fulfilling prophecy in psychology. How you treat someone will essentially determine who they become.

More and more women are getting college degrees and are pursuing careers. This combined with effective tools to discourage inequality in the workplace will continue to allow companies to hire the best person for the job, regardless of their gender. The end to inequality will start with peoples perception of equality. The sooner we get this mentality into the workplace, the sooner America will be a better Nation as a whole through having the best person for the job.

Daniela Duran, Heather Mancini, Justin Petrick, and Abby Wulfing

Work: Summary (Nursing)

Tracking the issue of the occupation of nursing helped our group learn a lot more about how all-encompassing feminism is and how deeply entrenched, feminism is in our society. We learned that nursing went through many changes throughout its history and is a constantly-changing dynamic career. We decided to research about nursing in particular because we wanted to explore more about this highly stereotyped occupation and understand how it came to be a feminized job and why.

Through our research, we found recurring statements confirming the fact that nursing is an overwhelmingly female profession. Only about 5.4 percent of the nurse workforce in the US is made up of males. Moreover, male nurses are seen as "anomalies, effeminate, or homosexual" (Journal of Advanced Nursing). These stereotypes re-instate nursing as women's work and in some ways discourage potential male nurses from becoming nurses. These stereotypical views of the nurses may contribute to the shortage of nurses that has occurred since at least 2003. More significantly, men are predominant in the physician health care area, which is somewhat oppressing to females because many times, nurses are seen as subordinate to physicians and since nurses are mostly female, this leads to the conclusion that women are inevitable "inferior" to males. As a result, this issue shows that sexism and feminism go hand-in-hand. As long as sexism exists, feminism will have to exist as well.

On the other hand, looking back at the history of nursing, it is interesting to note that the job of the nurse/caretaker was once a dominantly male occupation during the Roman Era and even during the mid 1800s. It wasn't until 1894 when female nurses started to collaborate and form the Female Nursing Schools in New York and the American Nursing Association(ANA). The ANA excluded men until 1930 and had the goal of keeping men out of military nursing. Looking at the present situation, one can see that the women to male ratio of nurses changed from one extreme to the other extreme, similar to the motion of a pendulum.

Nevertheless, the move towards gender-equality in nursing can be seen through the increase in males in nursing schools. In addition, male nursing students are getting together to raise awareness of existing future male nurses. For instance, a group at the University of Minnesota called Men Enjoying Nursing (MEN) was formed to fight this stereotype that nursing is a job for women only. This group has a significant impact in solving this issue and impacting feminism because it allows men to realize that there are several men in the nursing profession. Also, forming groups like these can eventually familiarize the public with male nurses and can encourage other males to pursue the career of a nurse, which may eliminate the shortage of nurses as well as even out the male to women ratio.

Group Members: Monique Campbell, Carly Knickelbein, Mallory Brothen, Yein Kim

Work: Local Importance/Impact of Nursing

According to the article "Critical condition: Minnesota's nursing shortage," since 2003 Minnesota hospitals had a shortage of nurses. More importantly, the article stated that every patient added to a nurse's work load increased a patient's risk of dying by 7%. This demonstrates how impacting the nursing issue is in our community. The biggest reason for this shortage is attributed to the lack of nurse educators. There are not enough professors that can teach nursing students to allow them to graduate and become nurses. Many students end up on the wait list to get into nursing schools. Minnesota plays a huge role in the occupation of nursing because schools in Minnesota produce about 78% of the state's nursing graduates.

As expected, women outnumber men by a ratio of 16-1 at a national level. At the U of M, the ratio of nursing students of women to men is 6 to 1. Thus, a group at the University of Minnesota called Men Enjoying Nursing (MEN) was formed to fight this stereotype that nursing is a job for women only. This group has a significant impact in solving this issue and impacting feminism because it allows men to realize that there are several men in the nursing profession. Also, forming groups like these can eventually familiarize the public with male nurses and can encourage other males to pursue the career of a nurse, which may eliminate the shortage of nurses as well as even out the male to women ratio.

Sources:
http://www.tcdailyplanet.net/article/2009/02/17/critical-condition-minnesotas-nursing-shortage.html

http://www.mndaily.com/2009/12/08/student-group-unites-male-nurses

Tracking the Issue: Work -- Historical Background

Women's participation in the workplace got started during the business boom between 1880 and 1920. The rise of big business companies such as DuPont, Sears Roebuck and F. W. Woolworth Co., Armour, AT & T, International Harvester, Pennsylvania Railroad, and even the increase in federal, state and local governments gave women the opportunity to enter the workforce like no other time in the nations previous history.

The rise of big business, industrialization, and urbanization spurred the redefinement of women's role in the American business. However, women still found themselves under the expectations of their roles based on their gender. Their roles were limited to "helpers", secretaries, salesgirls, laborers and clerks.

During the last half-century, women had a revolutionary change in their status in business. This revolution took place between World War II in 1945 and 1995 in which women entered the workforce in even greater numbers then the business boom of late. The turning point of women's rights in the workplace took a significant change when Congress enacted Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This legislation made it unlawful for employers, employment agencies and labor organizations to discriminate against any individual with respect to their compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment based on their race, color, religion, sex or national origin. Shortly after in the late 1980's, women owned half of American businesses, and had obtained one third of the nations MBA's. By the late 1990's, women held top positions in companies with over one billion in earnings.

Despite the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the informal oppression of women's rights still exist, which is commonly termed as the "glass ceiling". The glass ceiling particularly affects women who strive for top positions in fields traditionally held by men. This barrier stems from top-level officials organizational bias or negative stereotypes concerning a women's lack of ability and qualification to hold senior-level positions, which originates solely based on their gender.

An article was written by Joan Arehart-Treichel (Psychiatric News May 17, 2002 Volume 37 Number 10 Page 12 © American Psychiatric Association) concerning a study that was done that showed in 1991, 83% of men held positions of associate professor or full professor compared to 59% of women, and 23% of men held full professor compared to 5% of women. In 2001, 214 women held a chair position in a medical school compared to only 115 in 1995. Despite the increase, the 214 chairs were only 8% of all the chair positions in medical schools across the nation. In another figure as of 2001, 117 men held dean positions in American medical schools compared to only 8 women. Despite the legislation striving to provide equality in the professional workforce for women, in relatively recent years the numbers still favor men concerning medical administration professions.

Women in Business: A Historical Perspective

The Glass Ceiling and Sexual Stereotyping: Historical and Legal Perspectives of Women in the Workplace

Group Members: Daniela Duran, Heather Mancini, Justin Petrick, and Abby Wulfing

Tracking the Issue: Work -- Our Choice

The glass ceiling is a situation in which employees can aspire to reach higher work positions, which they seem to be within reach of, but are unable to due to some type of barrier. Two YouTube videos below demonstrate the glass ceiling's effects.

This first video explores the Washington D.C. area's higher than average amount of women who have overcome the glass ceiling.





This next video exposes the results of a UC Davis glass ceiling study, which surveyed many California companies.




Group Members: Daniela Duran, Heather Mancini, Justin Petrick, and Abby Wulfing

Tracking the Issue: Work: Preference Theory -- Academic Source

Hakim, Catherine. "Women, Careers, and Work-Life Preferences." British Journal of Guidance and Counselling 34.3 (2006): 279-294. Women's Studies International. EBSCO. Sun. 21 Feb. 2010.

Instead of looking at the glass ceiling in the traditional sense, this article focuses on preference theory. Preference theory is based on the premise that there are three work-lifestyle preferences for women: work-centered, adaptive, and home-centered. 20% of women identify as work-centered and are more competitive, individualistic, and goal-oriented. They are most dedicated to their work and will often forego having children in order to concentrate on their career and social life. 20% of women identify as home-centered. These women's primary concern is their family. They only work outside the home if it is financially necessary. Adaptive women make up the remaining 60% and want to balance both a family and career life. These women want a job, unlike home-centered women, but are not willing to invest as much time and effort. Their values are derived from both work-centered and home-centered values.

While work-centered women are in the minority, the majority of men are work-centered. Work-centered people try harder to get what they want and are most likely to succeed in competitive, lucrative careers. Because of this, men get most of the top jobs. The majority of women in the workforce try to combine work and family. As a result, they are also less likely to ask for a promotion or higher pay than they are to ask for shorter, more flexible hours. These women are also less likely to take jobs requiring travel and irregular hours. This often keeps them from pursuing sales, service, architecture, accountancy, entertainment, public relations, news reporting, airline, and travel occupations. It also keeps them from going after upper management positions, which often deal with inflexible hours and travel. Based on preference theory, one can conclude that it is not society, but a woman's priorities that keep her from or allow her to secure a high, well-paying position.

Group Members: Daniela Duran, Heather Mancini, Justin Petrick, and Abby Wulfing

Glass Ceiling Local

The Glass Ceiling concept in Minnesota is still an issue. Stereotypes still influence our behavior and attitude towards people different from us. These Stereotypes diffuses the issues of equality and opportunity. Since the establishment of Governor's Arne H. Carlson Glass Ceiling Task Force in September of 1994 which was set to study the manner in which organizations in Minnesota fill management positions, there have been findings that women and people of color are not being equally represented in leadership positions. The reasons: women lack the "right" type of job experience, employers do not give flexibility so mothers have to choose between their children and their jobs, stereotypes affect the self-esteem and ambition of children of color and work and therefore many women and people of color do not come out of schools with the credentials and confidence needed to succeed (Johnson). That was in 1995 and now women working full time after 1 year of college earn 80 as much as males and 10 years after graduation the number drops to 69 according to the American Association of University Woman's report " Behind the Pay Gap" (Lee). Just in 2008 in the US 9 percent of female professionals were employed in a high-paying field compared to 45 percent of male professionals and 68 percent compared to 29 percent of men worked in education or health care occupations where paying was lower. Also women without children earned 13 percent more than women with children. The salaries are still not the same and the number of women employed in high positions jobs is still relatively low (High Lights of Women).

"High Lights of Women." US Bureau of Labor Statistics. July, 2009. US Department of Labor, Web. 20 Feb 2010. .

Johnson, Kristine B. "THE GLASS CEILING TASK FORCE REPORT." Office of Geographic and Demographic Analysis. January 1995. Department of Administration, Web. 20 Feb 2010. .

Lee, Roper. "The Glass Ceiling Lives - Pay Equity is Elusive." Women Foundation of Minnesota. August 21, 2007. Web. 19 Feb 2010. .

Link to tables of salaries/number of employment and also by state.

Group Members Abby, Heather, Justin. Daniela

Academic Source: Nursing

Feminism and Nursing
The source that I read was about how Sarah Palin views mainly feminism, and slightly how it portrays to nursing, but I think she had a lot of good things to say. Palin was part of a generation that was the beginning of women "having it all: an education, a profession, dreams, a successful marriage and family life." Feminism was and still is a big deal in our society. The author also states that all women should be defended from sexism, and ALL nurses should also be defended. It is interesting that she says this while talking about nursing and feminism, as if the male nurses need to be defended from their occupation.
The wisest point that the author makes is when saying that "Leaders in nursing are strong and determined women and men." I noticed that" women" was first in the sentence and "men" was second, although that could very easily mean nothing. The next sentence says that no one wants our personal and past values to get in the way of our healthcare system; whether it is a man or women taking care of you. It shouldn't matter anymore, even if nursing is a female dominated profession.

Group Members: Carlyn, Yein, Monique, Mallory

History of Maternity Leave in the US

As women have come to make up a significant portion of the workforce over the last half century, employers have been faced with the issue of managing employees that assume the responsibility of child bearing. Maternity leave has become a contentious issue among women and their employers.
Many social, economic, and legislative changes have occurred in American society over the course of the past half century that have significantly shaped issues of maternal leave within the workplace. According to a report on Maternity Leave and Employment Patterns from the 1995 US Census, significant factors that have played a role in bringing about maternal rights in the workplace:

According to the report, the first factor influencing the push for maternal rights within the workforce had to do with the changing age and educational characteristics of mothers bearing children for the first time. "Data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) show that first-time motherhood at age 30 over tripled 1960 and 1995, from 7 percent to 22 percent. The educational attainment level of first-time mothers has also increased since 1970, partly because older women, who make up an increasing proportion of first-time mothers, have higher education levels than younger first-time mothers. In 1970, 10 percent of first-time mothers had 16 or more years of education, compared with 23 percent in 1995.[3]census1999 Such a shifts meant that more and more women were delaying childbirth to attain higher levels of schooling and accumulate more years of working experience before they had their first child.
The study goes further to suggest that the development of the women's movement and issues related to the family and the working environment were greatly influenced by this increase in female professionalization. Women of higher education who waited longer before having children stood as a powerful force in demanding better treatment by their employers because they had the professional experience to finally take a stand.

As more and more women entered into the workforce and began demanding better accommodations in the event of pregnancy, many changes began to occur in the work environment related to maternity and employment issues. "In the 1960s, a common expectation for women was that they would leave work upon becoming pregnant. In 1978, the Pregnancy Discrimination Act was passed which prohibited employment discrimination on the basis of pregnancy or childbirth. This act covered hiring and firing policies as well as promotions and pay levels. Also at this time, changes to the federal tax code in 1976 permitted working families with a dependent child to take a tax credit on child care costs. Both these actions clearly marked the beginning of federal involvement in work-related issues and concerns of mothers. These laws affected both employment practices during pregnancy and net child care costs after the child was born, the latter item strongly related to the affordability of child care services which would enable a mother to return to work."[4]
Child care services however will not resolve the concerns for many mothers returning to work. They hope for more flexibility within the work place and acknowledgement that their roles as mothers did not end once their children were born. Over the years there have been many movements to address the concerns of these working mothers, and prevailing litigation that upholds their rights in court. Currently, the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) requires that women must be given 12 weeks of unpaid leave by their employers with considerable regulations on who is considered an eligible employee.
According to the United States Department of Labor, in 2008 women comprised 46.5 percent of the total U.S. labor force and are projected to account for 47 percent of the labor force in 2016. Of these women, over half of American women with a child less than 1 year of age are currently in the labor force.1
Despite the headway that has been made through the FMLA Act and other legal and social victories, sexism within the workplace still exists and many women continue to express their dissatisfaction with how their maternal leave is managed. Many other countries throughout the world have already enacted policies of maternal leave that demonstrate a greater understanding of the needs of the working mother.

Timeline

Works Cited:
U.S department of larbor: Quick Stats on Women Workers, 2008

Kristin Smith, Barbara Downs, Marin O'connell Maternity Leave and
Employment Patterns: 1961-1995 November 2001

Corey
Zara
Adeer
Hilary

Academic Source: Nursing

men in nursing

The article I read about nursing and feminism actually had a lot to do with nursing and masculinity. It was about men in the nursing workforce and how they act in a female dominated occupation. The article is called Men in nursing: issues of gender segregation and hidden advantage. The author talked about how women nurses usually obtain nurturing, caring, dependence, and submission traits whereas men obtain contrasting traits such as strength, aggression, dominance, self- control, and objectivity. Men hold a very little percentage in the female to male ratio and men obviously take a different path when it comes to their nursing profession. The author also mentions a lot about how men dominate the physician health care. They would pursue psychiatry because of their physical strength, anesthesiology for their autonomy, and emergency care for their cool- headedness.
I thought it was most interesting when the author said that through-out history, men have not been a big part of the nursing profession and so women have made big gains by themselves, in technology and healthcare, without needing men's help. I took this as semi sexist, but I realized the author wasn't trying for that intention- just making a point.
Lastly, the author stated that "men in the nursing profession continue to be stereotyped as anomalies, effeminate, or homosexual." This is based on the beliefs of masculinity, and is very stereotypical. Some could interpret this as a social control mechanism that re-instates nursing as women's work. I thought that was an interesting concept and I don't totally agree with it.


Group Members: Carlyn, Monique, Mallory, Yein

Academic Source: The Psychology Perspective

| 1 Comment

The article "Managers' Beliefs About the Glass Ceiling: Interpersonal and Organizational Factors", by Tina C. Elaqua, Terry A. Beehr, Curtiss P. Hansen, and Jennica Webster, was published in Psychology of Women Quarterly and provides much insight to how and why the glass ceiling is perceived; the study addressed the issues, tested them for reliability and validity, and tries to explain how important it would be if we used this information to eliminate the perception of a glass ceiling.
This article refers to the glass ceiling as "the difficulty of women trying to be promoted into the top management levels" (285). The experimenters performed an elaborate study to attempt to find an explanation for why the top hierarchal levels of an organization appear to be much more difficult for a woman to obtain.
The study consisted of 685 managers at a large Midwestern insurance company, 221 women and 464 men. It was based on observations that led to the hypothesis, which was tested by a questionnaire. The basic hypothesis was that "beliefs about interpersonal and situational variables in the organization were related to the perception that men and women were treated differently overall, which, in turn, was related to the beliefs that a glass ceiling existed" (285).
Since the hypothesis is a mouthful, take a look at this diagram. It reflects how the perceptions of interpersonal and situational issues cause the perception of men and women being treated unequally. This differential treatment being recognized and perceived is then connected to the belief that the glass ceiling exists.
sc00625b50.jpg
Interpersonal issues are the factors that pertain to the relationships among the people within an organization. These factors include "the role of managers as mentors, the existence of an 'old boys' network in the organization, and the influence that being friends with the decision makers in the organization has on promotions" (286). Situational issues are organizational situations that influence the perception of a glass ceiling. The two main situational issues are the "existence of objective hiring standards and the number of women who have been in the pipeline" (287). With both of these issues present, the sexes can be treated differently in the work place in a number of ways that, cumulatively, lead to the glass ceiling effect.
The study's results showed that the managers' beliefs about specific issues in their workplace indeed were related to their perception of differential treatments and a glass ceiling. The two issues, interpersonal and situational, were proved to be related to glass ceiling perceptions through their relationships with differential treatment. The study showed that situational issues had a stronger effect on inequality in the organization. The difference between the results of the men and women's questionnaires were not significant except for one difference; there was a stronger relationship between perceptions of differential treatment and a glass ceiling for women than for men. This exception could be due to the fact that women are more keen to the issue since it affects them directly.
All in all, this study displayed how certain issues can lead to inequality that fuels the perception of a glass ceiling; the information collected should be used to change and reform the workforce. The interpersonal and situational factors need to be addressed to help break down inequality. Once the inequality diminishes, the glass ceiling will dissipate and the workforce will be bettered. As the article rightly concludes, "In addition to ensuring fair treatment of women, removal of the glass ceiling would enable organizations to have a workforce comprised of the best possible people" (293).

Beehr, Terry A., Elacqua, Tina C., Curtiss, Hansen, P., Webster, Jennica. "Managers' Beliefs about the Glass Ceiling: Interpersonal and Organizational Factors". Psychology of Women Quarterly, 33 (2009), 285-294. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Web 21 Feb. 2010.

Gender Equality in a Female Dominated Work Field

| 1 Comment

When most think of the profession of nursing, the majority will immediately think a 'woman's job' or a field that is predominantly dominated by female presence. This is not a hoax. Today, male nurses only make up approximately 5.4 percent of the nursing force. However, it is thought that the demand for male nurses is on the rise and male nursing will be rising in popularity within the next decade. However, one can conclude that nursing is thought of as a 'woman's job' and is somewhat true in today's world. Why is this so? If one looks back in history, you will find that men have taken the role of 'care-taker'/nurse for an extended period of time and for many events. During the Roman Era there were many 'brotherhoods' who provided care to the sick and plagued during the great plague, 'Knighthoods' were arranged during the crusades and many Knighthoods were there to help the wounded during battles of the middle ages and renaissance time-periods. All of these caretakers were one-hundred percent male. Even during the mid 1800's, during the Civil War, the majority of the military nurses were male. It wasn't until 1894 when female nurses started to organize and Female Nursing Schools were created in New York and the American Nursing Association(ANA) was formed. The ANA excluded men until 1930 and in essence had the goal of keeping men out of military nursing. At this point in history military nursing had been a predominantly male job, had turned into an exclusively female position and would continue on to become the most stereotyped female dominant job. It wasn't until after the Korean War when males were finally accepted back into the field of nursing. Now, one can expect that on all military nursing teams there will be at least one male. It is much more likely to have male nurses in military nursing than in civilian nursing such as you would find in a hospital (RN). As one can tell, because while the percent of RN's in the US today are a mere 5.4%. Whereas in the Army 67% of their CRNA's are mean and 40% of their nurses are men. This is a staggering statistic and helps emphasize that there are male nurses out there, they just aren't in the general locations that the average person could observe such as a Hospital when you go for a check-up. Another big improvement in nursing gender-equality is the increase in male's in nursing schools. Today, approximately 15% of the nursing students are male. This is quite a significant increase from the 5.4% male RNs today. Male nursing is possible for any man, and is definitely on the rise. However, this doesn't negate the fact that nursing is currently and will be for awhile a predominantly female populated career whether one agrees with it or not.

Work: "Meet the Fockers"

Our tracking issue is on work and we chose to narrow our topic on the occupation of nursing. I believe the occupation of nursing is a very strong feminist issue; this is because nursing in general is portrayed as a woman's job. I have a clip from the movie, "Meet the Fockers", and it does a very good job in showing how woman are supposedly the only ones fit to be nurses. If you haven't seen the movie, Greg is a male nurse and his father-in-law has a very hard time accepting that. Greg's father-in-law shows his grandson a flashcard of a female nurse before he meets Greg. The grandson now has this picture in his mind that when he meets Greg, he should be a female because the flashcard only had a woman-figure on it. The grandson then laughs when he sees Greg because of the confusion of him being a male. I think this issue on work might tie in with the concept of sexism. Greg is a great example of how we should stand up against the "norms" of our society and not let sexism take over. Greg became a nurse even though he knew he would get ridiculed by the "world". It is people like Greg (even though he is just in a movie) that have helped make a difference in the world of nursing today. It may not be a huge break through, but I know male nurses are more accepted today than they were a few years ago. This is just an example of how sexism interferes with the occupation of nursing, but I know that many other occupations involving woman in their work force, deal with the same discrimination. Any thoughts or comments?!

"Sorry the card comes with one gender"- Meet the Fockers

Group Members: Monique Campbell, Carly Knickelbein, Mallory Brothen, Yein Kim

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