1) There are many forms of addiction, but most conflict in some way or another. Psycho social integration is a bond that forms between society and an individual. It is both inward and outward. It is nearly the same in contemporary and traditional cultures, it's the sense of having freedom, yet still belonging. the lack of this is called Dislocation by Karl Polanyi. It does not imply moving geographically, but rather mentally. It has been given many names since then, such as alienation. It is often connected to material poverty, even though these do not go hand in hand, it can have many other causes. A free market society produces mass dislocation, they try to dominate every aspect of human life. The author emphasizes that free-market is slowly taking over, but what about all the non-profit organizations and volunteering that is slowly being integrated into peoples lives? With the internet and the media, these are becoming more and more popular. The article suggests that the free market affects parents and kids alike in the Western culture, and it creates dysfunctional families. People create substitutes to fill the void of dislocation, these being addictions such as shopping and gambling, and even more harmfully, junkies. They are not sufficient enough to fill in the gab felt by dislocation, and without their addictions, they would seemingly have little to live for. It is a 'lesser evil'. We are often pushed into these addiction by friends, advertisements, etc. Occasionally addictions are accepted, the author giving the example of a bohemian artist. Why are these users more accepted just because they are more famous than average junkie? Addiction is not maladaptive. One common theory is that the cause of addiction lies in the individual who is addicted, another is that drug addiction is the prototypical addiction. The author says that Erikson's work is the most important research before the current one. The dislocation theory, however great, has boundaries. For example, it is not meant to explain therapeutic, ritualistic, or cultural drug uses, only addiction. It also does not explain why some dislocated people get addicted to one drug, and other people to another drug, or none at all. Erikson described the fragmentation of identity as one possible cause. This is the European refuges that emigrated to the United States and had cultural conflicts among one another. Does it matter how far after WWII? I know plenty of families that are first generation and, as far as I know, only two have had any sort of addiction problem, these families did however, have multiple problems. According to the author, the greatest fault of the dislocation theory is that it cannot explain why one dislocated person meets a tragic end, while another similar dislocated person is able to recover. This theory flatly contradicts most addiction theories, it also gets bogged down by insolvable debates. One debate is whether addiction is a medical or criminal problem. Another is whether addicts get addicted out of their own free will, or if it is out of their control. A third is whether an addiction should be classified as a psychological or physical addiction. And finally, whether drugs should be prohibited or legalized.
2) The introduction explains how they went to an area between highways and through some files of garbage to get to the camp site area where they were doing their heroin. The author describes a detailed process of how they prepare the heroin. Three of the men, assumed to be homeless since they're squatting between the highway, inject the heroin in different ways. They all have some type of job, moving furniture, painting signs, and dealing. Surprisingly most of the stereotypes about the homeless seem to be true, they're generally middle age or older, drink a lot, there are not too many women, and move around a lot to avoid cops, and even though some work, there are definitely others who do not. Then came a short paragraph on what they gave up to be homeless and inject heroin, followed by what it takes to be accepted with them. How would the study have been different if they were not accepted into their lives so openly? Next they go over a transaction between two of the homeless, good injection in exchange for the leftover heroin. Cops was the only worry to them. Another section explains how the authors continuously worked together throughout the project. Then follow with how they laid out their work. Towards the end, they go over a few social theories on class, suffering, etc. They described the gray-zone and how it did and didn't relate to the homeless they were studying, then finish off with an outline of the book. Chapter one starts off with a quote from Felix in the header, and the text describing a new formed camp. They did a quick overview of the people who moved in to the camp. I wonder what Rosie's story was, was she homeless too, and just moved from camp to camp? Or did she have a place to live and a decent income and just used Al for the drug connections? They watched Hank become homeless, when asked why he didn't want to go to a shelter, he said they had gangs. Only two other women hung out there, one a prostitute, and one with a welfare paid apartment that she let the others occasionally use in exchange for heroin. Life on the streets is more rough for women. In the first year, all but one were white. The whites were on the low social end in this, being considered "stanky white dopefiends". There was a lot of racism going on, whites didn't trust the blacks, even though in the first year the only violence between races happened when a white guy ripped off a black guy. Carter was the first black guy in the camps, they also watched him slowly integrate to the camp through drugs. First living with his sister, then when his habit got out of hand, the camp. He attracted even more African Americans, most still having a place to live, and just going to the camp for drugs. Reggie and Felix get into a argument, Reggie seems to have an anger problem. He also intimidated an Arabic cashier. Hogan left as a result of this, and when he was caught, even the cops didn't want to get close enough to him to give him a ticket. People began to pity him, and even the other homeless stopped by to give him old cottons. The cashier and authors too give him stuff. Felix and Frank, once close, drifted apart. Victor and other Puerto Rican's started occasionally dropping by. Older Vic had a drinking problem, leading to domestic abuse. Little Vic tried to protect his mother at that time, but now smokes crack with his father. Older Victors remembers the past differently. Felix was so hung up in having his own crowd, he even turned against Frank. Little Vic drove off with his girlfriends SUV, with another woman, leaving is girlfriend behind in a drug high. Soon his girlfriend and Tina became buddies. Little Vic was eventually imprisoned, but not for as long as he should have. The only other Latino stayed mostly with a dealer girlfriend who disappeared and was presumed dead because of a drug deal gone wrong. Felix made good money selling clean needles. When Felix could no longer deal with the blacks, he moved back in with the whites. Al, when getting back stayed with the whites, and everything seemed normal. He said nigger and only awkward silence happened, he even got a car and moved into it with Sonny. They maintained a decent friendship, not always splitting everything, but always having one another's back. Chapter 2 began with a quote from Tina, and described her personality. Carter and Reggie were courting her, but her and Reggie got in a quarrel at the corner store. They became friends again, but no sexual tension anymore. Reggie was arrested over a gun, and even though there was the 'three strikes you're out rule' in California at the time, he only got eight years. Tina and Carter got close, but she wanted to keep partying and he didn't want her too. She called him a 'righteous dopefiend'. Stretch also fooled around with men for stuff. Tina grew up around pimps and prostitutes and made friends with some of them. her two older brothers are dead. She figured out her aunt was a prostitute at age twelve, she didn't have sex til she was sixteen, and when her mom found out she made the guy pay for it. She lived with her friend, a guy, and his wife, and they all did sexual things together, not always consensual. At that same time period, some guy stalked Tina and tried to rape her but failed. Her cousin raped her when she was seven or eight. Started selling her body just for necessities. Sometime after this she attempted to become monogamous with Carter, and they even adopted a dog. Jeff goes over one day for a dinner carter hand prepares. Why is frequent violence okay to them? Do they ever get scared that their last stint will get them killed, or is that just a risk they learn to accept? Violence apparently strengthened their relationship. Jeff was unknowingly a partner in one of their petty crimes, and this upset him, so he stopped doing little things like giving them rides. A few years later Tina apologized for this. Carters sister died and he was going to be sent to jail for stealing, but they let him go for that. Tina came to the funeral, and they slowly began integrating themselves ever so slightly into the family. Carter got money out of it though so he bought them a camper. This helps them store stuff and travel to deal and pick up drugs or stolen goods. After a while, they get a truck just for their drug deals and Carter is even working with a fella. After a while, it was rumored that Tina was injecting Heroin, Al and the others became concerned for her. She did pull jeff aside to confess one day, and this leads to chapter 3.