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May 28, 2009

Thompson et al. article

Thompson, B., Diamond, K. E., McWilliam, R., Snyder, P., & Snyder, S. W. (2005). Evaluating the quality of evidence from correlational research for evidence-based practice. Exceptional Children, 71(2), 181–194.

Abstract by authors:
Only true experiments offer definitive evidence for causal inferences, but not all educational interventions are readily amenable to experiments. Correlational evidence can at least tentatively inform evidence-based practice when sophisticated causal modeling or exclusion methods are employed. Correlational evidence is most informative when exemplary practices are followed as regards (a) measurement, (b) quantifying effects, (c) avoiding common analysis errors, and (d) using confidence intervals to portray the range of possible effects and the precisions of the effect estimates.


May 8, 2009

Cook & Cook [Chris]

Cook, B. G., & Cook, L. (2008). Nonexperimental quantitative research and its role in guiding instruction. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44(2), 98-104.

Abstract by authors:
Different research designs answer different questions. Educators cannot use nonexperimental quantitative research designs, such as descriptive surveys and correlational research, to determine definitively that an intervention causes improved student outcomes and is an evidence-based practice. However, such research can (a) inform educators about a number of issues related to the education of students with disabilities and (b) guide experimental research efforts that can more definitively determine whether a practice is evidence based. Additionally, in the absence of relevant, high-quality experimental research, special educators can use some types of correlational research as the best available evidence to guide their instructional and curricular decision making.

Experimental design rarely used in educational research
Experiments require a control condition in which the instructional intervention is not used, for comparison with the experimental intervention, among other elements
Reviews surveys, comparing them with qualitative research
Notes that surveys provide a wide view of a phenomenon, whereas qualitative research describes in depth the phenomenon
Surveys used to measure attitudes and perceptions of stakeholders
Not necessarily appropriate to measure perceptions, as the stakeholders – e.g. teachers – may not adequately perceive whether an intervention has a desired effect on student outcomes
Three types of error needing to be controlled for in order to ensure valid survey results: sampling error, measurement error, and nonresponse error
Correlational research
Discover relationships and report on their direction – that is, do they co-exist or not in groups of people
Finding relationships between two variables can spur further research, including seeking evidence of causation
Experimental research is difficult to design given the many variables which may influence student outcomes; however, correlational research results which are repeatedly and independently found, using proper research methods, and which are connected to theory, can be useful to educators planning instruction.

Cook et al. [Chris]

Cook, B. G., Tankersley, M., Cook, L., & Landrum, T. J. (2008). Evidence-based practices in special education: Some practical considerations. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44(2), 69-75.

Abstract by authors:
A major tenet of both the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act is the identification and use of evidence-based practices, or those instructional techniques shown by research as most likely to improve student outcomes meaningfully. However, much confusion exists regarding the meaning and potential applications of evidence-based practices in special education. Evidence-based practices are traditionally supported by the findings of multiple, high-quality, experimental research studies. Rather than changing the nature of teaching or limiting teachers to following prescribed methods, prioritizing evidence-based practices will allow teachers to maximize the impact of their instructional efforts.

Makes point that "best practice" has been variously defined and fraught with personal agendas
Advances term "evidence-based practice" -- coined by Odom (2005) -- "practices that have been shown to be effective by credible research" (p. 70)
"gap between research evidence and classroom practice" (p. 70)

Outline of article:
How Are Evidence-Based Practices Determined?
Experimental Control and Evidence-Based Practices
Quality of Research
Quantity of Research
What Does Being an Evidence-Based Practice Mean?
-- Are Evidence-Based Practices Guaranteed to Work?
-- Will Practices That Are Not Evidence Based Be Prohibited?
-- Will Evidence-Based Practices Be Easily Adopted?

See page 74 for table titled "Summary of Issues Related to Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education"

article 1

Courtney will be doing these articles.

May 7, 2009

Evidence-based practices pre-2007 references

Browder, D. M., & Cooper-Duffy, K. (2003). Evidence-based practices for students with severe disabilities and the requirements for accountability in "No Child Left Behind". The Journal of Special Education, 37(3), 157-163.
To define what is special about the education of students with severe disabilities, this article provides a snapshot of research-based practices that are relevant to the "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) focus on accountability. The NCLB requirement to assess all students in reading, math, and science is contrasted to the functional approach typical of skill acquisition research for this population. The concept of adequate yearly progress is addressed by reviewing the types of instructional strategies that would most likely yield progress. Information is also provided on the extent to which teachers use research based strategies. We conclude that prior research provides guidance for how to select and teach skills even though new applications for academics are needed.

Gersten, R., Fuchs, L. S., Compton, D., Coyne, M., Greenwood, C., & Innocenti, M. S. (2005). Quality indicators for group experimental and quasi-experimental research in special education. Exceptional Children, 71(2), 149-164.
This article presents quality indicators for experimental and quasi-experimental studies for special education. These indicators are intended not only to evaluate the merits of a completed research report or article but also to serve as an organizer of critical issues for consideration in research. We believe these indicators can be used widely, from assisting in the development of research plans to evaluating proposals. In this article, the framework and rationale is explained by providing brief descriptions of each indicator. Finally, we suggest a standard for determining whether a practice may be considered evidence-based. It is our intent that this standard for evidenced-based practice and the indicators be reviewed, revised as needed, and adopted by the field of special education.

Gresham, F. M. (2004). Current status and future directions of school-based behavioral interventions. School Psychology Review, 33(3), 326-343.
This article describes current status and future directions for school-based behavioral interventions. The article is centered on four themes that are considered critical for future research and practice in school-based behavioral intervention work. First, the article argues for conceptualizing interventions based on intensity level and purpose (universal, selected, and target/intensive interventions). Second, response to intervention approach should be used as the basis for changing, modifying, or intensifying interventions. Third, evidence-based practices should be used for selecting and evaluating interventions. Fourth, social validation of behavioral interventions should be used to establish the clinical or applied significance of target behavior selection and to document the social importance of effects. Contributions of functional behavioral assessment in designing and implementing behavioral interventions are examined. Future directions for research and practice in behavioral interventions in schools are considered.

Horner, R. H., Carr, E. G., Halle, J., McGee, G., Odom, S., & Wolery, M. (2005). The use of single-subject research to identify evidence-based practice in special education. Exceptional Children, 71(2), 165-179.
Single-subject research plays an important role in the development of evidence-based practice in special education. The defining features of single-subject research are presented, the contributions of single-subject research for special education are reviewed, and a specific proposal is offered for using single-subject research to document evidence-based practice. This article allows readers to determine if a specific study is a credible example of single-subject research and if a specific practice or procedure has been validated as "evidence-based" via single-subject research.

Justice, L. M. (2006). Evidence-based practice, response to intervention, and the prevention of reading difficulties. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 37(4), 284-297.
Purpose: This article provides an evidence-based perspective on what school communities can do to lower the prevalence of reading difficulties among their pupils through preventive interventions. It also delineates the roles that speech-language pathologists (SLPs) might play in these interventions. Method: This article is organized to first provide a broad overview of current directions in research, practice, and policy in educational interventions, with an emphasis on how the three are increasingly integrated to respond to evidence showing that American school children are underperforming in reading. Next, the concept of response to intervention (RTI) is described. RTI is an educational policy and practice that is grounded in the accumulated literature that focuses on how schools might better organize themselves to deliver multitiered reading interventions to reduce children's risk for reading disability. Last, this article provides three organizational principles that school-based professionals, including SLPs, might follow to deliver RTI interventions. Implications: This article provides an important and timely description of key concepts in the prevention of reading difficulties through proactive multitiered interventions. SLPs can draw on the suggestions presented here to inform their local efforts in implementing preventive literacy programs that are consistent with an RTI paradigm.

Odom, S. L. (2005). Research in special education: Scientific methods and evidence-based practices. Exceptional Children, 71(2), 137-148.
This article sets the context for the development of research quality indicators and guidelines for evidence of effective practices provided by different methodologies. The current conceptualization of scientific research in education and the complexity of conducting research in special education settings underlie the development of quality indicators. Programs of research in special education may be viewed as occurring in stages: moving from initial descriptive research, to experimental causal research, to finally research that examines the processes that might affect wide-scale adoption and use of a practice. At each stage, different research questions are relevant, and different research methodologies to address the research questions are needed.

Thompson, B., Diamond, K. E., McWilliam, R., Snyder, P., & Snyder, S. W. (2005). Evaluating the quality of evidence from correlational research for evidence-based practice. Exceptional Children, 71(2), 181-194.
Only true experiments offer definitive evidence for causal inferences, but not all educational interventions are readily amenable to experiments. Correlational evidence can at least tentatively inform evidence-based practice when sophisticated causal modeling or exclusion methods are employed. Correlational evidence is most informative when exemplary practices are followed as regards (a) measurement, (b) quantifying effects, (c) avoiding common analysis errors, and (d) using confidence intervals to portray the range of possible effects and the precisions of the effect estimates.

May 6, 2009

Deisinger work per U of M library search

NOTE: This was supplemental to the Google Scholar search, and mostly elaborates on that search (with abstracts).

Deisinger, J. A., Cassisi, J. E., & Whitaker, S. L. (2003). Relationships between coping style and PAI profiles in a community sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59(12), 1315-1323.
Relationships between coping style and psychological functioning were examined in a heterogeneous community sample (N = 168). Psychological functioning was categorized with the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991). Subjects were assigned to PAI configurai profile clusters, using T-scores from PAI clinical scales. Three PAI clusters were prominent in this sample: normal, anxious, and eccentric. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that these clusters differed significantly in coping style, as measured by the dispositional format of the COPE Inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989). Normals coped through avoidance significantly less than anxious or eccentric subjects. Also, normals engaged in seeking social support and venting more than eccentric but less than anxious subjects. Gender differences also were noted, with women more likely to cope by seeking social support and men more likely to cope through hedonistic escapism.

Deisinger, J. A., Cassisi, J. E., Lofland, K., Cole, P., & Bruehl, S. (2001). An examination of the psychometric structure of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(6), 765-783.
Examines the psychometric structure of the multidimensional pain inventory (MPI). Use of separate factor analyses for each MPI section; Lack of evidence for the replicability of the factor model; Necessity to modify the original description of the MPI factor structure.
-- Based on Julie Deisinger’s doctoral dissertation

Deisinger work St. Xavier University-Chicago search

St. Xavier University, Chicago website info:
Associate Professor of Psychology
• Deisinger, J. A. (2006). Administrating discipline, grading, and 504 plans for students with special needs. In F. Obiakor, A. F. Rotatori, & S. Burkhardt (Eds.), Current perspectives in special education administration. London: Elsevier Press.
• Sheffer, C., Deisinger, J., Cassisi, J., & Lofland, K. (in press). A revised taxonomy of patients with chronic pain. Pain Medicine.
• Cassisi, J. E., Umeda, M., Deisinger, J. A., Sheffer, C., Lofland, K. R., & Jackson, C. (2004). Patterns of pain descriptor usage in African Americans and European Americans with chronic pain. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(1), 81-89.
• Deisinger, J. A. (2004). Conceptualizations of learning disability: Beyond the ability-achievement discrepancy. In S. A. Burkhardt, F. E. Obiakor, & A. F. Rotatori (Eds.), Current perspectives on learning disabilities (pp. 1-20). London: Elsevier Press.
• Deisinger, J. A. (2003). Current views of the autistic spectrum [Review of the book Autism spectrum disorders: A transactional developmental perspective]. Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books, 48(6), 802-804.
• Deisinger, J. A., Cassisi, J. E., & Whitaker, S. L. (2003). Relationships between coping style and PAI profiles in a community sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59(12), 1315-1323.
• Sheffer, C., Deisinger, J., Lofland, K., & Cassisi, J. (2003). An empirically derived taxonomy of chronic pain patients: A cluster analysis of the revised Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) [Abstract]. The Journal of Pain, 4(2, Supp. 1), 1.
• Umeda, M., Deisinger, J., Sheffer, C., Lofland, K., & Cassisi, J. (2003). Differences in the factor structure of pain descriptors in a racially diverse sample of chronic pain patients [Abstract]. The Journal of Pain, 4(2, Supp. 1), 4.
• Wahlberg, T., Rotatori, A. F., Deisinger, J., & Burkhardt, S. (2002). Students with autism spectrum disorders. In F. E. Obiakor, C. A. Utley, & A. F. Rotatori (Eds.), Effective education for learners with exceptionalities (pp. 195-232). Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science Ltd.
• Deisinger, J. A., Cassisi, J. E., Lofland, K., Cole, P., & Bruehl, S. (2001). An examination of the psychometric structure of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(6), 765-783.
• Deisinger, J. A. (2001). Diagnosis and assessment of autistic spectrum disorders. In T. Wahlberg, F. Obiakor, S. Burkhardt, & A. F. Rotatori (Eds.), Autistic spectrum disorders: Educational and clinical interventions (pp.181-209). London: Elsevier Press.
• Deisinger, J. A. (2000). Promoting acceptance of persons with disabilities in inclusive communities. In F. E. Obiakor, S. A. Burkhardt, A. F. Rotatori, & T. Wahlberg (Eds.), Intervention techniques for individuals with exceptionalities in inclusive settings (pp. 299-326). Stamford, CT: JAI Press.
• Deisinger, J. A., Cassisi, J. E., & Whitaker, S. L. (1996). Relationships between coping style and PAI profiles in a community sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 52(3), 303-310.
• Levitt, R., Deisinger, J. A., Wall, J. R., Ford, L., & Cassisi, J. E. (1995). EMG feedback-assisted postoperative rehabilitation of minor arthroscopic knee surgeries. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 35, 218-223.
• Deisinger, J. A. (1995). Exploring the factor structure of the Personality Assessment Inventory. Assessment, 2(2), 173-179.

May 1, 2009

Several items located (by Courtney)

Roadblocks to Scientific Thinking in Educational Decision Making Preview . By: Yates, Gregory C. R.. Australasian Journal of Special Education, v32 n1 p125-137 Apr 2008. (EJ811167)Add to folder

Establishing a Practice-Based Research Network: Lessons from the Massachusetts ExperiencePreview . By: Pulcini, Joyce; Sheetz, Anne; DeSisto, Marie. Journal of School Health, v78 n3 p172-174 Mar 2008. (EJ811994)

Comments on Slavin": Synthesizing Evidence from Impact Evaluations in Education to Inform ActionPreview . By: Chatterji, Madhabi. Educational Researcher, v37 n1 p23-26 2008. (EJ785820)

History of Evidence-Based Practices: An Interview with Jose SzapocznikPreview . By: Distelberg, Brian J.. Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, v16 n2 p173-179 2008. (EJ788669)Add to folder

Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education: Some Practical ConsiderationsPreview . By: Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Cook, Lysandra. Intervention in School and Clinic, v44 n2 p69-75 2008. (EJ814262)

Evidence-Based Special Education and Professional Wisdom: Putting It All TogetherPreview . By: Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna. Intervention in School and Clinic, v44 n2 p105-111 2008. (EJ814263)

Towards an Understanding of Evidence-Based PracticePreview . By: Digennaro Reed, Florence D.; Reed, Derek D.. Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention, v5 n2 p20-29 2008. (EJ829087)

First two located (by Courtney)

"The Time Has Come," the Walrus Said, "To Speak of Many Things!"Preview . By: Larson, Nancy Weidner. Learning Disability Quarterly, v28 n4 p247 Fall 2005. (EJ725676)

Research-Based Interventions and Practices in Special Education: A Parent's Guide for Understanding. Information and Questions to Ask at IEP Team MeetingsPreview . By: Copenhaver, John; Rudio, Jack. Mountain Plains Regional Resource Center (MPRRC). 2005 6 pp. (ED498501)Add to folder

First two located (by Courtney)

Does What Works Clearinghouse Work? A Brief Review of Fast ForWord[R]Preview . By: McArthur, Genevieve. Australasian Journal of Special Education, v32 n1 p101-107 Apr 2008. (EJ811163)Add to folder Search University of South Carolina Library Catalog

Operational Results of an Adaptive SDI System.Preview . By: Sage, C. R.; Fitzwater, D. R.. 1968 18 pp. (ED034554)Add to folder

Deisinger work per ERIC search

No listings located.

Mehring work per Google Scholar search

Google Scholar search:
Her dissertation:
A Bayesian Approach to the Use of Test Data for the Identification of Learning Disabled Elementary school-age children in a rural setting
TA Mehring - 1980 - University of Kansas, Special Education

Book: The Interaction of Selected Aptitude and Cognitive Style Measures with a Learning Strategies Intervention Used to Teach Self-questioning to Junior High School Learning Disabled Adolescents Mehring

Co-wrote book with Obiakor:
DISRUPTION, DISASTER, AND DEATH:Helping Students Deal with Crisis(Foster E. Obiakor, Teresa A. Mehring, and John O. Schwenn, 1997)

Mehring work per U of M library search

U of M library search:

She wrote a book chapter entitled Authentic assessment
Assessment and psychopathology issues in special education
Contributor: Rotatori, Anthony F. ; Schwenn, John O. ; Burkhardt, Sandra A. ;
Subjects: Psychodiagnostics ; Special education -- United States ;
Publisher: Greenwich, Conn. : JAI Press

Mehring work per ERIC search

ERIC search weblink:

Items found on ERIC search:
Strategies To Enhance Memory Based on Brain-Research. (EJ601390)
Banikowski, Alison K.; Mehring, Teresa A.
Focus on Exceptional Children, v32 n2 p1-16 Oct 1999
This article reviews the literature on three aspects of memory: (1) an information processing model of memory (including the sensory register, attention, short-term memory, and long-term memory); (2) instructional strategies designed to enhance memory (which stress gaining students' attention and active involvement); and (3) reasons why individuals forget.

Teacher Supply and Demand in Kansas Public Schools. Twentieth Annual Survey. (ED430911)
Tompkins, Loren; Mehring, Teresa A.; Hedstrom, Cora Z.; Switzer, Maggie
This annual report investigates Kansas' current teacher job market. Data came from surveys of superintendents from all 304 unified school districts, special education directors, directors of teacher education programs, and college placement directors. The nine sections are (1) Historical Perspective, (2) Sources of Data, (3) Relevance of Each Data Source to the Interpretation of Teacher Supply and Demand, (4) Reporting Data, (5) Teacher Supply and Demand, (6) Administrator Supply and Demand, (7) Perceptions of Special Education Teacher Supply and Demand, (8) The Effect of District Size on the Availability of Teaching Applicants, and (9) Summary and Recommendations. There is a surplus of qualified job seekers in elementary and physical education. The supply of applicants for social studies, educable mentally handicapped, reading, and assistant principal positions is adequate. A serious shortage remains across most of Kansas for music teachers and counselors. There is a serious shortage of teachers for the hearing impaired, physically impaired, gifted, and behavioral disordered and a serious shortage of physical therapists. All other fields in both regular and special education share a slight shortage statewide. A very serious shortage of substitute teachers exists in all areas of Kansas. Shortages are not consistent throughout Kansas. Generally, smaller rural districts are at a disadvantage when trying to attract applicants. A set of 50 tables comprises the bulk of this booklet.

Client Privacy and the School Counselor: Privilege, Ethics, and Employer Policies. (EJ460871)
Tompkins, Loren; Mehring, Teresa
School Counselor, v40 n5 p335-42 May 1993
Notes that number of school counselors are confused about issues of confidentiality. Discusses issues of privileged communication, confidentiality, and employer policies. Concludes with section on law, ethics, employer policy, and the counselor. Provides six recommendations for school counselors to use in their day-to-day practice to avoid conflict arising from moral, legal, or ethical transgressions.

Report Cards: What Do They Mean during the Elementary School Years. (EJ448360)
Mehring, Teresa; And Others
Reading Improvement, v28 n3 p162-68 Fall 1991
Examines the consistency of grade assignment by elementary personnel, finding wide variations. Shows greater consistency in assigning grades after training.

Motivation and Mildly Handicapped Learners. (EJ407021)
Mehring, Teresa A.; Colson, Steven E.
Focus on Exceptional Children, v22 n5 p1-14 Jan 1990
This paper discusses theories and techniques of motivation in the context of special education. Cognitive, need/drive and instinct theories are discussed, as are contributing factors such as self-concept and anxiety. Classroom techniques such as peer tutoring and intrinsic vs. extrinsic reinforcement are considered in terms of these theories.

Competency Testing and the International Student: A Common Sense Approach to Detecting Cultural Bias in Testing Instruments. (EJ396215)
Tompkins, Loren D.; Mehring, Teresa
Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, v17 n2 p72-78 Apr 1989
Conducted descriptive comparison of United States and international students to examine whether or not bias exists when norm-based proficiency tests are applied across national cultures. Examined competency test scores, grade point averages, and freshmen English and mathematics grades of American and international students. Results suggest that competency test examined unreasonably discriminated against non-native speakers, indicating bias.

Those Standardized Competency Examinations: What Do They Really Tell Us about Our Student Bodies? ASHE 1986 Annual Meeting Paper. (ED268872)
Tompkins, Loren D.; Mehring, Teresa
Scholastic and personal characteristics of students undertaking exit competency examinations are investigated. Research questions concerned: what the tests measure, whether the tests provide unique information or are duplicating other easily obtained measures, whether it is possible to increase the probability of student success by controlling early higher educational experiences, and whether a workable definition of competency can be inferred. Analysis was undertaken for 1,195 Kansas public university undergraduates who took the Pre-Professional Skills Tests in Math and English and the Nelson-Denny Reading Achievement Test. Information from transcripts was obtained on American College Testing Program scores, general education enrollment patterns, student classification, grade point average, and major. Based on multiple regression analysis, it was found that competency as defined by tests is a pure function of scholastic ability only at the extremes of the distribution, with personal factors manifesting increased importance in the definition of competency for the majority of the students involved. Included are suggested actions that can be taken by faculty, student service providers, and administrators in dealing with public demands for quality assurance.