II Philosophy Underlying Bilingual and Immersion Education
p.21 Research and Practice in Immersion Education: Looking Back and Looking Ahead: Selected Conference Proceedings. CARLA Working Paper Series #10. 1998.
Dual language provides instruction in primary language for lang. Minority students, allows them to begin academics in a lang they understand, access core curriculum and achieve CALP in L1. Brings together mainstream and minority language children.
p.23 “Trying to solve two problems simultaneously. The first problem involves the limited acquisition of non-English languages by monolingual Anglophone students…. The second problem involves the choice of instructional language for teaching hispanophone minority students who, for the most part, are sociaoeconomically marginalized and often the targets of racial or ethnic discrimination.
Maintenance or Transitional Bilingual Programs: Goal is academic achievement in English. Students are taught to read in their first language while aquiring oral Enlish. They add English reading early on in 2-3 grade. Native language is phased out through 6th grade.
Donna Christian: Quotes Lindholm, K. (1990) Bilingual Immersion Education: Criteria for Program Development. In A. Padilla, H. Fairchild, & C. Valdez (Eds.), Bilingual Education: Issues and Strategies. Newberry Park, CA: Sage.
· A minimum of four to six years of participation for students;
· An additive bilingual environment;
· A minimum of 50% level of target-language use;
· Instruction in the same core academic curriculum as other programs
· Roughly equal numbers of students from the two language backgrounds;
· Incorporation of features of effective schools and instruction in general.