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We developed on the realist school of thought and focused more on the individual theories of Machiavelli, Morgenthau, and Carr. There was an example given that included three stratas or stages that realists consider: the first is the FACTS layer, (Morgenthau's basic principles), they may be factual or introduced for purposes of education. The masses are concerned with this layer, this is what the few at the top want everyone to believe. Plato coined the term a "nobel lie". The second strata is the criticism of the "facts", they may not be applicable or factual, this is the critical approach. At the top are the rulers, it is the morality and ethics of the state; which is a balance-of-power, or in other words a moderation of power. Rulers are sovereign through the state and they decide exceptions to the rule. People at the top know what's going on and the masses obey the facts- the link between the two is ideally loyal.

Practical reason (phronesis), is not scientiic knowledge. Phronesis is a syntheiss between experience and knowledge. It is constatnly evolving or transforming, and it comes from intuition. This is why every generation is doomed to reapeat history; you can pass on knowledge but not wisdom (Plato).

Hans Morgenthau and Carl Schmitt, two realists, generally thought that the masses are inherently evil. You need to tame people with persuasian, then force, and then violence. Although you can make people obey outright their hearts won't necessarily "obey" or believe the logic people are telling them. Schmitt defines sovereignty as the power to do exceptions, he was also a man that Morgenthau believed was one of the most dangerous he had ever met.