We began with the ideas of idealism, the Treaty of Westphalia formed the modern state system, thereby creating an interation between tem, a need for communication, mostly through war and then alliances.
The romantic era was a period where nationalism emerged, it defines the state in terms of national interests "nationalism". Kings weren't fighting each other anymore, now it was nation against nation. WWI showed that cerain things needed to change in the state system for humanity as a whole. You can learn things from war from their devastation. The British enlightenment period came up with the word "humanity". In addition to nationalism in the romantic era, people were thought to have a taranscending identity with humanity as a whole. The nation state is cyclical while humanity is progressive. Which leads to teleologic v teleonomic interpretations of history. Teleology (tele=goal) refers to the idea that progress is inevitable, this is the strong version of progress. Teleonomy on the other hand means that progress may not be inevitable but that it may happen. This is why people go to school so that they can hope to make progress happen, the idea that we can learn from mistakes and create better condtions.