The three sources that I chose for this bibliography focused on the social construction of gender and the gender norms that result from it. I chose two research studies regarding the socialization of masculinity and it;s affects and one regarding the socialization of femininity. All three articles go together in that they all deal with the affects that our culture and society have on creating one's gender and how that greatly affects one's life.
Examining Masculinity Norms, Problem Drinking, and Athletic Involvement as Predictors of Sexual Aggression in College Men
"In this study, college men's sexually aggressive behavior and rape myth acceptance were examined using conformity to 11 masculine norms and 2 variables previously linked to sexual aggression: problem drinking and athletic involvement. Results indicated that men who use alcohol problematically and conform to specific masculine norms (i.e., having power over women, being a playboy, disdaining gay men, being dominant, being violent, and taking risks) tended to endorse rape myths and report sexually aggressive behavior." This study was done, "because men account for the overwhelming majority of arrests for sexual violence against women, and because many of the rape myths contain assumptions about masculinity and men's power over women, it seems logical to examine how masculinity may contribute to these concerns." Since it is men who are committing a lot of these crimes, it only makes sense to see why it is mostly men and not women. The study found that "results from the first root of the canonical analysis supported the hypothesized relationships between masculinity norms and problematic alcohol use as predictive of sexually aggressive behavior toward women and rape myth acceptance."
Development of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory
"This article describes the construction of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory (CFNI), which was designed to assess womenrsquos conformity to an array of feminine norms found in the dominant culture in the United States." Similar to the last study, this one found that socialization greatly affects gender norms of femininity. It found that, "gender role norms share the characteristics of social norms, which are described as 'rules and standards that are understood by members of a group, that guide and/or constrain social behavior without the force of laws.'" Furthermore, they also found that
"gender role norms are important in the lives of women and men in that they foster identity development."
Constructions of masculinity and their influence on men's well-being: a theory of gender and health
"Men in the United States suffer more severe chronic conditions, have higher death rates for all 15 leading causes of death, and die nearly 7 yr younger than women. Health-related beliefs and behaviours are important contributors to these differences. Men in the United States are more likely than women to adopt beliefs and behaviours that increase their risks, and are less likely to engage in behaviours that are linked with health and longevity. In an attempt to explain these differences, this paper proposes a relational theory of men's health from a social constructionist and feminist perspective. It suggests that health-related beliefs and behaviours, like other social practices that women and men engage in, are a means for demonstrating femininities and masculinities." Not only does the social construction of gender affect how one lives their life, it also can affect the quality of life that one has, in terms of health and behavior.
"It further proposes that the social practices that undermine men's health are often signifiers of masculinity and instruments that men use in the negotiation of social power and status. This paper explores how factors such as ethnicity, economic status, educational level, sexual orientation and social context influence the kind of masculinity that men construct and contribute to differential health risks among men in the United States."