Benet-Martinez, V.; Leu, J; Lee, F.; Morris, M.W. (2002). Negotiating biculturalism: Cultural frame switching in biculturals with oppositional versus compatible cultural identities. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33 (5).
This study demonstrates that, depending on the degree of "Bilingual Identity Integration" (BII), from low to high, demonstrated low versus high success in reading cultural cues from varying culturally similar and different situations. It may be that people who have integrated dual language capabilities are higher in BII, whereas people who have monolingual language learning experiences have less-developed sense of self as a bicultural being (?).
It makes a statement about the bicultural person's complex view of culture:
"Most important, these biculturals do not perceive the mainstream and ethnic cultures as being mutually exclusive, oppositional, or conflicting" (p. 495).
In contrast, a person with low BII may be characterized as follows:
"Although these individuals also identify with both cultures or think of themselves as biculturals, they are highly aware of the discrepancies between the mainstream and ethnic cultures and see these discrepancies as a source of internal conflict" (p. 495).