Recently in assignment 1 Category

cortisol-thumb.gifAs a person who frequently describes herself as "stressed," I am drawn to Chapter 12: Stress, Coping and Health. The Chapter outline hints at some rich reading and plenty of opportunity to examine the topic at multiple levels of analysis. Stress is a big topic in the culture and something I am interested in for personal as well as academic reasons but the chapter points out that even agreeing on a common definition of stress is challenging. I am eager to learn more about the evolving conception of stress (from an engineering term to physiological phenomena) and about the different approaches to its study: 'stressors as stimuli,' 'stress as transaction,' and 'stress as response.' I'd like to know more about individual variation in stress response and what the current thinking is regarding amelioration of stress-related diseases and other harmful stress effects. Lately I have frequently heard references to the negative health effects of stress hormones, specifically cortisol. I am curious to examine the science so I can decide how freaked out I should be when my co-worker tells me that "THE OVERHEAD LIGHTS IN OUR OFFICE CAUSE STRESS HORMONES TO BE RELEASED ON OUR BODIES!!!"4254333574_95aa20130a_b.jpg Just kidding, chapter 1 made it abundantly clear that we are not supposed to seek easy answers to complicated questions. Seriously though, this chapter looks fascinating. My initial impression is that stress impacts many other things we'll learn about and that it is not a stand-alone phenomena but rather a variable, like genes and environment etc, which interacts with other variables. Finally, I'm curious about Chapter 12 because of the inclusion of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. I'm curious to see how the book judges these strategies and why the author chose to include them in this particular chapter.
If you're looking forward to Ch 12, I recommend this radiolab episode about stress. It's pretty rad.

cortisol-thumb.gifAs a person who frequently describes herself as "stressed," I am drawn to Chapter 12: Stress, Coping and Health. The Chapter outline hints at some rich reading and plenty of opportunity to examine the topic at multiple levels of analysis. Stress is a big topic in the culture and something I am interested in for personal as well as academic reasons but the chapter points out that even agreeing on a common definition of stress is challenging. I am eager to learn more about the evolving conception of stress (from an engineering term to physiological phenomena) and about the different approaches to its study: 'stressors as stimuli,' 'stress as transaction,' and 'stress as response.' I'd like to know more about individual variation in stress response and what the current thinking is regarding amelioration of stress-related diseases and other harmful stress effects. Lately I have frequently heard references to the negative health effects of stress hormones, specifically cortisol. I am curious to examine the science so I can decide how freaked out I should be when my co-worker tells me that "THE OVERHEAD LIGHTS IN OUR OFFICE CAUSE STRESS HORMONES TO BE RELEASED ON OUR BODIES!!!"4254333574_95aa20130a_b.jpg Just kidding, chapter 1 made it abundantly clear that we are not supposed to seek easy answers to complicated questions. Seriously though, this chapter looks fascinating. My initial impression is that stress impacts many other things we'll learn about and that it is not a stand-alone phenomena but rather a variable, like genes and environment etc, which interacts with other variables. Finally, I'm curious about Chapter 12 because of the inclusion of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. I'm curious to see how the book judges these strategies and why the author chose to include them in this particular chapter.
If you're looking forward to Ch 12, I recommend this radiolab episode about stress. It's pretty rad.

Chapter 11 deals with our emotions, as well as factors of motivation in our lives. The chapter provides an overview of different types of theories regarding emotion, such as the Discrete Emotions Theory and the Cognitive Theories of Emotion. blog1.jpg Also discussed in the chapter is the presence of non-verbal expressions of emotions, such as body language and gestures. Often we can express our emotions towards a situation without saying a word or actually making a "common" face that registers as a certain emotion. Another thing that stuck out to me is how we use personal space as a means of displaying a message. As we grow, our want for a personal space grows, increasing the distance between us and others we interact with. It was stated that when the need to intimidate occurs, we tend to get closer to the person we wish to intimidate. The chapter ends in a discussion of motivation, along with theories that discuss what exactly it is that drives us forward. Whether it is a positive goal or a need for safety, theories such as incentive and hierarchy of needs, respectively, offer us explanations about why we choose to push forward.

Blog #1 Chapter 2

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This chapter was pretty introductory; what defines an "experiment," common terms and theories behind the practice of experimentation. I was struck most by the idea of a "nocebo" effect. I had heard of placebo before, likely along with the rest of the class, but i was super interested that there was a documented term that describes placebo's opposite effect: expecting harm causes perceived harm. I experience this a lot in daily life; mostly in observing the habits of certain people I would define as pessimistic or nervous. Often they don't have a good time because they didn't expect to--it severely impacts their social interactions.

What drives you

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By being a student at the college level I began to realize more and more just how important being motivated was. What I didn't fully understand was all of the reasons for motivation besides just wanting to do well and the different stimuli that can affect how motivated you are. After skimming through chapter 11 I began to understand these things a little more. The thing that caught my eye right away was that most drives, even though they seem pleasant or satisfactory, are actually unpleasant. To me this seemed counter intuitive because I see things that motivate me as being positive things. After thinking about it in depth I began to realize that many drives that motivate a person to do something really aren't good. They are unpleasant things but as the book states, "that satisfaction of them results in pleasure."
Along with realizing the most drives are negative I also read about the different stimuli that can affect motivation. The most common one was arousal. At first this didn't make much sense to me because I took it at its physical meaning and I didn't think that this affected my motivation for most things. As I kept reading I realized it is more of a mental arousal at doing a complicated task or something along those lines.
These two things really caught my eye but so did many other topics and ideas and I am really looking forward to learning more about the inter working of the mind.

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Chapter 7: Memory

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After skimming through chapter 7, I quickly realized just how complex a human's memory works and just how powerful it is. I particularly found it very interesting that our short-term memory is only capable of recalling 7 digits, give or take 2. The utter complexity of how things are stored into our long term memory is astounding and given the methods used to do so make it incredibly simple with such things as repetition and mnemonic devices. The power of one's mind is heavily portrayed through memory due the subconscious decision to erase a traumatic memory to protect itself. The ability to do this illustrates the extent that memory can damage an individual as well as do them well and I am amazed that people possess the ability to forget the things that damage them.

While previewing chapter twelve I read of the benefits of stress. Yes, I really did just say that stress can be beneficial. I learned that one of the ways in which psychologists study stress among people is from a perspective of "stress as stimuli." This field of study focuses on what effects particular stressful situations, such as pregnancies or natural disasters, can have on groups of people. The textbook highlighted studies concerning the effects of the 9/11 terrorist attacks on people's personalities.

Selected American citizens completed character strength surveys before and after September 11, 2001. When comparing the results of the subject's characters, positive strengths such as "kindness, teamwork, leadership, gratitude, hope, love, and spirituality" significantly increased.

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There is much that may be learned about stress from these results. I can recall the images of firefighters, the explosions, and Ground Zero that were circulated in the weeks following the attacks. Being young at that time, I can only imagine the magnitude of stress trusted upon our nation's government, families, and citizens. However, it is uncanny how the nation bonded together to combat this unprecedented stressor. This response or "stimuli" to stress was clearly reflected in the results of the strengths survey - proving that stress can indeed produce positive qualities in individuals.

Chapter 2 is all about research methods used in the field of psychology today. Many different types and different methods of research are used. Something in research methods that stick out to me as very interesting is the placebo effect. The placebo effect consistently makes certain experiments very difficult and they can sometimes thwart the entire experiment. In essence, the placebo effect is an improvement in the condition of someone just resulting from the expectation of it. For example, if someone has a cold and a doctor gives them a sugar pill but tells them it is a good pill that will make them feel better, the person sometimes actually feels better and thinks the result is from the pill. Because of this phenomenon, many experiments call for a control group that is told the same thing the experimental group is told. The only difference between these groups is the control group gets a placebo pill. This is called a blind experiment. Due to biases and other things, many times a third group is required to assign which groups which so even the experimenter doesn't know. This does not allow for biases, causing a double-blind experiment. Even with pills to help, some researchers keep consistent with that fact that up to 80 percent of the effectiveness of certain pills, especially anti-depressants, is due to placebo effects. These effects play a huge role in experiments and researchers must keep their mind open and aware to placebo effects when researching.
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While lab experimentation can yield valuable results in regards to the control of an independent variable naturalistic observation is more useful in the way that it allows for scientists to observe behavior without the influence of a lab, or of the associated biases.
Studies that use naturalistic observation often have a higher level of external validity, that is, the amount of information that is valid to real world settings, or that can be applied to the real world. This conflicts with lab work which has a higher rate of internal validity (how often we can draw cause-and-effect inferences), because of the amount of control that can be used in a laboratory study. However, lab work often has a lower level of external validity as it requires very specific settings and controls that sometimes don't apply to the "real world".

Stress is something that every human being goes through constantly. What's interesting is that the idea of stress, when relating to people, didn't come around until recently. The term was used before for structures and how much "stress" they could take before collapsing and the same applies for people: the body and mind has pressures on it and it can collapse as well. Stress can be a helpful thing as well as damaging. Stress can be positive when it motivates us do things but too much of it can be harmful. There are different levels of stress as well; events that can cause long term psychological damage are called traumatic events whereas everyday annoyances are called hassles. How people deal with stress is something that varies. Everybody has the flight or fight reaction but what's interesting in women is that they often use the tend and befriend reaction. This is when the person befriends or turns to others for support, and this is because they have more to lose with child-bearing. Another interesting thing about stress is that it can actually affect our immune system: if you are particularly stressed about something it can lead to sickness or disease (including long term, terminal illnesses) so maintaining a low stress life is essential. FightOrFlight.jpg

Fun with Logical Fallacies

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As we approach the upcoming presidential elections, we are further inundated with political debates and empty rhetoric. Discussions about politics so often turn into heated debates in which neither side seems to gain any ground and arguments are based on emotion rather than logic. Yes friends, it is time for the trench warfare that is politics.
The elections are especially exciting this time because I can finally vote. However, to make a good decision, one must be able to analyze the arguments that politicians are making. This is where the joys of logical fallacy come in to play. The textbook features a table on page 18 that describes numerous logical fallacies and gives examples. Logical fallacies are a huge component of pseudo science (one of the main focuses of the chapter). For example, discounting a scientific theory because of its real world consequences is an example of a logical fallacy. My most graphic example of this logical fallacy in action occurred when I was reading a science article about researchers attempting to identify common facial features of children with autism. Do they share any common traits? Children born with fetal alcohol syndrome often have thinner upper lips and small ears, for example. This proves that the condition is developmental, not purely psychological. Identifying common physical traits between autistic children would prove that its cause lies somewhere between genetics and development- not vaccines. Anyway, one of the comments posted on the article argued against its results (That many autistic children do share common facial traits) because then people would be able to identify autism prenatally and potentially abort their child. It was a stretch- facial features aren't really exact enough to provide a diagnosis. Furthermore, this unlikely consequence is a logical fallacy, according to our textbook. Less than ideal consequences do not make this discovery any less true.
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Stress, Coping, and Health

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As I looked through our Psychology book, I was immediately attracted to Chapter 12, entitled "Stress, Coping, and Health" simply because it seemed to describe my first week of class. In a nut shell, this chapter essentially describes what stress is, how no two stresses are created equal, how stress affects you and your immune system, and how to cope with stress. As I skimmed, I really focused on the effects that stress can have on the body. The term psychophysiological describes illnesses in which stress can contribute to or make worse. Apparently stress can contribute in a major way to our health, for example stress and personality traits can be important risk factors for coronary heart disease which is an extremely serious condition that can cause death and disability. Since stress can cause so many serious implications to one's health, we need to find ways to deal with it in order to not contract CHD or any other stress-related diseases. I found that we can relieve stress by taking control of the situations in life and that there are different types of control that the text describes including behavioral, cognitive, decisional, informational, and emotional control. I identified with most of these different types except cognitive control. I found I need to work harder at restructuring my thoughts regarding negative emotions that arise from events that are stress-provoking. Lastly, another part of this chapter that seemed to jump out at me was the section discussing whether or not to use CAM treatments. From a psychological standpoint, the chapter states we shouldn't dismiss all CAM treatments; we can't conclude that they're all worthless, nor can we simply accept the ideas of medical opinion and advice given by the media. 001stress.jpg

How our minds trick us

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As I was looking through the book for something interesting to write about I stumbled upon some pictures and tests that made me think. Even being predisposed to many of these ideas I still had trouble finding out all the subtle tricks involved in fooling me and many other human minds. These tests were found on pages 128, 129, and 133 in the psychology book if you want to test out your own wits on these perceptual conundrums. If you're just a casual reader there are many optical illusions you can find easily on the internet. The section they were in is titled Sensation and Perception, which is chapter 4. I've always been interested in sensation and perception and how the brain works, and in these cases doesn't work and I look forward to finding these answers in the coming weeks. Though from my short readings on this subject I did pick up a few reasons why we get fooled like we do. One of those reasons we become fooled by these illusions is because of perceptual sets, which form when our expectations influence our perceptions. If you look at the picture below you will see just this happening. The misshapen letter can be seen as either an A or and H depending on the surrounding letters. tHe bAt.png

Bandwagoners: Depart Now

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Aaron Rodgers is a stud. Plain and simple. Over the past few years, he has overcome all the "Favre" hype, brought the Packers to the top of the NFL, and unfortunately, made the Packers a team for band wagoners to flock to. With a high powered, flashy offense combined with a star studded defense, even the Favre faithfuls crawled out of their holes to support the Pack, claiming they have "been super fans all along." And until 11 days ago, these so called "super fans" have bought all sorts of Packers apparel, posted statuses and tweets, and claimed the Packers were God's team. News flash: the Packers are human, therefore they CAN lose (ps God's team is the Broncos...TEBOW). After the heart breaker vs the Giants, these same so called "fans" posted exactly the opposite to what they have been posting for the past year, and as a true Packers fan I am ALMOST (i'd rather have another Super Bowl) satisfied because all the band wagoners will be gone! Whether it's following a team, buying a product, or believing the sun revolves around the earth, just because many people believe and follow, the team/belief is not fail safe. So for all you Packer band wagoners, i have this to say: Au revoir.

The Social World We Live In.

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Our everyday lives are based around how we perceive ourselves as well as how others perceive us. Think this isn't true? Just think about it. Some women...and men can take several hours getting ready for the day.
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Why? It's all about our physical appearance and how we want other people to see us; whether that be truly who that person is or not. This is why Chapter 13 "Social Psychology: How others affect us" caught my attention. It starts off by talking about the natural human instinct to gravitate together in order to get a feeling of acceptance and belonging. Humans hate the feeling of being left out. That is why so many people buy style magazines like GQ or Cosmo or buy Celebrity Gossip magazines such as People or US Weekly. Society is convinced that if you wear the most stylish up-to-date clothes or you drink and eat what celebrities eat and drink, you will be popular and well liked. Many people have studied the human want and need for social acceptance and many interesting discoveries have been made about how the mind works when in countless social situations.

Chapter 5: Consciousness

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While looking through the Psychology textbook I came across Chapter 5: Consciousness. This chapter starts to deal with the mind and other forms of consciousness such as dreaming. I found the section on dreaming especially interesting because the other night I had a lucid dream in which I was in control of what went on in my dream. These types of experiences are one of the weirdest yet exciting feelings imaginable. Being able to control what goes on, how things act, and people behave in your dream is one of the coolest feelings that you may encounter. Not only that but being able to disregard the laws of the natural world you are able to access a different type of creativity in your dreams that cannot be replicated anywhere else. Another part of this section that I found interesting was the section on insomnia. This section relates directly to me as I have mild insomnia and currently prescribed sleeping pills to keep me on a regular sleep pattern. By taking these pills it causes me to enter a deeper REM sleep and I have found that my lucid dreams dramatically increase when kept in this deep REM sleep. Being able to experience these lucid dreams on a bi-weekly basis has resulted in me sleeping longer, waking up feeling refreshed every morning, and improving my mood overall.

While flipping through Chapter 11, which is Emotion and Motivation, the first thing that caught my eye was that there are perhaps seven primary emotions that are cross-culturally universal. I find this interesting because of how many emotions there are, and yet these seven can be found in practically any culture across the globe.
The second thing that caught my attention was the section about nonverbal cues. It's amazing that so much information about how we're feeling can be given away by not saying a single word. Sometimes our body language is more of a clue to what we're actually feeling than any words we could say.
emotions The final thing I found interesting about this chapter was the Lying and Lie detection, specifically the humans as lie detectors. One of my favorite shows was called "Lie to Me." The main characters job was to determine if a person was lying just by looking at their body posture (nonverbal cues) and what they did or did not say. He was also able to determine the answers to questions from their facial expressions. This show fascinated me and for quite some time, I wanted to have the job that he had and do what he did. Of course it was just a show and the storylines were made up and the endings were happy, but it showed me just how informative the human face was based on the emotions it showed.

Emotion in faces

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Chapter Eleven is called "Emotion and Motivation." It addresses all of the emotions people have and more specifically, body language. Body language is something that we experience on a daily basis. Most people react to body language without even noticing it. I particularly liked the diagram of faces that conveyed different emotions. I was surprised by how easy it was for me to detect and identify the emotions displayed. An interesting fact I read was that on average older adults are happier than younger people. I would never have guessed that. Another interesting part of this chapter discussed the origin of love. This surprised me because I never thought of emotions having origins but in the chapter it states that the origin of love was at least 5000 years ago and, no surprise, love is supposed to have originated in Italy. Also in the chapter is the topic of personal space, a concept I have noticed widely varies depending on culture. I often find myself in a situation where someone is way closer to me than I feel comfortable with and it is interesting to read how truly different people view personal space. There is also a section on the average attractive face. The idea there is a general consensus around the world about what is attractive is remarkable to me.


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After looking through the textbook I decided that chapter 7, which had to do with memory, interested me the most. The section pertaining to false memories was particularly interesting. Most of us can recall vague memories from our early childhood, or at least we think that we can. Scientists have been able to use suggestive memory techniques to make people recall memories that they haven't actually experienced. I was surprised to learn that the people in studies that recall these false memories sometimes refuse to accept the memories as false.

This section also described how many people claim to have distinct memories of what they were doing when at the time of a major event in history. But studies have shown that these so-called vivid memories often change over time and people's recollection of the event right after it happened is a completely different story than their account of it years later. The vagueness we feel when trying to recall certain memories is due to source monitoring confusion. It is source monitoring confusion that makes some memories and conversations hard to recall and makes us wonder if the event ever took place at all. These are only a few of many examples that illustrate how complex the the study of memory is.

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Multiple Intelligences

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In different cultures intelligence is measured differently. For example, A Chinese elder versus an American scholar, both could impart wisdom on the people around them, but who is regarded with higher intelligence by their culture? There are different ways of being smart or having intelligence. People can be intelligent linguistically, musically, athletically, or naturalistically. As well as analytically, practically, or creatively. Commonly in the United we hear either book smart or street smart, or even some people are both. In turn, one popular way to calculate how smart someone is, is by having them take an IQ test. IQ tests are one of psychology's most famous tests. Psychologists can use these results and predict life outcomes and predict the situations where the person grew up in based on their results. Although not necessarily extremely valid, the scores do reflect patterns. Whether it is that the person is from a big family or a small family, the eldest in their family or the youngest, and even if their parents have high IQs or not. In popular culture there are lots of widely used and advertised IQ boosters, but it is proven these are not very accurate but yet people still take them.
As important as intelligence arithmetically is creative and emotional intelligence. Emotional psychology today is a popular topic to study. The ability to understand emotion of both yourself and of others and apply it to life is quite astonishing. In many work places they are taking strides to try and boost the emotional intelligence of their employees. As well as the importance of wisdom. Wisdom is more than just intelligence, it is the application of it. Intelligence is more than simply knowing or succeeding in school. People can be intelligent in so many different ways, in some senses it is hard to compare.

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For example, Chris Langan was a child prodigy, got a perfect 1600 on the SAT, won NBC's game "1 vs. 100", and has an IQ test that can only be estimated. Yet, he only yearns to earn a doctorate.

(Chapter 9 of Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding)

The concept of reality seems to be a pretty basic element of daily life. However, the perception of reality may be skewed or broken for individuals suffering from a psychological disorder called Schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia along with several other psychological disorders are discussed throughout chapter 15 in the course textbook. This section grabbed my attention because I have always had an interest in the field of abnormal psychology. Although severe cases of disorders such as Schizophrenia are not extremely common in the population, it is still an extraordinary field that requires a lot of attention to be fully understood. Individuals who suffer from Schizophrenia struggle on a daily basis fighting delusions and other distortions in reality. Having this disorder does not confine you to a psych ward. A great illustration of the struggle with Schizophrenia can be seen in the movie A Beautiful Mind which depicts Nobel Prize-winning mathematician John Nash's life and his ability to overcome the disorder in his daily life. The clip below is a scene that shows Nash's struggle between his reality and the clear hallucinations he sees.



The movie had a big influence on me the first time I saw it, and I am excited to watch it again after learning even more about psychological disorders during this class.

cheesus.jpgIt's a particularly slow news night when all of a sudden, "Something amazing has happened! A women in Missouri has just found Jesus in her Cheetos!" You're intrigued, how could this be possible? On the news report they are astounded by "Cheesus". It's a sign from God they say, proof that he really exists. This is the point in the news article where I stop and think, coincidence or real life phenomenon?
While skimming chapter one, I had to pause at the part where the authors describe pareidolia. Pareidolia being, seeing meaningful images in meaningless visual stimuli. Like the example above, the media is bombarded with 'incredible images' of the spiritual world or anything that looks remotely interesting for that matter. I find pareidolia quite interesting because it really illustrates what the human brain is capable of. Why do we see images in inanimate objects? Is it because we find comfort in believing that there is a higher power out there shaping these objects into these particular forms? Or do we see images because we find creativity intriguing? The answers to these questions is what prompted me to want to learn more about pareidolia.

There's a television series on ShoTime called the United States of Tara. In this show, the mom, Tara has a psychological disorder of multiple personalities. Why would a TV show highlight a psychological disorder? Her disorder along with many others is further explained in chapter 15 of the textbook. The chapter talks about mental illnesses through the ages. In the past, mental illnesses were looked down upon. Now with psychology, they are better understood and more commonly seen; perhaps the reason behind having a show that sheds light on the topic is because it is more known now.
While reading the chapter, students can look forward to learning about psychiatric diagnoses throughout the world, such as the belief their reproductive organs are disappearing or a social anxiety of offending others. However, these different diagnoses aren't contained to one part of the world. A person cannot place the disorder into a certain group, a common misconception. The chapter also elaborates on other diseases such as the most severe mental illness, Schizophrenia, or the "split mind". I was fascinated by the amount of information known about these diseases that once baffled our minds. This chapter helps explain the mental illnesses we see and hear about every day, in the news, in our community, and in primetime television series.

(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1zlBBkKyM_g - The link for the United States of Tara theme song. The theme song shows Tara's different personalities, including Tara, T, and Alice.)

In Chapter 11 Emotion and Motivation, we see the psychology behind emotions, attraction, feelings, and motivations. The main aspects that stuck out to me were the cultural differences of emotional expression, the facial feedback hypothesis, what makes us happy, and the laws of attraction.

The studies showing the differences in emotional expression between cultures was the first thing to catch my eye. Wallace Friesen's study showed that American college students were more apt to show their true emotions when their teacher was present, where as Japanese students simply smiled, and repressed whatever emotions they were actually feeling. This happens because in Japan, students are expected to be more grateful and happy in front of their authority figures.

Another aspect I found interesting, was the facial feedback hypothesis. Apparently, if you smile, you actually feel happier, thinkstock_rf_photo_of_happy_sad_faces.jpg and when you force a frown, your depress your mood. I always assumed this was a silly phrase people were told, so they simply would appear happy, even if they weren't. Over time, "smiles become conditioned stimuli for happiness, frowns for unhappiness" (p415).

The passage titled "What Makes Us Happy" was also very informative. It made me feel a little worried about my future happiness, because most things they claim make people happy, I don't have or disagree with. Such as, marriage, religion, being a republican, etc. It was a little unsettling. It also disproved quite a few assumptions people have about happiness, like, money making us happier, being less happy as we age, and being the most happy if living on the west coast. This is good, because I'm not rich, I get older everyday, AND I live in Minnesota.

Lastly, I found the laws of attraction to be interesting. It proves that average looking people, are usually deemed as most attractive. And well hey, that's great news for me. It also talks about the differences in what men and women look for. Men worry much more about the appearance of their lady and women are more concerned with the wealth of their partner.

I look forward to reading this chapter more in-depth! I believe human emotion is one of the most complicated aspects of psychology and the more I understand it, the more successful I will be in a career, in friendships, and in relationships.

During the 19th century a group of thinkers called the British Associationists believed in the idea that we can attribute practically all of our knowledge to conditioning, by connecting one stimulus with another, such as associating a mother's voice with her face. In the early 1900s Pavlov demonstrated classic conditioning by triggering his dog to salivate to the sound of a metronome. He paired the sound of the metronome, an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), with giving the dog meat powder which normally caused the dog to produce saliva, an unconditioned response (UCR). After repeatedly having the metronome tick and then giving the dog the meat powder, the dog came to expect the meat power when he heard the ticking of the metronome through this conditioning. After being conditioned in this way when the dog merely heard the conditioned stimulus (CS) of the metronome ticking he would begin to salivate which is considered the conditioned response (CR). I found all of this information regarding conditioning and creating a conditioned response from an arbitrary conditioned stimulus to be very interesting within chapter 6.pavlovs dog.gif

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