1. “There have been at least five species of humans, all of them evolving in Africa and four of them migrating out in successive waves to Europe and Africa. The human evolutionary tree is a bush rooted in Africa.”
2. “Our species evolved in Africa recently, and spread from there to the rest of the world, eventually replacing earlier human species in Europe and Asia.”
3. “Neanderthals were a separate dead-end species of human rather than our direct ancestors.”
The writer supports the first argument by giving the history of the human race, as seen by many anthropologists. The writer supports the second argument by giving the history of the human race from a different view, and then describes a study and the results of the study done to discover which version of the history is correct. The third argument is supported by the writer explaining that neanderthals DNA and homo sapiens DNA are different.
For one example of pathos, the writer could have explained how we evolved, and how we are connected to the species coming out of Africa. Another example could be a story about a scientist discovering the connection between all the different species and their origins in Africa