Recently in Asteraceae Breeding Systems Category

For Lee, I found that there is a good deal of Heli. heli at Aanenson - most bloomed the center head but not the sides.
For all, there wasn't much Ech blooming at RRX, LC, RI, or YOH as I remember in years past.
For whomever is interested, west of YOH and not IN Douglas county but there is a good deal of Rudbeckia? - I was moving pretty fast and didn't stop to look close - just a lot of yellow flowers!
I don't know if matches up to the BOB MAHONEY RESTORATION, but its there to be seen.

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If someone is able- some in the CG and some at Nice Island to be pollinated still exist.
Coreopsis palmata
In the common garden - to the east- I flagged two plants with heads that should be flowering and be able to be crossed. They are likely the only plants with heads close to being pollinated. Using a toothpick, transfer pollen from the donor head to the recipient head (red twist). Pollinate the donor head second using pollen from another plant at least 5 m away. Use a blue twist on the out-crossed head. Record the flag and the twist colors. If more twists are needed to mark the plant- go ahead!

Psoralea argophylla
There are still some plants to pollinate by the railroad crossing at Wennersborg road. They are 901, 128. The plants at Nice Island are unmarked - except the couple that are done there. (377 AND THE ONE DONE BY KATIE AND LAURA)

Solidago missouriensis
Using one complete bagged plant, pollinate one sprig or flowering branch with another from the same plant. Pollinate another sprig or flowering branch with a sprig removed from a flowering plant at least 5 meters away. Tag the self-crossed sprig with one color and the out-crossed sprig with a different color. (I used a wire- a twist will work.) Record the data as shown below the picture of the process.

Solidago missouriensis pollination.JPG

For Solidago missouriensis at Nice Island:

Flag ID Self ID Sprig Outcross ID Sprig Date Site
G 11 Brown White July 18 Nice Island

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The simplified protocol for crossing these plants (silverleaf scurfpea) is to find an uncrossed, flagged & bagged plant. Remove both bags, leaving the twist tie on the branch to be able to recognize it. Using a toothpick, transfer pollen from the donor flower on a plant to the receiver. (I have been doing a minimum of four and up to as many as possible on the branch) After the pollen is transferred, use a new toothpick to transfer pollen between the next two flowers. (Always a new toothpick)
Once all the flowers on the recipient are "pollinated" use a toothpick to paint the sepals under the flowers purple- then rebag using a white twist.
Record the flag number, the number of purple "self-recipients" and the colors of the painted sepals and twist tie.

Then transfer to the "donors" of pollen on that same plant. For this pollen, use another flowering plant AT LEAST 5 meters away - to avoid them being clones. Individually transfer from donor flower to donor recipient. These sepals get painted pink and the twist tie should be red. Record the number of flowers (it can be more or less than the recipient number) and the color of paint and the twist tie.

Sample data:
Flag #64 Purple - 5 White Twist Pink- 6 Red Twist

It is tedious to get the anthers out of the sheath, but they are loaded with pollen- so touching the toothpick loads it even if you cannot see them. I checked some anthers under the microscope and there is a good deal of pollen - it is clear so it doesn't show up as well as some asteraceae pollen.
I'll try to get pictures of the anthers sometime soon as well.


Not sure how many are needed, between the common garden and next to Hjelm house, could someone bag coreopsis palmata tops for me? My goal is to get 20 plants with two heads covered. That way I can self-pollinate one head and cross-pollinate another head.
Additionally, if Laura and Katie could check nice island across hwy 27 to see how far along the bagged psoralea is to flowering, that would be great also.
Attached is a picture of each plant.
Coreopsis palmata 2.JPG
Psoralea argophylla.JPG

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Here's what needs to be done tomorrow, around 10am, for pollinating Cirsium altissimum at Hegg Lake.

I will provide a clipboard with a data sheet, map, and pollinating tools. Plant numbers are on flags to the south of the plants. Plant 9-7 has a yellow twist-tied head that is flowering right now. It will need to be selfed. Yellow tt heads on plants 9-16,-6, and -8 may be flowering tomorrow. If so, they also need to be selfed. Plant 9-19 had two bagged yellow heads. One is done flowering, the other may be flowering tomorrow. If the second one is flowering, it should be selfed. 9-26 with a red tt may be flowering. If so, it needs to be crossed. Cross pollen can be obtained from 9-14, which has a white tt and is blooming now, or 9-21, which may be flowering tomorrow.

To pollinate the heads, use a q-tip provided. For selfing, just rub the q-tip over the anthers to collect the pollen, then brush the q-tip on the stigmas. The pollen is very sticky and will easily stick to the q-tip. For crossing, rub a q-tip on the anthers of a pollen donor (white tt). Place in a labeled glass vial, transport to the head to be crossed, and rub the stigmas with the q-tip. Be sure to write down which plant was used as a pollen donor.

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Here's a histogram of pollen sizes (~30 grains per species) from 3 individual plants of Coreopsis palmata, Echinacea angustifolia, and Heliopsis helianthoides.


Greg outlined the methods taking the measurements here. Greg, what software program did you use?

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August looks like it will be my busiest month this summer. I'm currently working on four species, and will expect to start two more before the end of the month. Here's the status of my species so far.

Pediomelum esculentum- I have collected fruit from all of my experimental plants. I have not started to count seed yet.

Dichanthelium oligosanthes- I have finished collecting fruit and am in the process of counting seed. From what I've seen so far, D. oligosanthes is SC, although I can't rule out agamospermy.

Asclepias viridiflora- These plants are also in fruit. Of my selfed flowers, only one has remained on the peduncle. I doubt it will turn into a fruit, which could mean one of two things: A. viridiflora is SI, or I'm not qualified to be an Asclepias pollinator.

Potentilla arguta- My plants have finished flowering and are in fruit. I'm waiting for them to mature so I can start collecting.

Panicum capillare- I have about twelve inflorescences bagged and am trying to get the "styles on agar" method to work.

Cirsium altissimum- There are lots of plants and will be over a hundred heads to work with out at Hegg Lake. At this point none have flowered yet, but I have them all flagged, twist-tied, and ready to go.

Potentilla pensylvanica- I have been pollinating these at Glacial Lakes State Park for a few days now. They don't flower a lot and they are nearing the end of flowering, but I believe I will manage to get enough pollinated before they finish. Either way, Glacial Lakes is a beautiful place to be doing field work!

Teucrium canadense- While checking out some Carex yesterday I discovered Teucrium growing at the back hill. There were enough plants to work with and not yet done flowering, so I flagged and bagged today. Tomorrow I will begin pollinations.

I also expect to be working with at least Muhlenbergia cuspidata and Solidago speciosa before the summer ends.

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On July 20th I collected pollen,separated into three microfuge tubes, from plant 36, 958. Tube #1 has been left at room temperature, #2 is in the refrigerator, and #3 is in the freezer. There wasn't much pollen available, so I hope it's enough to try some pollinations and see how long the pollen stays viable under the three treatments.

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I have returned to take images of pollen as seen below. It will still be a few hours/days/more? to get the images as desired but this is a start. I am predicting some trouble to distinguish between coreopsis, helianthus, and echinacea so be ready to be distinguishing.
Attached are a protocol for pollen slides and the image of echinacea 7.1.09.ech7.1

Protocol for Pollen Slide Prep.doc

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Carex molesta
Carex gravida
Lythrum alatum
Sporobolus neglectus

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Here are some more pics of species I need for my project. Thanks for everyone's help so far.
Agalinis tenuifolia
Teucrium canadense

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Over the years I have made several notes about locations of Asclepias viridiflora individuals. I have not noted the species at Staffanson Prairie Preserve. I've copied notes below. I can show you where these plants are (on a map or live)...

2-July-1998 site eth
Asclepias vividiflora 6.5 paces S of 2294

1-Aug-1998 site eth
Asclepias viridiflora w pod!

23-July-1998 site nolf
EA pla #3069 cf Asclepias viridiflora 1.1m WSW of this EA

I have mapped an Asclepias viridiflora individual at NRRX. No notes, just the location.

I have collected several seed pods from A. viridiflora at the landfill. Here are the records...
Landfill 9/5/1997 26 seeds 1 pod 4 planted at TP plot
Landfill 9/5/1998 3 pods

Finally, here's a note from my visor from earlier today. The yellow flags are at your prairie turnip plants.

7/3/09 9:31 am
Asclepias viridiflora
2 fl plas between
yel flags 1-02 & 1-28
1 fl pla between
yel flags 1-31 & 1-52
1 fl pla SSE of
yel flag 1-47 (far S) in dip
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Here is some information passed on to me by Megan Jensen about the breeding systems of common native prairie species. Notice, there are many holes! Hopefully, this sort of information will assist us in moving to a new, exciting phase of the Echinacea project ... which everyone will have to wait just a little longer to hear about. Have I piqued your interest?

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