Women in Magazine Advertisements
For those of you who are interested, here are the links to the ad "touch-ups":
* G!rlpower - Retouch
* Greg Apodaca's Digital Portfolio (I forgot to mention, there's a retouched image of a male in these -- but not nearly as much is done!)
* The Art of DeTouch
Here, also, is the list of "stereotypical criteria" -- although when you really think about it, this isn't a complete list ...
--Lindner, Katharina. "Images of Women in General Interest and Fashion Magazine Advertisements from 1955 to 2002." Sex Roles 51 (2004): 409-421.
- Relative size. When both men and women are present, the man is taller and/or bigger than the women and takes up more space in the picture.
- Function ranking. When both men and women are present, the man serves as the instructor or performs an executive role.
- Feminine touch. The woman touches herself (e.g., hair, face, lips) or her clothes in an unnatural way or uses her fingers and hands to trace the outline of an object, cradle it, or caress its surface. This type of touching is to be distinguished from the utilitarian kind, which involves grasping, manipulating, or holding objects.
- Ritualization of subordination. The woman lowers herself physically in some form or other of prostration; canting postures are associated with acceptance of subordination. This includes lying or sitting on the ground, bed, or sofa—whether in the presence of another person or not, canting of the head or entire body. Also included in this category is a woman being embraced by a man, who inhibits her movement, or a woman leaning against a man’s shoulder or holding on to his arm for support, dependent on, and subordinate to the man present.
- Licensed withdrawal. The woman removes herself psychologically from the situation at large or is shown mentally drifting from the physical scene, leaving her disoriented and dependent on the protectiveness of others. This is indicated by an expansive smile or laughter, covering the face or mouth, or withdrawing her gaze from the scene at large. Being involved in a phone conversation also falls into this category.
- Body display. The woman is shown wearing revealing, hardly any, or no clothes at all, which is often associated with sexualized images of women.
- Movement. The woman is inhibited in her movement, by being wrapped in a blanket for example, which limits the amount of control she can exert on the environment.
- Location. The woman is shown in a domestic environment, such as the kitchen, bedroom, or bathroom. This also includes depicting the woman in a decontexualized, that is, unidentifiable, environment that does not allow for any purposeful activities.
- Objectification. The woman is portrayed in such a way as to suggest that being looked at is her major purpose or function in the advertisement.