2- How, according to Elias, the emergence of "civilized" behavior is closely interrelated to the sociogenesis of the state? Can you provide examples from social life?
"We have seen that the civilizing process is a change of human conduct and sentiment in a quite specific direction. But, obviously, individual people did not at some past time intend this change, this 'civilization', and gradually realize it by conscious, 'rational', purposive measures" (417). Also, Norbert Elias highlights, "Clearly, 'civilization' is not, any more than rationalization, a product of human 'ratio' or the result of calculated long-term planning" (417). Namely, Elias argues that civilization has not arisen by particular individual or groups and social changes have not been made based on rational plans. However, at the same time, Elias asserts that "though not planned and intended, this transformation is not merely a sequence of unstructured and chaotic changes" (418). In this context, the transformation refers to "centuries of progress" (418) which means civilization. Elias considers the order of nature as a power of changes in society, civilization. According to Elias, civilization is not "reasonable; not rational, any more than it is irrational. It is set in motion blindly, and kept in motion by the autonomous dynamics of a web of relationships, by specific changes in the way people are bound to live together" (418).
Sociogenesis refers to the origin of social behavior that derives from past interpersonal experiences. In other words, sociogenesis, the origin of social behavior, reflects accumulated social actions in a particular society. That is why civilization is deeply interrelated to this concept. To be specific, both civilization and socigenesis emphasize accumulation of social behavior based on interaction between individuals, not rationally planned. In addition, both concepts are related to function as part of whole society, thus, they concentrate on self-regulation for social order. In other words, civilization focuses on making individuals be in harmony for society. Also, sociogenesis has been accumulated and developed to make better harmony in society.
For example, in general, people use forks and knives when they are eating something. This might because of sense of hygiene, but eating without forks might give displeasure to others. That is why we have been educated using forks and table manners since childhood as a process of socialization. In my opinion, this aspect shows both concepts very well. As a process of socialization, individual learns how to regulate him/herself and society considers this process as civilization. Also, the civilization is based on shared common values and accepted behaviors among members of society. Namely, being a self-regulated individual refers to being a civilized individual and being part of sociogenesis.