1- According to introduction to Part IX, what is the fundamental difference between modernist and postmodernist theories? What are the main characteristics associated with postmodernism?
Well the Intro in this section talking about Modernity and post modernity starts off by talking about how in both areas the patterns of social relations, economic flows, and moral regulation in modern societies have changed. (pg411) The author say that Postmodernity is a part of the modern and also how it helps us to interpret and reinterpret our understanding of the modern. Really the modern is clearer cut than that of the postmodern. The modern takes truth as solely based on science, While the postmodern is more critical of what is called truth and who calls and accepts it as truth, postmodernity is more critical in that area. Not only does modernity uphold science as basis for truth but it holds it as the central production of knowledge by which all things are compared and take place, and again as a contrast Postmodernity does not hold science alone in that same esteem. Postmodernity holds language as the central to the production of all knowledge (which includes scientific knowledge but not limited to it and solely based on it.) Another contrast would be that modernity seeks to centralize the subject while postmodernity seeks to decentralize it.
So with these two modernity is a part of post modernity, we should understand it as post modernity expanding on and maybe in some places redefining concepts of modernity . Because many of the ideas are in some ways similar this area of the book talks about how ," The distinctions between the two have more to do with the attitudes."(Pg412) Also explains modernism as not liking and not operating in fragmentary and chaotic, but then how the postmodernist likes, accepts, and holds it in high esteem , valorizing it. (Pg412)
Then they go on to talk about capitalism and the effects that it has had on our world, our people, and the communication between the two and how postmodernity seemed to fuel this. Because postmodernist are in a constant search of new more advanced technologies and ways to communicate it is causes them to make more and more radical pronouncements.(P413) An example of this they talk about is that of the new digital technologies and how they can make pretty much anything seem real, but in all actuality it is not and does really originate from anything it is completely made up. In this section they also talk about how there are major disparities between work, labor, and wages between the upper class and lower working class. Through this reading it shows that this new postmodernism has turned into an economy and social climate of consumption and capitalism and how this constant need and expansion of technology and digital communication is in part behind all of this. With this reading and the examples that were provided in it we can tell the differences and similarities of modernity and post modernity and how the concepts of postmodernity have affected our world today.