Chapter 8 really sums up language and the ways in which it is formed. The book brings up the terms phonemes, morphemes, syntax, and extralinguistic information. These are the levels that make up language. Without coordinating these levels, we would be left with a jumbled mess of words and letters, and we would not be able to communicate effectively. Language is very complex and takes a lot of time and brain power to learn. We, as unborn babies, can begin learning language by the fifth month of pregnancy by hearing our mothers' voice, but we are continually learning our language throughout our lives. Trying to teach human language to animals has been attempted, but very unsuccessful. Thought and reasoning are also a part of this chapter. We see a link between language and the way we think. For example, "two researchers examined the memories of Russians who moved to the United States and achieved fluency in Russian and English. These participants recalled events that happened in Russia more accurately when speaking Russian, and recalled events that happened in the United States more accurately when speaking English even though they recalled both events while in the United States (Marian & Neisser, 2000)." When discussing the formation of words, I found it interesting that related words sometimes have similar consonant clusters. An example of this would be the sn sound is associated with nose-related activities: sneeze, sniff, snore, snooze, snicker, snoop, and snot. Human cognitive processing is flexible and creative. It allows us to use our experiences, our thoughts, and our imagination to quickly and efficiently solve problems.