1. In order to understand the fundamental difference between modernist and postmodernist theories, it is important to understand what modernism is. Modernism looks at the grand theories that are associated with Marx and Freud, in which they assume to be universal, thus making any internal differentiation (414). In contrast, postmodernism favors more small-scale, local narratives that take into account contingent, provisional, and unstable nature of social world. (414). However, the main differences within modernism and postmodernism are whether the changes of "social relations, economic flows, and moral regulation in modern societies" should be considered "part and parcel of the same ever-transforming "modern" era" (411). More specially, postmodernist questions the founding figures of sociology and the ways in which they spend their lives studying on social relation, economic flows, and moral regulation. Most of the earlier sociologist looked at the grand social theories that are favorable to the society which they lived or experience but postmodernist looks at the "particular humanism and the Enlightenment" within our society.
Postmodernism came out of the intellectual movement that emerged in "France following at the political and social events of May 1968" (412). Postmodernism tries to bring a challenge to the "modernist belief in the subject-center reason" meaning that "it questions the assumption that the rational mind is capable of understanding and depicting the "real" world around us (412). In addition, the position is critical of truth claims and monological texts or reading (412). Moreover, postmodernist also questions of the very status of knowledge in modern discourse (412). The questioning arises from earlier theories in which modernism "privileges science as the source of objective knowledge and truth (412).
2. Norbert Elias shows how the emergence of civilized behavior is closely interrelated to the sociogenesis of the state. Elias argues that the "formation of gradually more effective monopolies of force, the threat which one person represents for another is subject to control" (415). In other words, the state corresponds to the controlling agency forming itself as the controlling agency at the larger level of society. In addition, individual live hood and other externalities determine that individuals overall as well as the dominated manner, or self restraint. In addition, the exercise of force becomes increasingly more centralized in the organization of the modern states because the state tries to control on what they see as undesirable. For instance, littering is considered tattoo within our society. This notion resulted out of our early childhood which our parents and relatives taught us to not toss anything within our society. In addition, we also know that if we caught doing littering, then we will pay a fine. However, in the Middle East or Africa, littering is not that serious. Individuals litter within their streets and there is no controlling agency that punishes offenders.