Annotated Bibliography

Ludloff, R. "Industrial Development in 16th-17th Century Germany." Past & Present 12.Nov. (1957): 58-75. JSTOR. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. .


This article focuses mainly on the industry of glass- making, but it also serves as a window into understanding what 17th century Germany was like. In the introduction Ludloff talks about how previous historians draw a through line between the 16th to 18th century as a continuous and rapid economic boom and expansion towards a capitalist system. He calls this view into question. He states that there is a clear period of decline of economic growth in the 17th century. Germany post-Thirty years war was in shambles.

A lot of the factories and industry was destroyed from the war. One of the large effects the war had on industry was it prevented trading across the country. Merchants were prevented from fetching large quantities of good from factories. Some peddlers made fortunes in takes small quantities of goods and smuggling them around the country. Since there was such scarcity the peddlers were able to mark up their products.

Another problem the war caused was a steady devaluation of money. This prevented rapid industrial expansion because investors were terrified that no one would have any capital to buy their products. The way some rich investors attempted to counter-act the devaluation of their money is they started buying up large plots of land while their money still had some value. This set the hierarchy in post-thirty year war Germany much more similar to the feudal classes of the past and less like the capitalist industry driven society of the 18th century. This might explain Gryphius's fascination with the past. The society he was born into and wrote in was had many parallels to the past. (most useful sections are the introduction and then pp. 68-72)

"Thirty Years' War." Wikipedia. Wikipedia Foundation Inc., 15 Nov. 2012. Web. 18
Nov. 2012.

This source can kind of be a black hole. There is so much information, names, and dates that are very irrelevant to our topic of study. The important information that one needs to glean from this article is the Thirty Years war was fought between most of the countries of Europe in the 1th century (to name specific dates 1618-1648). What exactly the war was found over is also a quagmire, but the basic facts of the war were it was mainly a religiously rooted battle between two factions of Christianity (Protestants and Catholics respectively). Germany was at the heart of this conflict and there for suffered some of the most economic, casualties, and physical damage of the countries of Europe. This is important for us to understand because it tells us who Gryphius was. He was born and raised during the Thirty Years' War and he started his career as a playwright and poet two years after the war had ended. (See who's who annotation for more specifics on Gryphius's direct ties to the Thirty Year's War). The thirty Years' War is considered one of Europe's largest and most costly wars in history. As discussed in the annotation about the glass making industry it set back progress towards capitalism and industrialization for the latter half of the 17th century. This article does a really good job of painting picture of that aftermath Gryphius was writing in. It also helps to explain why so much of Gryphius's writing is religiously based. He lived in a hyper polarized environment between Catholics and Protestants. Even though the war ended the culture war between the two factions of Christianity continued and Gryphius being a proud Protestant used his art to insert himself into the center of the culture war.

"Andreas Gryphius." Who's Who. The People Lexicon, n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2012.
.

This article provides a lot of good biographical information on who Andreas Gryphius was and his importance in the Baroque time period. It is also historiographically interesting because this information is coming from a German website that is an encyclopedia/ People's lexicon of important persons of Germany. A German writer might be held to higher prominence or esteem in a German encyclopedia. This articles touches on how the Thirty Years' War affect Gryphius personally. He was in and out of school for most of his adolescent life because of the war. He was also raised Protestant and born of a Deacon of the Lutheran church. Since religion was at the center of the conflict of the Thirty Years' War he had a lot of personal stakes in the outcome. His father also fought and died in the war potentially radicalizing his faith even further. A large portion of Gryphius's work is religiously based which one could conclude was due to the culture war being fought between Protestants and Catholics during and after the war was over. There are also themes of martyrdom throughout some of Gryphius's work (most noteablely in a series of his poetry). There might be links to his father's death in the war to these poems. It is also of note that the majority of Gryphius plays are very pro monarchy and social order. Which makes sense since at the time the Protestants ruled Germany and used their power to oppress the Catholics in the North. NOTE: This article is entirely in German so you will need to translate it if you want to read the content. If you read it on Google chrome you will have the option of Google translating the entire page for you. This is very convenient but also causes some historiographical problems as to what is loss in translation and is the translation any good.

Schindler, Marvin S. "The Sonnets of Andreas Gryphius: Use of the Poetic Word in the Seventeenth Century." Gainesville: Univ. of Florida, 1971. Print.

This source is a book of Sonnets by Gryphius. They are translated and dissected. His sonnets are all very dark and reflect the troubled past and present of Gryphius. Critics and scholars have said that, like a lot of Gryphius' plays, his sonnets are very unoriginal. They are also said to be very impersonal that his personality gets lost in the words. He wrote a lot about things coming to an end and the inevitability of death. These sonnets will be helpful in getting into his mind and figuring out what was happening with him as a person. Also, there is a lot of discussion about the revision of one line in "Es ist alles eitell" Their is a big debate on the reasoning behind him revising this line. Most scholars say that he changed the line in order to "simply bow to convention". The man who did most of the analysis of Gryphius' sonnets is Victor Manheimer. The book says that we owe most of our knowledge about these sonnets because of him. This source is very important in the effort to dive more into the time period and why Gryphius stands apart from the other writers who wrote during his time.

Stackhouse, Janifer Gerl. "Leo Armenius Oder F├╝rstenmord." The Constructive Art of Gryphius' Historical Tragedies. Bern: Lang, 1986. 9-46. Print.
Since our group cannot get a hold of Andreas Gryphius' plays translated into the english language, the next best thing we could find is this book. What Stackhouse does in this essay-format book is compare an ancient historians recordings of an actual event and compares it with the dramatic action a Gryphius play. There are four plays discussed in this book but we focussed on his first historical tragedy called Leo Armenius: a play Gryphius saw performed in Rome in 1646 by the playwright Joseph Simon.
Stackhouse begins the chapter on Leo Armenius with "Gryphius assumed that the credibility of his drama's message rested upon the spectator's or reader's recognition of the play's historical accuracy."(12) She continues building upon the historic accuracy of Gryphius by including the Byzantine historian, Cedrenus', a translated report of the death of the ruler. Already, there are some historiographical problems here: a translated report of a historian with the possibility of major facts being left out. Cedrenus' report recounts the appointing of Leo Armenius as emperor, appointing a fellow general, Michael Balbus, as an imperial guard, fear of Balbus overthrowing Armenius, prophetic dreams symbolizing Leo's murder, and the actual act of regicide: the murder of a monarch.
Stackhouse continues to support the factuality that Gryphius loved by breaking down the dramatic action of the play vs. the historical context of Cedrenus' recount. She breaks these down into two columns to demonstrate that when Gryphius embellished the facts he did it to speak out against regicide. Stackhouse makes it clear that Michael Balbus has become an evil character in the play, but in real life he was most likely supported by the people because Leo was an evil man. Stackhouse points out that one of Gryphius' poetic additions was "Leo's Prunkrede defending Absolute Monarchy."(19) (Prunkrede are two basic types of monologues. Either expository speeches to explain historical detail or a speech set forth a philosophical idea to 'proclaim a general truth'(35))
The chapter continues and discusses the chorus used in between every act of the 5 act play, and further continues to discuss themes such as the burden of power, good vs. evil, monarchy, and visionary figures.
Although this book is extremely insightful, it does not replace having the actual play. Inserted throughout this essay is a plethora of biased information such as Stackhouse's view on the symbolism of fire. I have no base text to compare this with.

Spahr, Blake Lee. Andreas Gryphius: A Modern Perspective. Columbia, SC: Camden House, 1993. Print.

This book has been very useful in researching multiple aspects of Gryphius, such as his life AND his works. For the purpose of this research narrowing the focus down to certain sections in the book is helpful. In this book I focused on the sections about Gryphius' comedies as well as the section on his life. When reading about his life, the book gives a detailed description of Gryphius' Protestant belief system as well as the struggle that he also had with being a humanist. These struggles, as apparent in some of his writing, along with other writing techniques that Gryphius used lead him to be thought as one of the greatest writers of the time and is often compared to the works of Shakespeare, with the exception that Gryphius was seen as more of a poet than a playwright as his plays were often shaky in plot. This book also allowed for the narrowing down of the comedic plays to just simply one of the plays, Horribilicribifax. We are shown that, like many of his other works, Gryphius took works by other playwrights and changed them to fit his beliefs. This is shown in Horribilicribifax in which Gryphius took Miles Gloriusus by Plautus and aspects of Commedia Dell'Arte and made it into his own German play focusing on a braggart soldier, similar to the Commedia stock character and Plautus' soldier character. This focus on a braggart soldier was relevant to the time and place that Gryphius was living in as the Thirty Years War had just ended and there were many a soldier out on the streets as beggars.


Gryphius, Andreas, and Hugh Powell. Carolus Stuardus. Leicester: University College, 1955. Print.

This book begins by giving the reader enough contextual knowledge of Gryphius, his prose and the cultural and political setting in Germany (and to a larger extent Europe) during the Baroque period. I found the chapter entitled 'The Cultural Background' very helpful in understanding German theater during the 17th century. Hugh writes "The tide of the Renaissance had passed [Germany] by, so that when Gryphius started to write his tragedies, there was no national tradition on which he could build." I found this interesting because so much of what we have covered in class has had a clearly defined history, or source, that we can point at and identify as where our item of study came from. Hugh goes on to dissect much of Gryphius' work, writing a chapter on Gryphius' life before delving into the form, dramatic technique, characters etc. of his work. The book is concluded with a copy of Carolus Stuardus in German.
One weak point in this text is Hugh's obvious assumption that the reader speaks (or reads, rather) German. He references Gryphius' texts and other authors and works of the time, as well as explaining word plays and other linguistic uses, in German with no explanation for anyone who doesn't understand the language. Some of it is understandable contextually, however most of Hugh's references in German do not make sense without an understanding of the German language.

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Even though you group has comments on the difficulty of accessing Gryphius's plays (because of the German language barrier), these sources provides many lines of sight into his dramatic works. They are all very compelling, and I think your summaries are well crafted.

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