Here's a link to an article in a linguistics journal that sounded interesting -- I have to still look at it!
"Problematizing the Dual in a Dual-Immersion Program: A Portrait"
"http://tc.liblink.umn.edu/sfx_local?sid=CSA:llba-set-c&pid=%3cAN%3e200208666%3c%2fAN%3e%26%3cAU%3eRubinstein%2dAvila%2c+Eliane%3c%2fAU%3e&issn=0898-5898&date=2002&volume=13&issue=1&epage=87&spage=65&genre=article&aulast=Rubinstein%2dAvila&aufirst=Eliane&title=Linguistics+and+Education&atitle=Problematizing+the+%22Dual%22+in+a+Dual%2dImmersion+Program%3a+A+Portrait">Problematizing the Dual in a Dual-Immersion Program: A Portrait
Author: Rubinstein-Avila Eliane E
From: Linguistics and education
In the Racial and Ethnic Identities in School Practices book, edited by Rosa Hernandez Sheets and Etta Hollins, I found a reference to Hollins' article in Action in Teacher Education journal which was later made into a book, titled: Culture in school learning: Revealing the deep meaning, published by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ. I will check into this book further...
Note: Here's the book Walker + Tedick refer to as descriptive of the
foundation of immersion education:
Immersion education : international perspectives /
[edited by] Robert Keith Johnson and Merrill Swain.
Cambridge [England] ; New York, NY : Cambridge
University Press, 1997.
TC Wilson Library P53.44 .I46 1997
I plan to get this book, as I discovered that it might be really helpful as a reference for our background section!
Subject: PUBLICATION> Rosa Hernandez Sheets Publishes New Book
AERA member Rosa Hernandez Sheets of Texas Tech University
has recently authored "Diversity Pedagogy: Examining the Role
of Culture in the Teaching-Learning Process."
The book is described as follows:
"The first in its field to demonstrate and explicate the
interconnectedness of culture and cognition to the teaching-learning
process, Diversity Pedagogy: Examining The Role Of Culture In The
Teaching-Learning Process promotes successful services for more
students, especially those from underserved communities. This text
introduces a new theory–diversity pedagogy–constructs explicit
applications to practice by providing examples of real-life classroom
situations throughout, ultimately uniting schooling, culture, and
More information can be obtained from the publisher's website:
to connect directly to the site where you can search for doctoral dissertations.
for Center for Applied Linguistics website.
They have a bibliography worth looking at!
for NCELA's research and related information on dual immersion.
click here for a directory of dual immersion language programs throughout the U.S.
Kaari, I looked into Collier and Thomas, and maybe it's my bleary eyes, but I couldn't find anything in an advanced search by author in the books at the library. Maybe they have more articles? Probably I need their first names, since their last names are so common? Let me know if you can.
I have a paper from The Modern Language Journal (2000) entitled The complexity of immersion education: Teachers address the issues, by Connie Walker and Diane Tedick. I'll look through it for more relevance to dual immersion programs!
I checked into the e-journal Second Language Research briefly, and there may be more to find in this one on our topic!
I checked into the e-journal Language Learning and the library does not have free access to full-text articles. That doesn't seem to be a big loss, as it seems not particularly useful to us, anyway.
I checked into the e-journal Studies in Second Language Acquisition for 2004 and 2003, and I discovered that this is mostly a linguistics-oriented journal, not focused on policy nor did it have any references to dual/two-way immersion programs.
Here's some information about definitions of culture, per CARLA site:
(I think that we might offer the ones by Hofstede -- an important one in the field -- and Lederach, but then lean toward Damen -- since he specifies the language learning context.)
For the purposes of the Intercultural Studies Project, culture is defined as the shared patterns of behaviors and interactions, cognitive constructs, and affective understanding that are learned through a process of socialization. These shared patterns identify the members of a culture group while also distinguishing those of another group.
Other Definitions of Culture
Banks, J.A., Banks, & McGee, C. A. (1989). Multicultural education. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
"Most social scientists today view culture as consisting primarily of the symbolic, ideational, and intangible aspects of human societies. The essence of a culture is not its artifacts, tools, or other tangible cultural elements but how the members of the group interpret, use, and perceive them. It is the values, symbols, interpretations, and perspectives that distinguish one people from another in modernized societies; it is not material objects and other tangible aspects of human societies. People within a culture usually interpret the meaning of symbols, artifacts, and behaviors in the same or in similar ways."
Damen, L. (1987). Culture Learning: The Fifth Dimension on the Language Classroom. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
"Culture: learned and shared human patterns or models for living; day- to-day living patterns. these patterns and models pervade all aspects of human social interaction. Culture is mankind's primary adaptive mechanism" (p. 367).
Hofstede, G. (1984). National cultures and corporate cultures. In L.A. Samovar & R.E. Porter (Eds.), Communication Between Cultures. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
"Culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one category of people from another." (p. 51).
Kluckhohn, C., & Kelly, W.H. (1945). The concept of culture. In R. Linton (Ed.). The Science of Man in the World Culture. New York. (pp. 78-105).
"By culture we mean all those historically created designs for living, explicit and implicit, rational, irrational, and nonrational, which exist at any given time as potential guides for the behavior of men."
Kroeber, A.L., & Kluckhohn, C. (1952). Culture: A critical review of concepts and definitions. Harvard University Peabody Museum of American Archeology and Ethnology Papers 47.
" Culture consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups, including their embodiments in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional (i.e. historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values; culture systems may, on the one hand, be considered as products of action, and on the other as conditioning elements of further action."
Lederach, J.P. (1995). Preparing for peace: Conflict transformation across cultures. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
"Culture is the shared knowledge and schemes created by a set of people for perceiving, interpreting, expressing, and responding to the social realities around them" (p. 9).
Linton, R. (1945). The Cultural Background of Personality. New York.
"A culture is a configuration of learned behaviors and results of behavior whose component elements are shared and transmitted by the members of a particular society" (p. 32).
Parson, T. (1949). Essays in Sociological Theory. Glencoe, IL.
"Culture...consists in those patterns relative to behavior and the products of human action which may be inherited, that is, passed on from generation to generation independently of the biological genes" (p. 8).
Useem, J., & Useem, R. (1963). Human Organizations, 22(3).
"Culture has been defined in a number of ways, but most simply, as the learned and shared behavior of a community of interacting human beings" (p. 169).
Here's a possible source of info about assessment in the field:
What are the psychosocial facets [self-concept, cultural identity, language status] of providing quality content instruction through additional languages (native/minority/non-English/heritage)?
-- individual learner (Chris)
-- school quality (Kaari)
-- teacher skills/attitudes/buy-in (Kaari)
-- parental and community support (Cindy)
We are focused on learning beyond language.
Here's a publication on the national policy setting:
Cummins, J. (2000). Language, power and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire. Buffalo, NY, Multilingual Matters Ltd.
Here's a reference to a dissertation done on conceptual underpinnings of "two-way immersion":
Gerena, Linda M. Micillo (2002)
Promoting language transformation and policy reform in education through two-way immersion: A conceptual framework
Available from Digital Dissertations, Publication # AAT 3053043
I plan to skim this, especially some of review of literature, for some ideas.
Here's a piece of research which may be appropriate to look at for background on the national policy recent history:
Moses, M. S. (2000). "Why bilingual education policy is needed: A philosophical response to the critics." Bilingual Research Journal 24(4): 333-354.