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September 30, 2008

Cardiac Cycle

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What happens during the ventricular diastole step of the cardiac cycle?

Name the WBC.

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What type of white blood cell is found in the image?

September 29, 2008

A Challenging Question

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Find the neutrophil in the image. What is the name of the broken cellular material surrounding the neutrophil?

September 28, 2008

What do you see in this image?

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Besides the RBCs, what type(s) of white blood cells are found in this image?
a. neutrophil(s)
b. lymphocyte(s)
c. monocyte(s)
d. eosinophi(s)
e. basophil(s)

September 27, 2008

Sickle Cell Anemia

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Why are these red blood cells shaped so differently from normal RBCs? What causes sickle cell anemia?

September 26, 2008

Which is which?

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Identify the leukocyte, thrombocyte, and the erythrocyte: describe them from left to right, please.

September 25, 2008

What are the major functions of a white blood cell?

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[Note: This is an image of a white blood cell taken with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).]

September 24, 2008

How big is his heart?

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How big is the Senator's heart (if it is an average-sized human heart)? How much does it weigh? Is it bigger or smaller than your right hand? Is it bigger or smaller than your left foot?

What is Your Reaction to the First 1135 Test?

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September 22, 2008

Countdown to Test

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You have about 47 hours until the first 1135 test on Wednesday. Do you have any advice for your classmates about how to best prepare for the test? Please share your ideas!

September 19, 2008

Action Potential Video on YouTube

There are a couple of videos on YouTube that may help you understand the process of muscle contraction and relaxation.

#1: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=70DyJwwFnkU&feature=related

#2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gJ309LfHQ3M

Let me know what you think of the videos!

September 18, 2008

How does oxygen debt happen?

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Is oxygen debt a good or a bad thing?

How prepared are you for the 1135 test?

A. Well prepared
B. Sort of prepared
C. A little prepared
D. Not very prepared
E. Don't ask! I still have over 140 hours to study!

September 17, 2008

Epimysium

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What is the function of epimysium?

Plastics Containing BPA

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Do you think the government should more carefully regulate the types of plastics used in food packaging? Why or why not?

Chemical Found in Plastic Linked to Health Problems

Study Links Chemical BPA to Health Problems

By Lyndsey Layton
Washington Post Staff Writer
Wednesday, September 17, 2008; Page A03

The first large study in humans of a chemical widely used in everyday plastics has found that people with higher levels of bisphenol A had higher rates of heart disease, diabetes and liver abnormalities, a finding that immediately became the focus of the increasingly heated debate over the safety of the chemical.

The research, published yesterday in the _Journal of the American Medical Association_ by a team of British and American scientists, compared the health status of 1,455 men and women with the levels of the chemical, known as BPA, in their urine.

The researchers divided the subjects into four statistical groupings according to their BPA levels and found that those in the quartile with the highest concentrations were nearly three times as likely to have cardiovascular disease than those with the lowest levels, and 2.4 times as likely to have diabetes. Higher BPA levels were also associated with abnormal concentrations of three liver enzymes.

Although the researchers described them as preliminary, the findings were the buzz of a public hearing the Food and Drug Administration held yesterday to discuss whether BPA is safe for continued use in food packaging and liquid containers.

"This is the nail in the coffin," Frederick vom Saal, a reproductive scientist at the University of Missouri at Columbia and one of the first to document evidence of health problems in rodents exposed to low doses of BPA, said outside the FDA meeting in Rockville. "This is a huge deal."

QUESTION: After reading this article, do you think you need to be more careful about the types of plastics you use? Or do you think more research needs to be done first before people need to be careful?


On Capitol Hill, Sen. Charles E. Grassley (R-Iowa) cited the study as he opened an investigation of the way the FDA has regulated the chemical, joining several Democrats, led by Rep. John D. Dingell (Mich.), who have been looking into whether chemical manufacturers unduly influenced the agency's stance.

One of the authors of the new study, David Melzer of the Peninsula Medical School in Exeter, England, briefed the FDA gathering about the research.

He said that the study did not prove that BPA causes health problems and that additional studies are needed. "This needs to be replicated as soon as possible, and we need to understand the mechanism," he said.

Data on the health status of the study subjects, who ranged in age from 18 to 74, came from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The BPA levels in the study were below those the government deemed safe.

Trade groups representing the chemical industry and metal can producers dismissed the results.

"Due to inherent limitations in study design, this new study cannot support a conclusion that bisphenol A causes any disease," Steven G. Hentges of the American Chemistry Council said in a statement. "The weight of scientific evidence continues to support the conclusion of governments worldwide that bisphenol A is not a significant health concern at the trace levels present in some consumer products."

The FDA regulates the compound's use in plastic food containers, bottles, tableware and the plastic linings of food cans. In light of the controversy surrounding the chemical, the agency is reviewing its policy. It issued a draft statement last month that repeated its position that BPA is safe for food and beverage packaging, but it also tapped six outside scientists to review the scientific literature and make a recommendation to agency officials, who are expected to make a final decision on BPA next month. Yesterday's hearing before the six scientific advisers was the public's chance to offer testimony.

Laura Tarantino, director of the FDA's Office of Food Additive Safety, said her agency has no reason to think that BPA in food packaging and liquid containers is unsafe. "We have confidence in the data we've looked at to say that the margin of safety is adequate," she said, adding that consumers can take steps to reduce their exposure to the chemical.

More than 100 studies have linked BPA exposure to health effects in animals. The FDA maintains that BPA is safe largely on the basis of two studies funded by the chemical industry, a fact that was repeatedly cited at yesterday's forum.

"We're concerned that the FDA is basing its conclusion on two studies while downplaying the results of hundreds of other studies," said Amber Wise of the Union of Concerned Scientists. "This appears to be a case of cherry-picking data with potentially high cost to human health."

The FDA's position on BPA runs counter to a report by another federal agency, the National Toxicology Program, which found "some concern" that BPA may cause developmental problems in the brains and hormonal systems of children.

SOURCE:http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/16/AR2008091601037.html

Striated Muscle

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What is another name for striated muscle?

What's the difference?

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What is the difference between muscle fiber, fibril, and fascicle?

Quiz on Medical Terminology on Thursday (tomorrow)!

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September 16, 2008

Tissue Question

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Identify the tissue in the image.

A. connective tissue
B. squamous epithelium
C. stratified cuboidal epithelium
D. goblet cell
E. pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium

Class Cancellation: Tuesday, September 16th

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I canceled class today because I had an asthma attack on my way to school. Typically, if I have to cancel our class, you will get an email message from me AND there will be a posting on the blog.

The med term quiz is postponed until Thursday, September 18th.

Please contact me if you have questions!

September 15, 2008

What does the Golgi apparatus do to lipids and proteins?

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[Remember that the Golgi Apparatus [GA] is one of many organelles found in cells.]

September 14, 2008

Which nucleic acid is this?

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The image above is
A. DNA
B. RNA
C. tRNA
D. tDNA

September 11, 2008

Osteosarcoma

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This image is similar to the x-ray of my cousin's femur taken on Monday. He had surgery on Wednesday to remove the femur and had a rod placed in his leg instead. It was a long surgery--about eight and a half hours, but he is doing well. Instead of harvesting bone cells from his other femur, the doctor used bone from a cadaver to fuse the rod to bone.

Is it ethical to use tissue from cadavers for surgeries such as this?

September 10, 2008

Extracellular Fluid

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What kinds of things are found in ECF?

Minnesota Smoking Rates Reach New Low

smoking.jpg (Source: WCCO.com)

Sep 10, 2008 6:48 am US/Central
Minn. Smoking Rate Reaches New Low
ST. PAUL (AP) ― More Minnesota smokers are kicking the habit, crumpling their cigarette packs at a faster rate than their peers around the country.

A statewide telephone survey released on Wednesday put the state's adult smoking rate at a new low of 17 percent, compared with about 20 percent nationally. Smoking has fallen steadily in Minnesota since the late 1990s, with 164,000 fewer adults smoking last year than in 1999.

The latest Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey was done before a statewide ban drove smokers out of bars, restaurants and other workplaces last October. But other policies -- including local smoking bans that covered almost two of every five state residents at the time of the survey and a 75-cent-per-pack cigarette fee imposed in 2005 -- contributed to the declining rate of smoking, the report's authors said.

Question: In your opinion, why do young adults in Minnesota tend to be the heaviest smokers?


"It's disappearing from our public spaces and becoming less ingrained in our culture," said Dr. Barbara Schillo, research director at ClearWay Minnesota, an anti-smoking group funded by the state's settlement with the tobacco industry. Formerly known as the Minnesota Partnership for Action Against Tobacco, the group was criticized earlier this decade for its aggressive support of smoking bans.

ClearWay Minnesota, Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Minnesota and the state Health Department commissioned the poll of 12,000 adults, which had a margin of sampling error of 1.4 percent and higher margins for subgroups. It was the third such survey since 1999.

Fewer smokers could have fallout on the state budget as the take from tobacco taxes declines. But those taxes make up a small part of a much larger budget, and lawmakers have considered raising tobacco taxes to pay for health care proposals.

Other findings:

-- Smokers are most likely to be younger, blue-collar men. Anti-smoking advocates aim to create public service messages that will hit home with lower-income smokers and young adults who don't go to college.

-- Young adults are the biggest smokers among the age groups. But their rate of smoking is on the downswing -- from nearly 37 percent in 2003 to slightly more than 28 percent last year.

-- A majority of smokers want to quit, with nearly three in five trying to stop in the past year. More than two in five smokers said higher cigarette prices prompted them to think about quitting. More price increases could be on the table if advocates have their way.

-- More than four of every five Minnesotans don't allow smokers to light up in their homes -- including half of all smokers.

September 6, 2008

The Body Planes

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Identify the planes you see in the image. (HINT: Which plane is cutting across the body so that it is cut into two parts (inferior and superior)?))

What is the pH of this substance???

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Question from Murray...

Your "teeth" are compoents of what two bones?

Level of Organization for this Material?

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a. atom
b. cell
c. molecule
d. macromolecule
e. tissue
f. organ

September 5, 2008

YouTube Video on Directional Terminology

Use this link to review directional terminology in Mr.Ford's video.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hg1bJGJR5WY

(Note: I have no clue who Mr. Ford is.)

Which of the following is true about this image?

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a. The mandible is superior to the maxilla.
b. The zygomatic is inferior to the mandible.
c. The zygomatic is superior to the parietal.
d. The nasal bone is intermediate to the frontal bone.
e. The parietal bone is anterior to the frontal bone.

September 4, 2008

Classroom Change: From Now On We Meet in 11 Appleby Hall

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Working with Medical Terminology #1

What is a hepatocyte? (Clue: look at page 4 of the Chapter 1 Studyguide from 1135 for help.)

September 3, 2008

What's this????

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a. tissue
b. cell
c. organism
d. atom

Another Question about Levels of Organization

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What is this?
a. cell
b. atom
c. organ
d. tissue
e. organ system

What is this?

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The image is of a
a. molecule
b. cell
c. tissue
d. organ
e. organ system
f. organism

List one molecule that appears in this image.

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(This is a photo sent to me by a friend who lives on the Gulf Coast of Mississippi. She took the photo on Monday night during Hurricane Gustav.)

Identify the bone.

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Which bone is located at number 19?

September 2, 2008

Which cavity is this?

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(HINT: Look at the different cavities in chapter 1 of the textbook.)