# August 2013 Archives

## Friday August 30th

The end of another week has snuck up on us. Kory left today which means Team Echinacea is down to just Ilse and myself. We'll be around until early to mid-October or until all the field work is done for the season. Can you believe we'll still have a couple heads flowering on Labor Day?!

Today we harvested for the second time in CG1. The three of us didn't expect many heads to be ready, especially since 3 days ago we harvested ~1% of the flowering heads this year (and like I just mentioned, there are still heads flowering!) but holy moly! There was a sharp increase in the heads harvested today. I would estimate we got roughly 110 heads, which would put us around 6% complete. Maybe "holy moly" was a bit dramatic, but it seemed like a lot more than earlier this week. Many of these heads were also in the qGen2 crossing experiment which is great since we'll want to get those heads drying and dissected as soon as possible in order to plant the achenes this fall (and before it snows).

We also continued surveying and entering demography information this week. Today Ilse, Kory, and I headed to the Landfill site where we flagged all the flowering plants and took information on how many heads they have and their GPS coordinates. We'll still need Stuart to look over that site to make sure we have found all the flowering plants (try as we might, we seem to always miss a couple) but it's been great to make some progress with the bigger sites.

This past week we also decided things might be a bit more interesting here in Douglas county if we renamed some of the remnants to be more exciting and/or secretive. Thus far we've come up with:
-- Treasure Islandfill (and therefore Around Treasure Islandfill, North West of Treasure Islandfill, etc)
-- King's crossing (formerly railroad crossing)
-- Loeffler's Hollow
-- Staffanson Prairie Plunder
-- Lost Liatris Hill

Let us know if you think of any others. Be creative! We'll want next year's Team Echinacea curious and intrigued by the possible mysteries at each of the remnants.

Andddd speaking of Liatris, Ilse and I found a beautiful white Liatris at Hegg Lake while we were harvesting Dayvis' E. pallida and E. angustifolia plants. Check it out!

Hopefully this week was the last of the heat wave! I'm ready for it to go back to being in the 70s. Have a good weekend!

Lydia

## Final Data

Hey Everyone! Here is my final conglomerated data (mine, Andrew's and Katie's). As well as my excel file with all the extra information. I will also be posting it in my dropbox as well.

Kory Kolis Final Data.csv

Poll_Efficiancy_Data Kory Kolis 2013.xlsx

## X-raying Echinacea seeds

What is a typical radiation dose experienced by an Echinacea seed when we x-ray Echinacea fruits to assess seed set?

We usually put the seeds on the bottom tray and the setting 10 s @ 18 kV. According to the documentation on dosage for our x-ray machine 18 kV outputs 292.6 R/h when the dosimeter probe is 57.2 cm away (that's the shelf with 1:1 magnification). The dose unit quote here R is Roetngen.

A little arithmetic can tell us total Roentgens for a ten second exposure:

$$10 s \frac{1 h}{60 min} \frac{1 min}{60 s} 292.6 \frac{R}{h}$$

In R code, that's

10 * 1/60 * 1/60 * 292.6

## [1] 0.8128


0.8128 R (Roentgen)

We may put the seeds on a higher shelf for more magnification, maybe 1:1.5 or the 1:2. We can enter dosages from each shelf from the documenation on exposure levels by shelf to estimate how much higher the dose is.

lvl <- c(1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5)
RPM <- c(7.815, 20.55, 42.55, 115.45, 232, 397)
data.frame(shelf = lvl, dose = RPM)

##   shelf    dose
## 1   1.0   7.815
## 2   1.5  20.550
## 3   2.0  42.550
## 4   3.0 115.450
## 5   4.0 232.000
## 6   5.0 397.000


The dose on the 2x magnification shelf is RPM[3]/RPM[1] = 5.4447 times greater than the dose on the 1:1 shelf. Doubling the magnification generally should increase the dose by a factor of 5.4. Let's check: the dose on the 4x shelf is RPM[5]/RPM[3] = 5.4524 times greater than the dose on the 2x shelf. Also, the dose on the 3x shelf is RPM[4]/RPM[2] = 5.618 times greater than the dose on the 1.5x shelf. Close.

The expected dose at the stadard settings is 0.82 R on the bottom shelf and 0.8128 * 5.5 = 4.4704, or about 4.5 R on the 2x shelf.

## Thursday, August 29th

Today was a very productive day! In the morning Ilse did phenology, and came back with great news! There are only seven heads left; flowering is almost done! Lydia worked on her aphid experiment and I worked on my poster. Around 10 am Ilse and I went to SPP and worked on the Demography project.

In the afternoon Lydia (one again) worked on her aphid project, and Ilse and I payed a visit to Hegg lake to do Demography on the recruitment sights. Overall a very productive day for Team Echinacea.

On a side note, this little blue gem just started flowering!

## Kelly's Data Modified

Kelly's data from 2012 modified for use in RStudio
master_datasheet_MODIFIED.csv

## At last, Dayvis returned to Chicago

After leaving June first to the Societyy of Wetland Scientists conference at Duluth, MN, I am definitely returning to the coolest city in this country "My sweet home Chicago" today. It has been a very interesting and special summer for me. I have had tons of good experiences. I certainly had the best experiences in the Star of the North (Minnesota). Specifically, with the Echinacea Project. Thanks guys of the Echinacea team 2013, Gretel, Stuart, and family.
On August 26th, Marie and me had the opportunity of sharing our respective research in the Field Museum of Chicago. We found a very receptive audience for the Echinacea project. I had good amount of very interesting questions. Overall, people liked the fact that several students have been working in research that complement each other. This is the case of Shona in 2012 with Marie and me in 2013.
Now, I am preparing to present this research again in my university symposium on September 20th and as a poster presentation at the SACNAS National conference at San Antonio TX next on October 4th.
Again, Thank you very much to everybody who is or has been part of this fascinating enterprise called the Echinacea project

## Friday August 23rd

We wrapped up the week with a productive Friday. In the morning Kory headed out to Hegg Lake, while Sarah assessed phenology in the common garden (I think we were down to 75 heads today). Ilse and I have been slowly repainting the heads in the qGen2 crossing experiment. Nothing is ready to be harvested from the experiment yet, but it's good to revisit the plants and stay ahead of any paint flaking off. Even without painting the entire head (a mistake I was making earlier this week) it's still a slow process. Here's one I finished today. I still may be going a little excessive with the paint...

Before lunch we all weeded the common garden for any leftover thistle and birdsfoot trefoil. We managed to pull quite a bit of thistle but didn't find any trefoil. A good sign? After a quick lunch we split up and went to the remnants Steven's approach and Riley to finish up the last three seedling searches. We all went our separate ways after that: Ilse continued to re-paint heads, Kory edited the last of his pollinator videos, and I finally finished my "re-checks" in the common garden (I seem to be the slow poke of the group). I also began taking pictures of leaves in the aphid addition/exclusion experiment to count trichomes and see if there are any differences between treatments. I'll keep everyone posted as that progresses.

Have a good weekend!

## 22 August 2013

Today was a busy day for the four of us. We started work at 8am searching for "can't finds" in the common garden. Kory and Ilse left after about an hour to GPS Landfill for seedling re-finds. Lydia and I followed soon after. We finished Landfill around 11 and then flagged flowering plants we came across. These will be mapped later on.
Gulls always seem to love hanging around Landfill and they can often be seen huge flocks around the site.

Kory and I went and flagged re-find points at East of Town Hall. Then we met Ilse and Lydia back at the Hjelm house for lunch.

The afternoon consisted of Kory and Ilse going to do seedling re-finds at Randt while Lydia and I did re-finds at East of Town Hall. We finally finished all the seedling re-finds!!!
We also continued our searches in the common garden.
Can you spot the plant I found at a "can't find" position?

That's all for today!

- Sarah B

## Sarah Baker 2013 Flowering Phenology Data Set

Flowering phenology data from summer 2013. This version contains data collected from 7 July, 2013 to 26 August, 2013. PhenDataMASTERcsv_28-Aug-2013.csv

## 21 August 2013

It's getting lonelier and lonelier at the Hjelm house these days. Today is was just Lydia, Sarah, Kory, and I. The morning consisted of phenology and seedling refinds at SPP. Then after lunch Lydia worked on her aphid addition/exclusion experiment and it seems that the aphids are disliking this heat wave almost as much as us, if not more, as she found an abundance of aphid skeletons this afternoon. I pollentated and repainted some heads while Kory and Sarah knocked off a few rows each of refinds in the cg1. Then the three of us hit up LC and found some seedlings. Here is a seedling from 09, as you probably could have surmised yourself.

The afternoon wrapped up with the most pressing of tasks...some unfinished business if you may. We began the process of finishing up some ice cream that has been in the freezer all summer. Hopefully it wont take too long to finish off the rest of the ice cream, but I'm sure we will manage somehow, working long hours if we must.

## 21 August 2013

It's getting lonelier and lonelier at the Hjelm house these days. Today is was just Lydia, Sarah, Kory, and I. The morning consisted of phenology and seedling refinds at SPP. Then after lunch Lydia worked on her aphid addition/exclusion experiment and it seems that the aphids are disliking this heat wave almost as much as us, if not more, as she found an abundance of aphid skeletons this afternoon. I pollentated and repainted some heads while Kory and Sarah knocked off a few rows each of refinds in the cg1. Then the three of us hit up LC and found some seedlings. Here is a seedling from 09, as you probably could have surmised yourself.

The afternoon wrapped up with the most pressing of tasks...some unfinished business if you may. We began the process of finishing up some ice cream that has been in the freezer all summer. Hopefully it wont take too long to finish off the rest of the ice cream, but I'm sure we will manage somehow, working long hours if we must.

## A Final Friday Many Days Late

Life outside of Kensington has seemed hectic to say the least. I arrived home in Chicago last Thursday, and the next day, Dayvis and I presented our research at the REU symposium at the Field Museum. Shown below is a photo of me in the iconic museum lobby after giving my poster presentation.

The symposium on Friday was a bittersweet culmination of all my work this past summer, and a large part of me wanted to return to the rolling cornfields of Minnesota. I wish Team Echinacea all the best as they begin the long process of wrapping up a summer of research.

Poster pdf:

Schaedel_Poster1.pdf

## Tuesday - 20th of August

hello everyone!

Its that time of year again, the time for school to begin. Today was a sad - Stuart, Gretel, Per, and Hattie are heading back to Chicago so they can get settled down before school begins. Today I also realized that this is my second to last week with Team Echinacea! WHERE HAS THIS SUMMER GONE!?!?!?!?

In other non-revelational new, Sarah and I mapped Hegg Lake for my experiment, and finished mapping all of her fragments. Ilse and Lydia started repainting all the QGen heads, so that no data is lost (Lydia went above and beyond the call of duty and painted every bract on all of her echinacea heads).

In the afternoon we stapled all the positions that have remained unfound by Team Echinacea members since 2010 (sad). As well as beginning the common garden re-finds.

For simple ascetics here is a picture of Bee's Balm from Hegg Lake.

Hope everyone has a nice week!
-Kory

## The last Friday.....for some of us

Although it is not yet noon, today has been busy for three team members. Mike, Pam and I have spent the day packing and backing up data as this afternoon we depart from Kensington, the Hjem house, and all the beautiful prairie remnants. It has been an enjoyable summer researching the Echinacea plants. The Li-Cor machine was especially helpful in our data collecting. We could not have done it without her. Sadly yesterday was Helga's last day up here. She is now resting in a deep sleep until she is needed again.

As we leave, only four members remain at the town hall.

## A Penultimate Day

Today marked the second to the last day of mine and Reina's stint in Kensington working with Echinacea. The past week we have been remeasuring photosynthesis with Helga our LI-COR 6400 and today we finally finished. Pam and Reina were the lucky ones who spent this last week outside working with Helga while I took wet weights of leaves and pressed them so we can obtain dry weights later. It has been a little strange this week remaining separated from the group, even at lunch time. Oh well, it was necessary so that we could finish!

Today the rest of the group spent the morning crossing and finishing measuring the common garden, an arduous task that required quite a few days. After their lunch, they continued to work on seedling refinds, a important but often frustrating task. It will be sad having to say goodbye to the whole group tomorrow, but school is about to start, and so perhaps it really is a great time to be heading home. That's it for today, and goodbye Team Echinacea!

## And Then There Were Six

Today was another busy, productive day. Dayvis left for Chicago this morning bringing our number down to six. However, everyone still got a lot done.

In the morning, Lydia and Ilse continued their cross pollination adventures while Mike, Reina, and Pam finished using Helga, counted trichomes, and weighed and pressed leaves. Kory, Stuart, and I went to South of Golf Course and East Elk Lake Road to do seedling re-finds and learn how to use the GPS.

We all met up again for lunch, as usual. The table felt really empty today!

The afternoon was spent measuring the common garden (we're close to being done). Stuart and I found a little fuzzy friend at row 23, position 912. It was super cute but we suspect it had been eating the E. angustifolia leaves.

Woolly Bear Caterpillar (Pyrrharctia isabella larval stage)

In other news, grasshoppers seem to like eating data sheets

That's all for today!

Sarah B

## Mini Ant Mystery- SOLVED!

Greetings from the Field Museum Chicago!

I have solved the mystery of the mini ants seen in Echinacea heads in the common garden. Below is a picture of the specimen. Those tic marks indicate mm and those small, yellow grains are pollen (Echinacea, I presume):

These ants have been identified as... drumroll please...

Photo courtesy of Alex Wild

Brachymyrmex depilis! Well, perhaps. This species is in need of a taxonomic revision as currently any yellow Brachymyrmex in North America are likely to be classified as depilis. This is one of the smallest ants in North America and usually subterranean.

## 13 August 2013

We continued with phenology, measuring cg1, seedling refinds and crossing today. The day ended with a wonderful dinner put on by Stuart and Gretel et al., and not one but TWO bonfires at the farm house complete with s'more fixings. On Dayvis's last night here he had his first s'more ever! Marie left in the evening and Dayvis will leave in the morning, our numbers are definitely dwindling but there is still plenty left to be done.

## 13 August 2013

We continued with phenology, measuring cg1, seedling refinds and crossing today. The day ended with a wonderful dinner put on by Stuart and Gretel et al., and not one but TWO bonfires at the farm house complete with s'more fixings. On Dayvis's last night here he had his first s'more ever! Marie left in the evening and Dayvis will leave in the morning, our numbers are definitely dwindling but there is still plenty left to be done.

## party

We had a great party on Tuesday night--Dayvis & Marie's last day. We enjoyed excellent food, played croquet, and ate s'mores around two bonfires. Very enjoyable. The garden is late this year--no tomatoes or cucumbers yet. I regret I didn't take any photos, but here's the menu...

corn on the cob
pesto pasta
black bean dip
corn chips
deviled eggs
kohlrabi slices
brownies
iced tea
s'mores makings

## Monday August 12th

Hey everyone,

We started off another week with a super productive Monday. In the morning the team split up between crossing and seedling re-finds. Ilse, Gretel, and I finished all the crossing in the morning which was especially exciting because we anticipated today being our busiest crossing day. Since many plants have finished flowering by now, we're mostly topping off those last few styles with pollen and then waiting for everything to shrivel. While a few plants have hit snafus (pollen X running out before plant Y is finished flowering), the going has been steadily smooth. The seedling re-find crew (Stuart, Marie, Dayvis, Kory, and Sarah B) managed to finish two sites this morning with only one visor. Extra impressive!

Although we're still sad to see the first of team Echinacea depart (Sara Z on Saturday), we welcomed the return of Mike, Reina, and Pam who spent the last week at ESA. The Gustavus trio spent most of the day measuring photosynthesis with "Helga" and collecting leaves.

This afternoon we all began measuring the Big Batch section of CG1. Although a daunting amount of plants, we managed to make a serious dent and will hopefully get through all of it by the end of the week.

I'll sign off with a grasshopper photo I took during phenology. Have a good week!

## Sunday August 11th

Hey everyone!

Sunday was a very relaxing day. In the morning most of the team worked on phonology, which is winding down.

My parents came up on saturday to visit. I took them out to see some of the larger prairie fragments such as Hegg Lake. On sunday we had a brunch at Traveler's Inn, and went for a walk in the Runestone Park.

Here is a E. angustifolia that is almost done flowering.

## 10 August 2013

A low key day here in Kensington, not much Echinacea Project work going on today. We bid our sad farewells (those of us who stuck around this weekend) to Sara Z as she left to head home and begin preparing for another year of teaching in Chicago. Today was filled with some cleaning, laundry and grocery shopping as per the usual; however, I did come across this curious sign today on my run, a historic site with arrows pointing in BOTH directions....

So curiosity struck and I decided to follow the arrow that pointed right, and I came across this little gem...

A monument erected in honor of the towns founders. To find out what is in the direction of the historic site sign's arrow you will have to go see for yourself.

## Sara Z's Project Data

Hello,

Attached is the data that I collected this summer observing ants on Echinacea. The metadata is as follows:

Date- The date on which the observation was made
Site- The site at which the observation was made, abbreviations are the standard for the projects sites
Initials- Initials of the individual making the observation (SZ= Sara Zufan)
PlantID- The tag number of the plant being identified
Aphids- Whether or not aphids were observed (Y= Yes, N= No)
VialNo- The number of the vial which the ant samples were collected in
SpecNo- The number the specimen were given when transferred into collection tubes
MorphoID- The identification of the ant to Genus species
MorphoCt- The number of ants counted on the plant of that morphological identification
AntCt- If more than one species was on the plant this shows how many total ants were present during the observation
Est- Indicates whether or not the count was estimated (Y= Yes, N=No)
NearbyFlPlants- The identification of plants that were in flower at the time of the observation within one meter of the plant being observed

## 9 August 2013

Once again, a hearty hello to readers on the flog-o-sphere!

As with many days this week, the morning started off with phenology. Now that more than half of the plants in the common garden have finished flowering, it can be accomplished in a little over an hour. The Sara(h)s measured plants in the 99 garden while Ilse, Lydia, Gretel, and Marie worked on crossing. Dayvis lurked in the basement of the Hjelm house, alone with his collection of pollinators and an insect identification book. Kory visited Hegg Lake and harvested his first Echinacea head for his experiment! At lunch, Marie practiced giving her poster presentation to the group.

After eating, Sara Z, Gretel, Marie, and Ilse stayed at the Hjelm house to finish crossing and measuring. The rest of the group traveled to East Riley for seedling re-finds. In high spirits after finding (although most often not finding) a seedling, Team Echincea adorned themselves with natural hitchhiker jewelry.

Crew members returned home in a timely fashion to enjoy some homemade pad thai prepared by Sara Z. Thai food is the only thing Dayvis has craved more than a machete all summer long - needless to say, he was sated. When Sara Z first arrived at the town hall, she was under the misguided impression that crew members play board games every night after work; the fact that we don't has been a constant cause for consternation. At her dogged insistence, several of us joined her for a game of Bananagrams and Apples to Apples.

Have a great weekend!

## August 8th

Hello everyone!

Today was a productive and fun day up here at Kensington! This morning we had project work time. I finished collecting my data this past monday so I spent the time analyzing and organizing my data (I post it soon!) Marie worked on her poster, and Dayvis identified his bees. Sarah B went to her remnants today, and Sara Z visited her E. angustifolia to work on her ant research. Ilse and Lydia did crosses for the Qgen project. The afternoon was filled with crossing and seedling re-finds.

This week team echinacea has learned the true meaning of R.A.A.D.!

ROMANCE!
\
(Marie and the thistle who loved her)

(walking around at Hegg Lake)

ACTION!

(Walking!)

DANGER!

(Marie almost eating dogbane)

Thats all from me today! Stay R.A.A.D. everyone!

## 7 August 2013

Another day of measuring, phenology, and crossing has come and gone. Phenology this morning was quite wet, afterwards some of us crossed and the rest worked on independent projects. Crossing has gotten quite challenging in the sense that we have a limited supply of pollen to work with as most of the sires are done flowering. The challenge is to get an even distribution of each sire (pollen donor) to the 4 dams (pollen acceptor) that it goes to, this has proven to be our biggest obstacle. And to top it off some dams haven't even started to flower yet!

At lunch we got to see Dayvis's preliminary power point for the presentation he will be giving on his research at the Chicago Botanic Garden next week; Marie will also be presenting a poster on her hybrid project there.

Then it was back to work with measuring the common garden and finishing up crossing jobs from this morning for the rest of the afternoon.

## Tuesday, August 6th

Happy Tuesday, everyone! Weather was as usual today, meaning erratic. In the morning, it rained really hard for about half an hour and then we were left with sunshine. In the afternoon, we started with sunshine and ended with rain! We still managed to get a lot done, though. Good job, team!

In the morning, people did data entry while it rained and then individual projects and common garden work when it cleared up. We all met up for lunch and then spent the afternoon measuring more plants in the common garden. The leopard frogs seemed to love the weather and were everywhere today. So cute!

In other news, Marie found a love for thistles and has proclaimed herself a "thistle whisperer."

We all went home early due to rain and a tornado warning (we're all safe, thankfully). Lydia made a delicious dinner of black bean burgers and potatoes which was awesome!
Another good day, even with the crazy weather. Now, it's time for bed. Goodnight!

Sarah B

## Monday, August 5th

It's the start of a new week for Team Echinacea. This morning was jam packed with phenology and crossing. We're past peak flowering at this point which is making phenology go quite a bit faster, however we're definitely in the midst of peak crossing. Ilse and I printed off nearly 25 pages of crossing information, and together Team Echinacea probably visited three quarters of the plants in the crossing experiment today. Wowee!

The afternoon was spent (as many afternoons recently) crossing and measuring the common garden. After lunch we did spend an hour pulling thistle, which was surprisingly more enjoyable than it sounds (gloves helped). Kory got the record for largest thistle with this bad boy.

Marie made some delish baked mac n cheese with a side of broccoli puree for dinner and the mayor of Kensington stopped by to alert us of construction due next week. Not a bad Monday.

## Sunday, August 4

Today was about as exciting as one could expect an uneventful day to be. If the surface of a lake were as placid as the town hall was today, there wouldn't be a single ripple of water.

However, that's not to say that nothing happened. Dayvis bicycled out to Hegg Lake this morning to monitor phenology, and took the long way home (for a total round trip of about 6 miles). Sarah B.'s parents were visiting; the Bakers had lunch at the famous Mi Mexico in Alexandria, and then visited several prairie remnants to practice identifying wildflowers. Kory and Lydia went to Kensington for laundry and groceries. Lydia must have been hungry at the time, because she impulsively bought a large carton of doughnut holes. They probably won't last long, since Sarah B. has been eyeing them ravenously.

I had a few significant accomplishments of my own today. Shown above is a container of some eggs that I hard-boiled to perfection. The last batch that I made several weeks ago were rather inedible due to an under-cooked center. I have been reluctant to cook eggs ever since that debacle. Because my eggs had exceeded their expiration date, however, I decided to take the plunge and try again - and to what marvelous results! I also succeeded in debugging some R code that had me stumped all of yesterday.

Since yesterday, there has also been significant progress on the puzzle. See if you can guess what it is now!

## Saturday (On Sunday)

Well, this Saturday was so un-noteworthy that I forgot to flog it. Oops.

Some of us started Saturday morning with phenology in the common garden. Sarah B went out afterwards to do phenology at her sites. There are so few flowering now that she can visit all of her sites in one morning.

We all learned something new at the expense of Dayvis. Never take out the batteries in your Visor. You will lose all of your data. :(

The rest of the day was spent running errands in Alex, looking at data, and relaxing.

Reina, Mike, and Ilse are out this weekend so Town Hall feels very empty. We did, however, start a community puzzle. Can you guess what it will be?

## When to harvest Echinacea

For many of our experiments we want to harvest Echinacea heads when they are as ripe as possible, but before any achenes have dropped.

The standard harvest indicators are as follows:

1. Phyllaries (involucral bracts) are brown

2. Bracts that subtend each disc floret are brown and sharp

3. Flower stalk (peduncle) is brown (not purple)

4. 1st (uppermost) cauline lf is brown (note: 1st lf may be close to hd!)

Once harvest indicators 1 - 4 are positive, or if a head has loose achenes or is in some way deformed and you think achenes may be lost before the next harvest, harvest the hd! Make sure to look for loose achenes at the top of every hd with brown bracts.

Harvest a head by cutting it off and placing it carefully into a labeled bag. When cutting the hd off, hold the head firmly in one hand and cut the peduncle with the pruners 3-5 cm under the hd. You don't need to open the bag all the way and the hd doesn't need to go all the way to the bottom of the bag.

That's our standard harvest protocol! Everything's flowering so late this year, we won't be harvesting for a while, but I wanted to post this while I was thinking about it.

## Dataset: Hybrid Measurements

I have finished collecting my final data for my independent project. Included in this post is the data sheet containing measurements on all one year-old plants in the Hegg plot and their parents.
-Marie

AllData.csv
(updated file)

## Friday Second of August

Today, we pollinated flowers in the common garden during the entire morning. Afternoon we kept pollinating with simultaneous phenology in the same garden.
Also,
After almost an entire month of observation (start date: July 7th) and over 3700 minutes of pollination observation. Today was the last flowering day of the last head of the Echinacea pallida population I have been observing during this summer at the Hegg Lake Wildlife Management Area. it has been an amazing and unique experience to learn so much about these beautiful plants and their pollinators. I would like to make an especial mention to these wonderful insects called pollinators. Undoubtedly, they are the most interesting, beautiful, and beneficial creatures we have in these prairies. Although I will keep observing the flowering phenology of the remaining angustifolia that are close to finish flowering soon, today I finished my pollinator observation. Thanks to this project now I have a much better understanding and appreciation for this pollinator-plant relationship. How crucial this relationship is for them as well as for the total ecosystem in general. It has been a real good experience (I am missing it already).

Last flowering head of the Echinacea paliida polulation at Hegg Lake