It's hard, if not impossible, to imagine where the field of psychology would be today without research. Chapter 2 explores and explains different research methods and the various components to an experiment. The author brings to light that from research we have found, "the same psychological processes that serve us well in most situations also predispose us to errors in thinking." That may take you a little further reading to wrap your head around. This is where heuristics come into play. In an effort to make sense of the world we like to make mental shortcuts that help streamline our thinking. I found this to be a very interesting concept and I have made errors in judgment due to heuristics.
Research evidence invalidated many superstitions. Such as, humans act strangely during full moons, arthritis acting up in rainy weather, and rituals to better our performance. Superstations are also known as illusory correlations.
The author also pointed out a few common vocabulary mistakes people often make. Just because a measure is reliable doesn't mean it is valid. Prior to reading this chapter, reliable and valid were almost synonyms to me. With a little humor the author creates an example to differentiate the meaning between the two. He comes up with the Distance Index-Middle Width Intelligence Test (DIMWIT). It would be a reliable measure of intelligence because the widths of our fingers are unlikely to change. But because the widths of our fingers have nothing to do with intelligence it is not a valid method. Through research, psychologists have been able to set a strong foundation for exploring and furthering the science of psychology.