The three research articles below all deal with research done on gender norms. They constitute three basic areas which are frequently brought up when gender norms are discussed such as economic opportunities, the sexual double standard between men and women, as well as at what age children are able to recognize gender norms and the consequences behind that.
"Assessing Care: Gender Norms and Economic Outcomes" - Badgett M.V.L.; Folbre N. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ilo/ilr/1999/00000138/00000003/art00006
This research article focuses on how gender norms can and do affect how much money individual men and women make and also the fields of jobs that they go into. It was found in this article that, "in societies that link femaleness to familial altruism, women tend to be disproportionately represented in caring occupations. This reinforces occupational segregation, sex-based pay differentials and the very norms that dictate appropriate behavior for women and men." An example of this that they found in their study is that, "a daughter who neglects her parents, a wife who leaves a husband, a mother who abandons a child -- all are considered more culpable than a son, husband or father who does the same." In their research they found that, as can be expected, gender norms do in fact affect the economic status of men and women. Because men and women are viewed in certain ways and there are specific characteristics that are linked to them (i.e. women are caregivers whereas men are providers), this affects the types of jobs men and women are encouraged to seek out as well as whether or not they will be hired and how seriously they will be taken in that profession. After conducting their research, "their analysis of the relationship between caring labor, social norms and economic outcomes leads them to advocate not only reassigning responsibilities for care, but specific measures to protect caring work, including strict quality standards on the provision of marketed care." It is their belief that in doing this things, there will be more equality in the job market that can help to fix some of the problems they found.
"Children's Beliefs About Violating Gender Norms: Boys Shouldn't Look Like Girls, and Girls Shouldn't Act Like Boys" - Judith E. Owen Blakemore http://www.springerlink.com/content/x5018342457u7303/
The purpose of this research article was to figure out at what age the knowledge of gender norms and their consequences become prevalent to children. "This research examined 3 - to 11 - year- old children's knowledge of and beliefs about violating several gender norms (e.g., toys, play styles, occupations, parental roles, hairstyles, and clothing) as compared to social and moral norms. They have found that children can identify males and females shortly after 2 years of age and acquire a great deal of basic knowledge about gender norms in the years between ages 2 and 5." The young age at which children become aware of gender norms is very important in the study of gender norms because it demonstrates how pervasive these ideas that are embedded in us truly are and that it begins right away. In their study they also found that, "knowledge of the norms and understanding that norm violations were possible increased with age." This is significant to the study because it shows how the longer one is socialized with these gendered beliefs of what men and women should be and do, the stronger these beliefs become. This is particularly important to feminism because if one is to fight gender norms one must understand when and where they come from.
"Sex and Punishment: An Examination of Sexual Consequences and the Sexual Double Standard in Teen Programming" - Jennifer Stevens Aubrey http://www.springerlink.com/content/n22014523524133j/
This research article sought out to, "examine sexual consequences on teen programming." More specifically, they set out to learn if the double standard does exist in teen programming and to what extent. There were two clear goals of this research. "First, the types of sexual consequences in teen programming were investigates. Results showed that emotional and social consequences far outnumbered physical consequences. Second, the portrayal of the sexual double standard was investigated. Negative consequences were more common in scenes in which female characters initiated sexual activities than in scenes in which male characters initiated sexual activities. As was expected by the researchers, there is a sexual double standard in teen programming between men and women. They found that, "sexual activity among young men is tolerated and encouraged, whereas for young women, sexuality is controlled, restricted, and subjected to censure if norms are violated." These findings were expected because of the gender norms places upon sex. While this research was important in factually proving that gender sex norms are still pervasive in teen programing, I believe the research could have been more effective if it had engaged in more research surrounding on how this can and be fixed and why it should be fixed.